Daily Archives: September 15, 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 5.10 – piRandhavARum

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth decad – in this manner, AzhwAr tried to enjoy emperumAn in thiruvallavAzh but did not get that experience and hence became anguished; he then tries to meditate upon the qualities and activities of emperumAn in his incarnations as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.4.8 “ninaiththirundhE siramam thIrndhEn” (pacified myself by meditating upon emperumAn) and sustain himself and, highlights the following aspects of emperumAn:

  1. krishNa’s birth and related incidents
  2. his activities towards his beloved consort
  3. his childhood activities
  4. destruction of the asuras who were residing in thripura (three towns)
  5. his super-human activities
  6. his standing, sitting and sleeping activities
  7. his revealing and concealing aspects both internally and externally
  8. his creation which establishes his supremacy over all
  9. his state of being a seeker to fulfil his desire
  10. his great efforts to favour his devotees

Meditating upon these aspects, since these aspects will weaken him further while not having attained the goal [that is, while being in separation], he prays to emperumAn “you should mercifully steady me to let me enjoy your activities etc”; he mercifully explains how the unflinching faith on emperumAn’s divine feet being the means, leads up to the attainment of the goal and concludes by establishing the true nature of emperumAn who is the means.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

AzhwAr set out thinking “Let me go to thiruvallavAzh and interact with emperumAn who is standing there”, but unable to reach there due to lack of strength, fell down enroute and cried out for him; now, he thinks “let me enjoy emperumAn’s qualities and sustain myself”, but that itself appears to be as difficult as the ultimate goal and causes weakness in AzhwAr; he then surrenders to the divine feet of emperumAn praying “you should mercifully make me sustain myself to be able to enjoy your qualities in all states”.

The suffering undergone by rishis of dhaNdakAraNyam due to fear in this samsAram is the same fear undergone by AzhwArs due to separation from bhagavAn; those rishis will put in efforts for their results, while these AzhwArs are similar to sIthA pirAtti who suffered in aSOka vanam until SrI rAma gave the result; as those rishis also put in their own efforts, they will tolerate the delay [in achieving the result] and these AzhwArs will cry out since they have no such self-efforts. There is no defect in those who remain “our results are by emperumAn‘s divine feet [also explained as emperumAn’s efforts]”. iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) counted himself along with sIthAp pirAtti in the result as in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 53.31 “na cha sIthA thvayA hInA nachAhamapi rAghava” (Oh rAghava! I too will not sustain in separation from you just as sIthA would not). As thiruvadi (hanuman) is singularly attached to SrI rAmAvathAram as said in SrI rAmAyaNam uththara kANdam 40.16 “bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi” (my thoughts do not go towards anyone else), AzhwAr is attached to all incarnations and all activities. As his desires were not fulfilled in archAvathAram (deity forms), he is now going towards vibhavAvathArams (incarnations); they (AzhwArs) will remain saying”if we go to vibhavAvathArams, our desires will be fulfilled”.

While archAvathAram is the place where those who missed out on vibhavam can fulfil their desires, why is AzhwAr leaving archAvathAram behind and going after vibhavams? Though in archAvathAram, emperumAn will present himself who is athIndhriya (beyond the sense perceptions) to samsAris and fulfil all their desires, he vowed that he will not glance mercifully, enquire about the well-being and embrace [his devotees]. Not wanting to force him to break such vow of the sathya sankalpa (one whose vows never fail), he set out to reach krishNAvathAram which is closer [by time] as said in SrIvishNu purANam 5.18.2 “samspruSya Akrushyacha prIthyA sugAdam parishasvajE” (akrUra said – krishNa touched me with his hands, pulled me towards him with affection and embraced me).

When nanjIyar asked bhattar “Why are the AzhwArs so attached to krishNAvathAram?”, bhattar mercifully replied “When a person is afflicted with sorrow, after some time, he will manage it; but if it is fresh in mind, he cannot tolerate; similarly, unlike other avathArams, krishNAvathAram is in contemporary times (recent past) of AzhwArs; so AzhwAr would anguish saying ‘I was not born just a Tuesday earlier! how wretched I am, it is like losing something [for example, a piece of mango fruit] when it falls down on the earth after hitting the teeth while trying to swallow it'”. Now, in rAmAvathAram, dhaSaratha, SrI rAma’s father was a great warrior who killed sambara [another great warrior]; dhaSaratha’s sons were like tigers; his clan is well known for destroying the enemies; moreover, the whole kingdom is obedient towards them and hence there is no question of enemies; but here in krishNAvathAram, unlike that, krishNa’s father is a soft-natured person; he [krishNa] was born in the prison cell of kamsa and was raised near kamsa’s place [so, they were always fearful]; in SrI brindhAvanam, even a grass which grows, will turn into a demon; if those who are protecting lag behind for a moment, his acts are such that he will be trapped by a snake [kALinga]; this being the case why would not they (AzhwArs) fear [for kaNNan emperumAn]? These AzhwArs did not have realisation about emperumAn and protect him, hence are feeling anguished now. This is the anguish of nammAzhwAr who is one among those AzhwArs.

periya thiruvandhAdhi 82 “therindhuNarvu …” (I am a sinner due to not having realisation about emperumAn previously) – When SrI rAma went chasing the deer and returned being tired, unable to step on the ground due to the hot weather, SrI rAma searched for leaves and stepped on them to comfort himself. Hearing this, emperumAnAr said “Oh what a sinner I am! I was not present there to place my head on the ground to have his divine feet placed on it; all along my lives have been wasted!” and felt greatly anguished. This is how they feel anguished for historical incidents. AzhwAr too feared for emperumAn saying in thiruvAimozhi 8.3.6 “thiruneela maNiyAr mEniydu en manam sUzha varuvArE” (emperumAn will arrive with his beautiful blue-gem like form to capture my heart”.

Three different explanations are given as brief context for this decad:

  • AzhwAn‘s [kUraththAzhwAn] explanation – AzhwAr became weakened meditating upon emperumAn’s incarnations, his activities such as creation of universe etc., and the incarnation of krishNa who mercifully grew up to enliven his devotees and to destroy the others as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 1.7.11 “thAyar magizha onnAr thaLarath thaLar nadai nadandha” (emperumAn who walked like a child for the joy of his devotees and to weaken the others); such AzhwAr surrenders to emperumAn praying “Mercifully make me sustain myself to meditate upon you”.
  • embAr‘s explanation – AzhwAr mercifully says to emperumAn “In separation, your qualities are tormenting me; to eliminate such suffering, you should bring me to your divine feet and mercifully make me approach you and enjoy you”.
  • piLLAn‘s explanation – AzhwAr heard that sarvESvaran divinely appeared as krishNa in thiruvAyppAdi (gOkulam) and thought “let me go there and enjoy him to my heart’s content” and entered through the south side entrance; he heard that emperumAn had just mercifully left for his divine spiritual abode of paramapadham through the north side gate; hearing that, he fell down on the ground and started crying out.

 

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 96 – thiRambAdhen nenjamE

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avathArikai

AzhwAr tells his heart “let the chEthanars (sentient entities) carry on with whatever they are doing. Oh my heart! Consider first what I am telling you”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thiRambAdhen nenjamE sengaNmAl kaNdAy
aRam pAvam enRu iraNdum AvAn puRandhAn im
maNdhAn maRi kadaldhAn mArudhandhAn vAndhAnE
kaNdAy kadaikkat pidi

Word by Word Meanings

en nenjamE – Oh my heart!
aRam pAvam enRu iraNdum AvAn – he [emperumAn] is the controller for both the types of deeds, virtuous and sinful
sengaNmAl kaNdAy – look at the emperumAn who has reddish lotus like eyes.
im maNdhAn – this earth
maRi kadaldhAn – the ocean which keeps lapping waves
mArudham thAn – the breeze
vAn – the sky also
puRandhAn – (different from all these) jIvan (all living species), mahAn (one of the essential entities in creation, known as “great”), ahankAram (ego) etc
thAne kaNdAy – look! they are all emperumAn himself!

(this meaning)
thiRambAdhu – without mistake
kadaikkaN pidi – know till the end

vyAkyAnam

thiRambAdhu kadaikkatpidi could be added in the end [of the verse] to get the meaning. Or, it can be recited together as in thiRambAdhu aRam pAvam enRu iraNdum AvAn to get the meaning. Alternatively, thiRambAdhu en nenjamE could be considered as it is and meaning can be obtained. Oh heart! You, who are carrying out whatever I tell you, without any mistake! Oh heart, who says unless I see emperumAn I will not go back!

en nenjamE – Oh heart, who keeps asking me to tell everything!

sengaNmAl kaNdAy – look at emperumAn who has lotus like eyes. chAndhOgya upanishath 1-6-7 says “thasya yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkam Evam akshiNI” (emperumAn’s eyes are like lotus just blossomed by sun); nammAzhwAr in his thiruvAimozhi 6-7-10 says “anaiththulagum udaiya aravindhalOchanan ” (the lotus eyed (emperumAn) has all the worlds). Alternatively, sengaNmAl  could be taken to mean having reddish eyes out of affection for us, his followers, and hence we can take it that AzhwAr is asking his heart to look at emperumAn who has reddish eyes due to overflowing affection for us.

aRam pAvam enRu iraNdum AvAn – he [emperumAn] himself is both puNyam (virtuous deed) and pAvam (bad or sinful deed). His anugraham (kindness or liking) is puNyam and his nigraham (disliking) is pAvam. There is nothing else apart from these two which would give the benefits [of our actions]. All are under his disposal only. kaushIthaki upanishath 3-9 says “Esha Eva sAdhu karma kArayathi” (emperumAn himself makes us perform good deeds). AzhwAr will not hold on to deeds which do not make sense as means as he avoids both action and activity as emanating from him (Isn’t he one who holds on to emperumAn as the means!). Looking superficially, it would appear that puNyam and pAvam are different from him. But if one were to look at things deeply, it would be clear that he is the one who controls everything.

How is this?

puRandhAn immaNdhAn maRikadaldhAn mArudhandhAn vAndhAnE kaNdAy – all are under the disposal of emperumAn. maN (earth), maRikadal (agitating ocean, with lapping waves), mArudham (breeze), and the entities which are outside these elements such as mahAn (great entity) etc are all his manifestations, says the AzhwAr. AzhwAr tells his heart to hold on to the fact that emperumAn is the chEthanan (sentient entity) with the body. Or, kadaikkaN – hold on to this till the end, without any error. nammAzhwAr has also mercifully said this in his thiruvAimozhi 6-9-7 “ulagil thiriyum karuma gadhiyAy ulagamAy ulagukkE OruyirumAnAy” (you are the deeds, the entities which carry out the deeds and the life of these entities)! When emperumAn’s independence is absolute without any shortcoming, how can the chEthana (sentient entity)’s thinking that he is independent be congruent? The fact is that chEthana is never independent; it is just that he thinks that he is independent. In mahAbhAratham uththara kANdam 42-35 it says “ya: anyathA santhamAnam AthmAnam anyathA prathipadhyathE” (whoever thinks that emeprumAn’s possession of AthmA is his…). Even when chEthana thinks that he is independent, due to the grace of emperumAn, the chEthana’s nature is not destroyed.

We shall consider the 97th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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జ్ఞానసారము 12

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అవతారిక

అన్యప్రయోజనములను ఆశించు భక్తులు ఎంత గొప్ప కానుకలను సమర్పించినా భగవంతుడికి ప్రీతి కారకము కాదు ‘ అని ఈ పాశురములో చెపుతున్నారు.

మాఱాయిణైంద మరుత మిఱ్ తవళ్ంద

శేఱార్ అరవింద శేవడియై వేఱాగ

ఉళ్ళాతా రెణ్ణితియై యీందిడినుం తానుగందు

కొళ్ళాన్ మలర్ మడందై కోన్

ప్రతిపదార్థము

మలర్ మడందై కోన్ = శ్రీమహాలక్ష్మి ధవుడు

మాఱాయిణైంద = తన మీద  పగతో జంటగా

మరుతం = మద్ది చెట్ల రూపములో వున్న రాక్షసుల జంట

ఇఱ  = విరిగి పడునట్లుగా

తవళ్ంద = పాకుతూ వెళ్ళిన శ్రీకృష్ణుడు

శేఱార్  = బురద పూసుకొన్న

అరవింద శేవడియై= ఎఱ్ఱ తామరల వంటి  శ్రీ పాదములున్న( శ్రీ కృష్ణుని )

వేఱాగ = తలచుటే ప్రయోజనముగా

ఉళ్ళాతార్ = భావించని వారు

రెణ్ణితియై  = గొప్ప సంపదను

యీందిడినుం = తనకు కానుకగా సమర్పించినా

తాన్ = పరిపూర్ణుడైన పరమాత్మ

ఉగందు కొళ్ళాన్ = ఆనందముగా  స్వీకరించడు

భావము

మాఱాయిణైంద మరుతం :   తన మీద పగ పట్టి , జంట మద్ది చెట్ల రూపములో వున్న యమళార్జునులనే రాక్షసులు చావ కుండా విరిగి పడేటట్లుగా వాటి మధ్యగా పాకుతూ వెళ్ళాడు అని అర్థము.

ఒక సారి యశోద బండికి ఉయ్యాల కట్టి అందులో కృష్ణుడిని పడుకోబెట్టివెళ్ళింది. అప్పుడు కృష్ణుడు ఆకలికి ఏడ్చాడు. తల్లి కనపడక కోపము వచ్చి పాదములతో బండిని తన్నాడు. ఆ బండి ముక్కలు ముక్కలుగా విరిగి పోయింది. ఆ పసి బాలుడికి ఆపద తలపెట్టతలచి అప్పటికే ఆ బండిని ఆవేశించిన అసురుడు కూడా చనిపోయాడు.

అలాగే ఇక్కడ   ఊరి వారందరూ కృష్ణుడు వెన్న దొంగిలించాడని యశోదతో చెప్పగా అవమాన భారముతోను, కోపముతోను కన్నయ్యను రోటికి కట్టివేసింది యశోద . కృష్ణుడు పిల్ల చేష్టగా తాటిని లాగుతూ పాకుతూ  ఆ మద్ది చెట్ల మధ్య నుండి వెళ్ళగా ,అక్కడ  శాప వశమున జంట మద్దిచెట్లుగా ఉండి , కంసుని కోరిక నెరవేర్చటము కోసము కృష్ణుడికి ఆపద తలపెట్టిన  యమళార్జునులు ఆ కృష్ణుడి శరీర ఒరిపిడికి విరిగి పడిపోయారు. ఎవరికి ఆపద తలపెట్టారో వారిచేతిలోనే శిక్షింపబడ్డారు. దీని వలన శతృవులు ఏ కారణము చేత ఎదిరించినా వారు శిక్ష అనుభవించక తప్పదని  బోధపడుతున్నది.

శేవడి—-సహజముగా తామర కొలనులో వికసించిన  ఎర్ర తామరను పోలిన శ్రీపాదములు గలవాడు. ఇంకా చల్లని, అందమైన, సువాసన భరితమైన, చక్కగా వికసించిన తామరను పోలిన శ్రీపాదములు . పరాశర ముని ఈ కథను చెపుతూ ఆ మధ్దిచెట్లు విరిగి పడగా , ఆ శబ్దము విని కృష్ణుడు వెనకకు తిరిగి చూసినప్పటి ఎర్రని కన్నులను ఇంపుగా పాడారు. ఈ పాసురములో అరుళాళ  మహామునులు చెట్ల మధ్యకు పాకిన ఆ ఎర్రని పాదముల అందమును వివరిస్తున్నారు అని మామునుల  ‍వ్యాఖ్యాన  సారము.

‘” పోరుందియ మామారు తిన్నిడై పోయవెం

పెరుం తగాయ్ , ఉన్ కళల్  కాణియే పేదుత్తు

వరుంది  నాన్ వాశగమాలై  కొండు ఉన్నైయే

ఇరున్దిరు దేత్తనై కాలం పులంబువనో “ ( తిరువాయ్ మొళి 3-8-10 )

“ పోనాయ్ మామరుదిన్ నడువే ఎన్ పొల్లా మణియే “ (మద్ది చెట్ల నడుమకు పాకిన నా కొంటె కన్నయ్యా  ) అని ఆళ్వార్లు అనుభవించ దలచినది మద్ది చెట్ల నడుమ పాకిన ఆశ్రీపాదములనె కదా !

“ వేరాగ ఉళ్ళా దార్    -వేరు పడుత్తి ఎణాదవర్గళ్ “ ( వేరుగా తలచని వారు –వేరుగా ఉండని వారు )

ఇతరమైన కోరికలు లేక పరమాత్మ శ్రీపాదములే  ఉత్తారకమని విశ్వసించిన వారు అని అర్థము . ‘మద్ది చెట్లలో దాగిన యమళార్జునల చేతికి చిక్కక తనను తాను రక్షించుకొని మనకు తన శ్రీపాదములను చూపి, తనను అనుభవించే అవకాశము మనకు ఇచ్చుటే ఉన్నతమైన ఫలితము ‘ అని భావించుటే కదా దాసులైనవారికి తగినది.  అలా కాక అన్యప్రయోజనములను ఆశించువారు అని అర్థము .

ఒణ్ నిధియై ఈందిడినుమ్ – ఒణ్మై  -అర్థాత్ అంతులేని సంపదను ఇచ్చినా

తాన్ ఉగందు కొళ్ళాన్ మలర్ మడందై కోన్ –తాను శ్రీదేవికే  శ్రీ అగుట వలన సకల సంపన్నుడు . కోరతయే లేని వాడు. అందువలన ముందు పెర్కొన్నవారు ఎంతటి సంపదనిచ్చినా స్వీకరించడు. ఆయన ఏదైనా కొరత ఉన్నవాడైతే కదా ఇతరులు ఇచ్చే వాటిని ఆశిస్తాడు? పైగా ఇచ్చేవారి మనసు తెలుసుకొని గ్రహించు వాడు కదా! కావున తన మీద భక్తి లేకుండా అన్య ప్రయోజనములను ఆశించి ఇచ్చు వారి వద్ద ఆనందముగా కాక తప్పదని స్వీకరిస్తాడు. ఆయన అందరికి ఆశ్రయణపాడుదు కావున ఎవరిచ్చినా స్వీకరించక తప్పదు. తల్లిదండ్రులు తమ సంతానములో మంచి వాడు ఇచ్చినా ,చెడ్డ వాడు ఇచ్చినా స్వీకరించక తప్పదు కదా! అలాగే పరమాత్మ తనను కాక అన్య ప్రయోజనములను ఆశించి ఇచ్చు వారి వద్ద కూడా స్వీకరిస్తాడు.

అడియేన్ చూడామణి రామానుజ దాసి

మూలము: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/02/gyana-saram-12-maray-inaindha/

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