thiruvAimozhi – 5.4.7 – kAppAr Ar

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the seventh pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki feeling helpless since emperumAn did not arrive even as the eon like night was passing, looking at the dhEvathAs who are animishars (who don’t blink their eyes), considering them to be related, not sleeping and being merciful, says to them “dheyvangAL en seygEn” (Oh dhEvathAs! what will I do!”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki calls out to those sleepless dhEvathAs “what will I do in this very dark night”, when sarvESvaran who has attractive distinguished symbols does not arrive.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kAppAr Ar ivvidaththuk kangiruLin nuN thuLiyAych
chEtpAla thUzhiyAych chelginRa kangul vAyth
thUppAla veN sangu chakkaraththan thOnRAnAl
thIppAla val vinaiyEn dheyvangAL en seygEnO?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ivvidaththu – in this condition (when the protector is not helping)
kAppAr – protector
Ar – who?
kangu – abundant to be in the ultimate state
iruL – darkness
nuN – tiny
thuLi – misty droplet
Ay – having
sEN – very lengthy
pAladhu – having the nature
UzhiyAy – kalpa (eon)
selginRa – passing
kangulvAy – in the night
thU – pure
pAla – having nature
veN – white
sangu – SrIpAnchajanya
chakkaraththan – one who is having divine sudharSana chakra
thOnRAn – not appearing;
thI – like fire
pAla – burning nature
val – very strong
vinaiyEn – I, who am having sins
dheyvangAL –  Oh dhEvathAs (who are watching my suffering without even blinking the eyes)
en – what
seygEn – shall do?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Who is my protector in this condition? emperumAn who is having divine SudharSana chakra and pure white SrIpAnchajanya is not appearing in this very lengthy passing night which is like a kalpa having abundant darkness and tiny misty droplets; Oh dhEvathAs! What shall I, who am having very strong sins which are burning like fire, do?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kAppAr Ar ivvidaththu – While the real protector is not helping, in this condition, will those who harm us, be protectors? Her state/condition is so pitiable that she, who would never ever think about other persons as protectors even if he delays his arrival, is saying these words. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39.30 is explained here. Saraisthu sankulAm kruthvAlankAkm – thiruvadi (hanuman) asked [sIthA] pirAtti “Should you not go to perumAL (SrI rAma) now?”; sIthA replies “I can only go there when this lankA which is filled with rAkshasas (demons) becomes filled with the arrows of SrI rAma; how can I go to him when seen by others? parapurArdhana: – Is there any town which survived after earning his enmity? mAmnayEthyadhi – Will the one who said in SrI varAha charama SlOkam “nayAmi paramAm gathim” (I will bring him to higher abode), say two different things [“I will protect” and “I won’t protect”]? kAkuthstha: – Will the one who is born as a descendant of those [kakuthstha, one of the brave ancestors of SrI rAma] who eliminated the enemies of indhra et al, be helpless in his own matter? thathdhasya sadhruSam bhavEth – Can we who do what is not matching his nature and die, do what will cause disrepute to to him, just to eliminate our suffering? It will be an insult to his abilities if it happened to be “A rAkshasa separated SrI rAma’s consort, she cursed him and returned” or “a monkey brought her back”; is it not an insult to his heritage? Should I do what was done by rAvaNa? Those who take up his responsibility of his protectorship, will be considered to be the same as those who consider SrI rAma’s wealth to be one’s own. parAnguSa nAyaki who is generally fearless even in fear infusing situation, out of great suffering became fearful and spoke these words [kAppAr Ar?]. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 60.20 “gajam vEthyAni nAhAra yathi santhrAsam” (As sIthA was under the shelter of SrI rAma, she did not fear seeing the herds of elephants, lions and tigers) – her true nature of sthrIthvam (femininity [i.e., being fearful]) disappeared. bAhUrAmasyasamSrithA – Will those who are in a fort, fear even when there is reason to fear? The current situation [suffering in separation] is not just like seeing herds of elephants/lions [it is much more than that].
  • kAppAr Ar ivvidaththu – It is the same parAnguSa nAyaki [originally, as nammAzhwAr] who clearly knew “this is the protected entity [AthmA]; this is the protector [ISvara]” and was pridefully roaring “amma” (joyful cry), is now saying “who is the protector?” fearfully; it is the severity of the suffering. His sarvarakshakathvam [protecting everying] is present in “achchu” (in a clear singular form, “a” in praNavam); she is suffering in “allu” (night, hal letter in samskrutham – i.e., “ma” in praNavam). When he is present [as the protector] in praNavam, there is no danger.
  • kangiruLil – kangu – boundary; implies the epitome of darkness. [kangu] As marungul is sometimes shortened as marungu, here kangul (night time) is considered to be shortened to kangu, i.e., it is explained as darkness in night. In this case, it explains the duration. For example, when it is said “dhaSa rAthram, saptha rAthram” (ten nights, seven nights), it means ten days, seven days and so on.
  • nuN thuLiyAy – dense night and misty droplets.
  • sEt pAla … – In the night which stretches to be very long appearing like an eon which is long by nature. A thamizh teacher (learned scholar) who is compared to agasthya (in knowledge) explained “kangul vAy” as “nALagaththu” [this is to prove that kangul (night) is counted as a day].
  • thUppAla … – The one who has divine weapons which resemble both moon and sun appearing at the same time while driving out the darkness, has not come; to remove this darkness, we need moon and sun. It is said in mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 51 “Angaiththigiri sudarennum veN saNgam vAnil pagarumadhi enRum” (Looking at the divine disc and pure white conch in his hands, and considering them as sun and moon). Previously, she first hand enjoyed these in his hands. The one who angrily dispels darkness [sun] and the one who mingles freely with darkness [moon].
  • thUppAla veN sangu – The white conch which has purity as its nature. Alternative explanation – pAl indicates space; having faultless space. It is said as “perumuzhakku” (great war cry) and in mahAbhAratham dhrONa parvam “supUrNOtharanissrutha dhvani:” (SrIpAnchajanya which releases great sound from the well rounded middle layer). Does thUymai (purity) indicate faultless? When someone is said to be pure, that implies that he is faultless,
  • veN sangu – Alternative explanation – both this and thUymai indicate the abundant nature of the white colour. But this meaning does not fit well due to the existence of “pAla” in between “thU” and “veN”.
  • thIppAla val vinaiyEn – I, who have committed sins which are of cruel nature and which cannot be eliminated. That is, my sins are so strong that, bhagavAn has vowed to protect, I am qualified to be protected and he has the tools to protect me – yet I am not being helped.
  • dheyvangAL en seygEnO – There is similarity between the dhEvathAs and parAnguSa nAyaki. The are animishar (those who don’t blink) by birth, and she remains as in thiruviruththam 97 “undO kaNgaL thunjudhalE” (will my eyes sleep?). Now, she is not sleeping fearing the darkness; she thinks that they (mothers, friends) are watching her condition and remaining sleepless and considering the dhEvathAs as the refuge. Since they (animishar) are not sleeping even when the friends are sleeping, she considers them to be close confidantes and tells them. The dhEvathAs are recited along with the mothers in “Ayum amarulagum thunjilum” (if the mothers and the dhEvathAs slept). When the suffering increases, one will call “Oh mother! what will I do!” – this appears like that.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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