Monthly Archives: July 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 5.6.3 – kANginRa nilam

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Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the th pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s mother says “My daughter is saying that the unlimited pancha bhUthams (five elements) starting with earth are all at her disposal”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s mother says “My daughter is saying that the pancha bhUthams (five elements) which are the main cause for the universe which is known through pramANams (authentic scriptures), are all at her disposal”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kANginRa nilam ellAm yAnE ennum kANginRa visumbellAm yAnE ennum
kANginRa venthIyellAm  yAnE ennum kANginRa ik kARRellAm yAnE ennum
kANginRa kadal ellAm yAnE ennum kANginRa kadal vaNNan ERak kolO?
kANginRa ulagaththIrkken sollugEn kANginRa en kArigai seyginRavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kANginRa – seen (through pramANam)
nilam ellAm – all the pruthvi (land/earth, which is the last of the five elements)
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kANginRa – seen, in the same manner
visumbu – AkASam (Ether, which is the first of the five elements)
ellAm – all
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kANginRa – main among the luminous objects
vem – hot
thI – agni (fire)
ellAm – all
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kANginRa – the previous element [to fire, in sequence of creation]
i – these – being in close proximity, due to sustaining
kARRu ellAm – vAyus (airs)
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kANginRa – the next element [to air, in sequence of creation]
kadal – water
ellAm – all
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kANginRa – attractive
kadal – (infinite) ocean like
vaNNan – sarvESvaran who is having such form
ERak kolO – has entered?
kANginRa – seeing
ulagaththIrkku – you who don’t know anything beyond this world
kANginRa – my very beautiful daughter who can see what is not seen by any one
kArigai – daughter
seyginRa – actions
en – in what way
sollugEn – I can explain

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My daughter, parAnguSa nAyaki said “I am all the land which is seen”; she said “I am the ether which is seen”; she said “I am the hot fire, which is main among the luminous objects”; she said “I am all these vAyus, which arrive previous [to fire, in creation sequence], which are in close proximity, due to sustaining us”; she said “I am all the water, which is the next element [to air in creation sequence]”; Has sarvESvaran who is having an ocean like attractive form, entered into her? Oh you who don’t know anything beyond this world which you are seeing! In what way can I explain the actions of my very beautiful daughter who can see what is not seen by any one?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kANginRa nilam … – She is saying that the whole land mass which cannot be seen if one sets out to see them, is at my disposal. This is the pruthvi (earth) which is in the form of effect and can be seen by our eyes. If this itself is so vast, the nature of the pruthvi which is in the causal form can only be known by SAsthram and is much greater than the visible earth.
  • kANginRa visumbu … –  She said that the AkASam (ether/space) which provides space for this vast earth, which cannot be fully seen, is also at her disposal.
  • kANginRa ikkARRu … – In the same manner, she said that the fire and the air which can be felt, are at her disposal.
  • kANginRa kadal vaNNan … – She said that the ocean which cannot be fully seen by those who desire to see it, is also at her disposal. Did the sarvESvaran who is having invigorating ocean like form, where the onlookers cannot take their eyes off, come and enter her?
  • kANginRa ulagaththIrkku … – As you too are watching her like me, what can I tell you now; is there any difference between you and me, in being unable to explain her state?
  • kANginRa en kArigai … – What can I explain about my daughter who is immersed in the infinite emperumAn as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE” (the speech returned unable to measure bhagavAn‘s qualities) and is speaking about him?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAsiriyam – 1 – sekkar mA mugil

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<< avathArikai (pravESam)

avathArikai (Introduction)

The proper sequence of enjoying emperumAn is to enjoy his svarUpam (true nature), rUpam (form) and guNam (qualities); however AzhwAr leaves aside the svarUpam and instructs us to enjoy His rUpam directly;and the reason for this is – his attachment towards the same. When AzhwAr started experiencing emperumAn’s rUpam, that itself blocks him from enjoying it directly like an ocean pushing its waves on those who want to enjoy it; so, just as someone desiring to step in to a flood will use a boat to do so, AzhwAr too sets to enjoy emperumAn through an example. Since bhagavAn is distinctly unique, there is no exact match for bhagavath vishayam; but at least one should compare an object which has some minor similarity; [hence] AzhwAr is highlighting an emerald mountain as example. Since the emerald mountain lacks the exact qualities of emperumAn, AzhwAr starts with decorating it [to make it look more comparable to emperumAn]. Just as he left aside svarUpam and started engaging in the rUpam, here, he leaves aside the rUpam and starts engaging in the object which is cited as example and decorating it.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

sekkarmA mugiluduththu mikka senjudarp
paridhisUdi * anjudar madhiyam pUNdu *
pala sudar punaindha pavaLach chevvAy*
thigazh pasunjOdhi maragadhak kunRam *
kadalOn kaimisaik kaN vaLarvadhupOl *
pIthagavAdai mudi pUN mudhalA *
mEthagu palkalan aNindhu * sOdhi
vAyavum kaNNavum sivappa * mIdhittup
pachchai mEni migap pagaippa *
nachchu vinaik kavarthalai aravinamaLi ERi *
eRikadal naduvuL aRithuyil amarndhu *
sivan ayan indhiran ivar mudhal anaiththOr *
dheyvak kuzhAngaL kaithozhak kidandha *
thAmarai undhi thanip peru nAyaga! *
mUvulagaLandha sEvadiyOyE!

Listen

Word by Word Meanings

sekkar mA mugil uduththu – wearing a huge red cloud around his waist
mikka sem sudar – with the highly effulgent red rays
paridhi sUdi – sun on his head
am sudar – beautiful cool rays
madhiyam pUNdu – wearing the moon
pala sudar – (stars) with many glitters
punaindha – wearing it
pavaLam sem vAi – red coral like lips
thigazh pasum sOdhi – bright green color
maragadha kunRam – an emerald mountain
kadalOn kai misai – on the hands (waves) of the ocean king (varuNa)
kaN vaLarvadhu pol – just like sleeping
pIthaga Adai – pIthAmbaram (yellow garment)
mudi – crown
pUN – necklace
mudhalA – etc
mEthagu palkalan aNindhu – wearing a variety of worthy jewellery
sOdhi vAyavum – glowing coral red lips
kaNNavum – eyes
sivappa – being red in color
mIdhittu – being victorious (competition)
pachchai mEni miga pagaippa – green color becomes more visible
nachchu vinai – (while destroying enemies) he who has poisonous acts
kavar thalai – having fallen heads
aravu amaLi – on the cozy bed of thiruvanandhAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan)
ERi – climbing
kadal naduvul – in the midst of sea full of waves
aRi thuyil amarndhu – engaged in yOga nidhrA (meditation) to protect the world
Sivan ayan indhiran ivar mudhal – like Siva, brahmA, indhra
anaiththOr dheyva kuzhAngal – all the group of dhEvathAs
kai thozha – to worship with the joined palms
kidandha – lying down
thAmarai undhi – having the nAbhIkamalam (lotus in the navel, which is the origin for all creation)
thani peru nAyaga – Oh emperumAn who is greater than all!
mU ulagu aLandha – measured the three world
sEvadiyOyE – Oh one who is having the divine feet!

vyakhyAnam

sekkar mA mugil uduththu – Like those who saw an elephant would chant incessantly “elephant, elephant”, AzhwAr praises emperumAn being unable to control the love out of enjoyment. The garment which is (sekkar) red in colour which is a contrasting colour to his blackish complexion; (mA) the garment is having vastness to have folds and fleets; (mugil) the garment is cool like a cloud, matching his tender body; adorning such garment as if it naturally grew out of his waist [such perfect fit].

mikka sem sudarp paridhi sUdi – As said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 11.12dhivi sUrya sahasrasya bhavEdhyugapadhuththithA | yadhi bhA: sadhruSI sA syAdh bhAsas thasya mahAthmana: ||” (If the splendour of a thousand suns were to blaze out at once (simultaneously) in the sky,that would be the effulgence of the mighty lord) – it is said that the sun has 1000 rays, but for the crown of this emerald mountain (emperumAn) appears to be having many thousands of rays; [the emerald mountain] wearing the sun which is having reddish rays.

am sudar madhiyam pUNdu – The emerald mountain is wearing the moon which possess cool rays and is unlike the sun which does not allow anyone to approach it because of its fiery nature; further it is unlike the worldly moon which goes through waxing and waning and having taints, and having beauty to be viewed forever without taking one’s eyes off.

thigazh pasum sOdhi maragadhak kunRam kadalOn kaimisaik kaN vaLarvadhu pOl – The emerald mountain which appears to be lofty with its shining green color which leaves everything else inferior, appears to be sleeping on the hands (waves) of the ocean king (varuNan). Though AzhwAr is talking about the emerald mountain, the example for emperumAn, he is saying “kaN vaLarvadhu pOl” (like divinely resting) instead of saying “like sleeping”, as he feels that it will only cause insult to emperumAn’s greatness. thirumalai nambi when identifying a person to emperumAnAr, says “do you know the person who cannot wear on his ears, even if he were given golden ear-rings?”, instead of saying the “person with delicate ears”.

pIthagavAdai – This (yellow garment) is what is explained by “sekkar mA mugil uduththu“.

mudi – This (crown) is what is explained by “sem sudar paridhi sUdi“.

pUN – This (necklace) is what is explained by “am sudar madhiyam pUndu“.

Starting with this,

mEthagu palkalanaNindhu – These (ornaments) are explained by “pala sudar punaindha“.

mEthagu – These ornaments are said to be matching for his svarUpam (true nature); or it can be said to be perfectly suited to His thirumEni (divine form). He is wearing many worthy ornaments like necklace etc as explained previously. Even if emperumAn’s wealth can be measured, His divine ornaments cannot be measured at all. As bhAshyakArar explains “nUpurAdhyaparimitha dhivya bhUshaNa” in his SaraNAgadhi gadhyam listing the ornaments such kirIta, makuta, chUdA, avathamsa, makara kuNdala, graivEyaka, hAra, kEyUra, kataka, SrIvathsa, kausthuba, mukthAdhAma, udhara bhandhana, pIthAmbara, kAnchIguNa, nUpur and then ends with “Adhi” (starting with), here too AzhwAr enlists many ornaments and say “palkalan“.

sOdhi vAyavum kaNNavum sivappa – While in the example, only a single entity “red coral like lips” is shown, why is the mouth and eyes are highlighted here? It is for this reason only, there it was explained as “(many) reddish spots on the mountain”.

pachchai mEni mIdhittu migap pagaippa – The divine ornaments and the emperumAn‘s thirumEni which possess all of those ornaments, compete with each other; his thirumEni wins the competition and shine with blackish complexion.

nachchu vinai – As said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 66 “vAyndha madhu kaidaparum vayiRurugi mANdAr” (the powerful madhu and kaitapa died); thiruvanandhAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) will single handedly destroy the enemies with his poisonous acts.

kavarthalai – thiruvanandhAzhwAn having several hoods; also said as his acquiring many hoods as a result of coming in contact with emperumAn. Like a mother who keeps child in her lap, here thiruvanandhAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) keeps periya perumAL on his lap and shows motherly love to Him. When ananthAzhwAn (disciple of emperumAnAr) went to thirukkOshtiyUr and he held bhattar (who is the revered son of kUraththAzhwAn) on his lap and manifested motherly affection towards bhattar. ANdAL, the consort of kUraththAlwAn had a child first but he died at a very young age. When bhattar was born to them, emperumAnAr thinks that “we should not let this child suffer the same fate and he should live long” and so he performs thirumanjanam (sacred bathing) to periya pirAtti and feed that holy water to him and offers him in adoption to periya pirAtti and periya perumAL. And because of this ananthAzhwAn would call bhattar as “periya pirattiyAr’s son”.

aravin amaLi ERi – Climbing on the cozy bed of thiruvanandhAzhwAn which has nice fragrance, coolness and softness. Here amaLi refers the bed.

Eri – Since emperumAn considers climbing on thiruvanandhAzhwAn as his own gain/pleasure, he climbs on him with great desire, as nampermAL (uthsava deity in SrIrangam) would climb the six legged palanquin with great desire.

eRi kadal naduvuL – in the [milky] ocean which is throwing up the waves, being [favourably/happily] agitated by the presence of emperumAn.

aRi thuyil amarndhu – Being engaged in sleep which is an embodiment of wisdom; for the others, there will be darkness in their heart when they close their eyes; they will enjoy by worldly aspects through their senses such as eyes etc. But if their eyes are closed both the inner mind and their external vision becomes dark for them. Here when emperumAn reclines on thiruvanandhAzhwAn closing his divine eyes, it implies that he is contemplating about protecting the world and meditating upon himself since there is none higher to him.

sivan ayan indhiran ivar mudhal anaiththOr dheyvak kuzhAngkaL kai thozhak kidandha – Those who are popularly known as gods in this world, will themselves give up their pride and worship emperumAn. dhEvathAs such as brahmA et al, give up their pride and worship him being captivated his beauty while reclining.

When asked “And what will emperumAn do when these dhEvathAs worship Him?”, AzhwAr says

kidandha – When a flock of cranes enter the sea (to catch fish) and produce cheerful noise, it will not affect the sea; similarly even if the dhEvathAs like Siva etc. and the hordes of gods worship him (who is distinctly unique) in his lying down posture, due to his greatness, he remains undisturbed. AzhwAr too considers both of these aspects [emperumAn‘s tranquil sleep and the dhEvathAs worshipping him] as natural actions [without giving any specific importance].

thAmarai undhi – He who has the divine lotus navel which is the cause for the entire creation;

When asked “Is there any one like him?”, AzhwAr says

thanipperu nAyaga – There is no one who is superior to emperumAn. If there is no one superior than Him (above Him), is there any one who is equivalent to Him? No, he is distinctly unique; Though other dhEvathAs are referred as supreme in the scriptures, it is only done as a courteous act. It is said in mahAbhAratham “rudhram samASrithA dhEvA rudhrO brahmANamAsritha: | brahmA mAmASrithO rAjan nAham kanchithupASritha:||” (dhEvathAs are surrendered to rudhra; rudhra is surrendered to his father, brahmA; brahmA is surrendered to me; but, Oh king! I am not surrendered to any one) – all these dhEvathAs expect something from others. Unlike everyone who is controlled of him, he is the distinct supreme lord who has none to control him; it is explaining that he is all the three causes [for creation]  viz nimiththa kAraNam (efficient cause), upAdhAna kAraNam (material cause) and sahakAri kAraNam (instrumental/ancillary cause).

mUvulagaLantha – For those people who cannot come to him and enjoy emperumAn, He himself goes to wherever they reside [and graces them by touching them with His holy feet].

sEvadiyOyE – The sweetness of his divine feet is such that, we cannot leave him, even if he is so cruel that he does not help us.

Thus, in this pAsuram, AzhwAr celebrates emperumAn‘s saundharyam (flawless beauty) and other auspicious qualities.

Let us enjoy the 2nd pAsuram next.

adiyen booma ramanuja dasi

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 45 – AmE amararkku

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avathArikai

The simplicity of emperumAn is such that it can be known only to his followers to whom he decides to manifest and not even to dhEvathAs (deities) such as brahmA et al.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

AmE amararkku aRiyavadhu niRka
nAmE aRigiRpOm nannenjE  pUmEya
mAdhavaththOn thAL paNindha vALarakkan nINmudiyai
pAdhamaththAl eNNinAn paNbu

Word by Word Meanings

nal nenjE – Oh [my] good heart!
pU mEya mAdhavaththOn – brahmA, who has done lot of penance and who resides in the lotus growing out of [emperumAn’s] navel
thAL paNindha – one who came and worshipped at his feet
vAL arakkan – demoniacal rAvaNan
nIL mudiyai – extended (ten) heads
pAdam aththAl eNNinAn – counted with his divine feet
paNbu – auspicious qualities
amararkku aRiya AmE – are they such that celestial people can know?
adhu niRka – moreover
nAmE aRigiRpOm – only we (who are blessed by his causeless mercy) know

vyAkyAnam

AmE amararkku aRiya – Is it possible for dhEvas (celestial people) such as brahmA, rudhra et al to know emperumAn? He is such simple, with no distinction between his simplicity and greatness, that they can not know him.

adhu niRka – moreover

nAmE aRigiRpOm – There are two interpretations: (1) can we, who are ignorant, know him when even very knowledgeable persons such as brahmA et al are unable to know him? (2) While persons such as brahmA et al do not know him, aren’t we going to know him! When he shows himself up to us [his devotees] can we not know him!

nannenjE – Isn’t the reason for brahmA et al not to know him, their hearts which do not obey them! But my heart! Is there any shortcoming for me when I have you who obeys me?

pU mEya mAdhavaththOn thAL paNindha vALarakkan nIN mudiyai pAdam aththAl eNNinAnAzhwAr gives out the reason for their not knowing emperumAn. When rAvaNa was begetting all his boons from brahmA, who has as his residence the lotus coming out of emperumAn’s navel, and who has carried out lot of penance, emperumAn came in the form of a child and lay on the lap of brahmA. He counted the ten heads of rAvaNa with his divine feet and warned brahmA “do not grant all the boons that he is asking for. Know that the person who has come here is rAvaNan. If you grant him all the boons, you will go the wrong path” and disappeared. He pointed out to brahmA “these are heads which will be severed. If you add strength to these through your boons, you will also be in deep trouble”

pAdham aththAl eNNinAn – he showed the heads by scrawling on them with his enjoyable divine feet. Will brahmA, who does not know that it is not going to benefit him any way but is only going to cause him trouble, know emperumAn’s qualities?

We shall take up the 46th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.6.2 – kaRkum kalvikku

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Sixth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s mother says “My daughter is saying that all the knowledge revealing vEdhams and the propagation of such knowledge are fully at my disposal”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaRkum kalvikkellai ilanE ennum kaRkum kalvi AvEnum yAnE ennum
kaRkum kalvi seyvEnum yAnE ennum kaRkum kalvi thIrppEnum yAnE ennum
kaRkum kalvich chAramum yAnE ennum kaRkum kalvi nAthan vandhERakkolO
kaRkum kalviyIrkkivai en sollugEn? kaRkum kalvi en magaL kANginRavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kaRkum – learnt (not through books or observation, but through an AchArya)
kalvikku – knowledge in the form of vEdham [sacred text]

(as said in “ananthAvaivEdhA:“)
ellai – boundary
ilan – not having
ennum – she said;
kaRkum kalvi AvEnum – Being the soul of Sabdha (vEdham), to have that knowledge as my prakAra (attributes)
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kaRkum kalvi – this knowledge
seyvEnum – creator (During srushti (creation), I create them as they existed before according to supthaprabudhdha nyAyam (the logic of recollecting everything after waking up)).
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kaRkum kalvi thIrppEnum – during deluge, finishing it and preserving it in my heart
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kaRkum kalvich chAramum – mUla manthram etc which are the essence of that knowledge
yAnE – at my disposal
ennum – she said;
kaRkum kalvi – the propounder of all of vEdham
nAthan – sarvESvaran
vandhERa – entered her
kolO – is it possible?
kaRkum kalviyIrkku – you who are ready to learn these from me
kaRkum kalvi – now in learning age
en magaL – my daughter
kANginRa – the vision she had and speaking
ivai – these
en – what
sollugEn – shall I say?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My daughter said there is no boundary for knowledge that is learnt in the form of vEdham; she said I am the soul of Sabdha (vEdham), to have that knowledge as my prakAra (attributes); she said I am the creator of this knowledge; she said I am finishing it and preserving it in my heart during deluge; she said mUla manthram etc which are the essence of that knowledge are at my disposal; is it possible that sarvESvaran, the propounder of all of vEdham, has entered her? What shall I say to you who are ready to learn these from me on what my daughter, who is now in learning stage, speaks based on the vision she had?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaRkum … – She said “There is no boundary to what I learn from sAndhIpani within a short span of time”. Alternatively – she is saying “I am not properly situated to learn Sruthi (vEdham) which is stated in thaiththirIya upanishath “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE” (the speech returned unable to comprehend bhagavAn‘s qualities). I am not inside the boundary to learn. Another explanation – I am the knower of vEdhAntham as said in “vEdhAntha vizhup poruLin mEl irundha viLakkai” (the light atop the vEdhAntham).
  • AvEnum – Did I just not remain incomprehensible by vEdhAntham? Are they not at my complete disposal? This is explained in “thvamEva vidhyA” (you are the knowledge).
  • seyvEnum – She said “I will create that knowledge at the appropriate times”.
  • kaRkum kalvi thIrppEnum – She said “I will eliminate any doubts in them and establish the essence in them”. There are those who are greatly learned yet say “sUnyamE thathvam” (voidness is truth). Also explained as, parAnguSa nAyaki saying “those students and teachers are at my disposal”. Would thIrppEn (finish) mean teaching/learning? Yes. thIrkkai means seeking the ultimate aspect of it.
  • sAramum – She is saying that “I am the result of those essential aspects of that knowledge”.
  • nAthan vandhERak kolO – Did the all knowing lord enter into my daughter?
  • kaRkum … – What shall I say to you who don’t even know the very basics of bhagavath vishayam, to learn and know now?
  • kaRkum … – What shall I say about the engagement of my daughter in this manner? She is of very tender nature  and is not speaking at all while earlier she would repeat every word and not say a word of her own.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 44 – thamar ugandhadhu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that when these people [jIvAthmAs] carry out kainkaryam in keeping with their nature, emperumAn also shows himself to them appropriately.

Let us enjoy the pAsuram and its meanings, first:

thamar ugandhadhu evvuruvam avvuruvam thAnE
thamar ugandhadhu eppEr maRRu appEr thamar ugandhu
evvaNNam sidhiththu imayAdhu irupparE
avvaNNam AzhiyAnAm

Word by Word Meanings

AzhiyAn – emperumAn who holds the chakkara (divine disc) in his hand
thamar – devotees
ugandhadhu evvuruvam – whichever form they desire [for emperumAn]
avvuruvam thAnE – he attains that form
maRRu – moreover
thamar ugandhadhu eppEr – whichever divine name they desire [for emperumAn]
appEr Am – emperumAn attains that name
thamar – devotees
ugandhu – with desire
evvaNNam sindhiththu – in whichever way they think
imaiyAdhu irupparE – meditating without a break
avvaNNam Am – he transforms himself that way.

vyAkyAnam

thamar ugandhadhu evvuruvam avvuruvam thAne – whichever divine form his followers assume for him, emperumAn adopts that form itself as his, willingly. Isn’t he taking up various forms in his incarnations for the sake of his followers! SrI rAma tells the celestial persons in SrI rAmAyaNam udhdha kANdam 120-11 “AthmAnam mAnusham manyE rAmam dhaSarathAthmajam” (I am happy in considering myself as a human being, as the son of dhaSaratha). In SrI bhagavath gIthA 4-11 emperumAn himself says “yE yathA mAm prapadhyanthE thAmsthathaiva bhajAmyaham” (in whichever form my followers think of me and attain me, I attain them in archA (idol) form taking the same form). He says “I do not have friend or enemy. There is no compulsion that they should attain me only in this method. I attain them in the status that they are in, in the way that they hold me” SrI vishNu dharmam 103-16 says “surUpAm prathimAm vishNO: prasannavadhanEkshaNAm, kruthv(A)AthmAna: prIthikarIm suvarNarajathAdhibhi: ” (let him worship vishNu as an image made of materials such as gold, silver etc with a beautiful form, bright face, eyes etc which he desires). Thus it is mentioned [in several scriptures] that emperumAn’s divine form can be made with any material. Since some people [contemporary with him] only enjoyed when he took incarnations and others who came subsequently lost out on him, emperumAn keeping that loss in his heart, comes down in images or shapes that these [later-day] followers desire in whichever material they choose and worship him.

Once when emperumAnAr (bhagavath rAmAnujar) had gone out [at SrIrangam] for bikshA (alms), little children who were playing on the street, scrawled a few lines on the sand with their legs and told him “here is your perumAL [emperumAn]” emperumAnAr immediately kept the vessel that he was having in his hands on the sand and did a sAshtAnga praNAmam (prostrated) to that figure on the sand (this would imply that whatever the children scrawled as emperumAn’s image, emperumAnAr also accepted that it is his image).

thamar ugandhadhu eppEr maRRu appEr – it is not only form, but even in the case of his divine names, he accepts whatever names his followers give him. Leaving aside names such as nArAyaNa etc which are exclusive for him, he also accepts names given by his followers.

In a place called kanjanUr, there was a follower by name vaNthuvaraip perumAL. He called his thiruvArAdhanap perumAL (the idol that he worshipped everyday) by the divine name sadhangai azhagiyAr (beautiful person with anklets). emperumAn, to show him how much he liked this name, enacted a play. One day, he showed himself with anklets in the follower’s dream and started dancing. His follower asked him “who are you?” emperumAn responded “I am sadhangai azhagiyAr

nanjIyar had given the divine name “Ayar dhEvuto  his thiruvArAdhanap perumAL.  emperumAn, to show him that he relishes that name, appeared in the dream of engaLAzhwAn and demanded blue berries. When engaLAzhwAn wanted to know as to who he was, he replied “I am nanjIyar’s son Ayar dhEvu” Not only did he mention the name that nanjIyar gave him, but he also played by that name [Ayar dhEvu refers to krishNa, who was the lord of cowherds and liked blue berries very much]. Wondering at this, engaLAzhwAn told nanjIyar “your son is not allowing me to sleep. He keeps pestering to be given this and that”.

thamar ugandhu evvaNNam sindhiththu imaiyAdhu irupparE avvaNNam AzhiyAnAm – he remains with the same qualities and activities that his followers think of and keep meditating on. The one who creates all the worlds and who controls everything, becomes the form, name etc which his followers desire and thus becomes created and controlled. Just as AdhiSEshan makes himself the way emperumAn desires of him, as said in the 52nd pAsuram of this thiruvandhAdhi “senRAl kudaiyAm irundhAl singAdhanamAm ninRAl maravadiyAm” (AdhiSEshan becomes emperumAn’s umbrella when he goes out, his throne while sitting and his sandals when standing), emperumAn also makes himself as the way his followers desire of him. While the followers carryout the tasks because of their SEshathvam (being servitor) emperumAn does all the things for the followers because of his love for them.

AzhiyAn – though only sudharSana chakkara (the divine disc) has been mentioned, it is implied that the above would hold good for all nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of paramapadham). AzhwAr says that while there are many like sudharSana chakkara to carry out tasks based on his thoughts, emperumAn himself leaves them all and adapts in the way that his followers think of him and acts accordingly. nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 3-6-9nenjinAl ninaippAn evan avanAgum nILkadal vaNNanE” (emperumAn who has the complexion of a large ocean, transforms himself into whatever his followers think of him). It is not only in form and name, but also in terms of qualities, activities etc that he goes by what his followers desire of him.

We shall take up the 45th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.6.1 – kadal gyAlam

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Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s mother says “My daughter is saying that she is engaged in activities such as creation etc of earth; it appears that she has been possessed by emperumAn and speaking due to that”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kadal gyAlam seydhEnum yAnE ennum kadal gyAlam AvEnum yAnE ennum
kadal gyAlam koNdEnum yAnE ennum kadal gyAlam kINdEnum yAnE ennum
kadal gyAlam uNdEnum yAnE ennum kadal gyAlaththIsan vandhERakkolO?
kadal gyAlaththIrkkivai en sollugEn kadal gyAlaththen magaL kaRkinRavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kadal – surrounded by ocean
gyAlam – earth

(without expecting anyone’s assistance)
seydhEnum – one who created
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kadal gyAlam AvEnum – (after creating, entering into, and as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “sachchathyachchA bhavath“) being the antharyAmi of every entity which is named
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kadal gyAlam – this earth
koNdEnum – (when mahAbali considers it to be his own, went and begged, ) measured and accepted
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;

(during avAnthara praLayam (intermediary deluge), assuming the form of varAha (wild boar))
kadal gyAlam – this earth
kINdEnum – dug it out
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;

(during mahA praLayam (total deluge))
kadal gyAlam – this earth
uNdEnum – annihilated [and consumed]
yAnE – I am
ennum – she said;
kadal gyAlaththu Isan – sarvESvaran, the controller of all worlds
vandhu – came
ERa – entered her
kolO – is it possible?
kadal gyAlaththIrkku – you all who are ignorant and engaged in worldly pursuits
kadal gyAlaththu – being present in this world itself
en magaL – my daughter (who has a divine nature)
kaRkinRa – practicing
ivai – these amazing aspects
en – how
solluvEn – can explain?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My daughter said “I am the one who created this earth which is surrounded by ocean”; she said “I am the one who measured the earth”; she said “I dug the earth out”; she said “I annihilated this earth”; is it possible that sarvESvaran, the controller of all worlds, has come and entered in to her? Oh you all who are ignorant and engaged in worldly pursuits! How can I explain these amazing aspects which are practiced by my daughter? uNdEn can also imply the bAlakrishNa (child krishNa) form on banyan leaf during deluge.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kadal gyAlam seydhEnum … – She said as in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.6aham kruthsnasya jagatha: prabhava:” (I am the origin for all these worlds). She said “I created this world, when all the objects of world were annihilated and had no name/form as said in chAndhOgya upanishath ‘sadhEva’ (sath (brahmam, the supreme lord) alone existed)”. brahmam which is together with sUkshma chith achith (sentient beings and insentient entities in subtle form) is the kAraNam (cause); when the subtle form transforms into gross form, it becomes the effect. Since bhagavAn alone is the cause along with his own subtle chith and achith, and since there is no other cause, he himself is all three types of causes which are explained viz upAdhAna kAraNam (raw material cause), nimiththa kAraNam (efficient cause) and sahAkAri kAraNam (instrumental/ancillary cause). My daughter said she herself remained all the three causes and created this world. By the usage of avadhAraNam (certainty, “E” in yAnE), the existence of other causes is nullified.
  • kadal gyAlam AvEnum … – As said in thaiththirIya upanishath “thathsrushtvA thadhEvAnuprAviSath thadhanupraviSya sachchathyachchAbhavath” (He created everything and entered in them; by pervading them, he became the sentient and insentient entities), she said “I created them, I entered them to have them recognised by a name and form, and I became them so that every time they are named, it points to me who is the in-dwelling super soul”. Whether it is vAchakam [collective indication of all three entities namely body, soul and super-soul, as per our own philosophy] or bOdhakam [first explaining the body, then extending up to the soul and further extending up to the super-soul, as per prAbhAkara philosophy], [all words] will point to him only; first the word will indicate the object that is visible and subsequently it will go up to the invisible bhagavAn [who is inside the insentient body and further, the sentient soul]; alternatively – the word will also indicate the togetherness of insentient body, sentient soul and the lord [For example, if we say “goat”, it identifies the body of the goat, the soul which is inside the body and the antharyAmi which is inside the soul]. In “sachchathyachchA bhavath” (He became chith and achith), by saying “thath anupraviSya” (he entered), it is established that – this is not svarUpa aikyam (that, brahmam has literally become something else), but its merely talking about the effect of anu pravESam [the presence of bhagavAn as antharyAmi].
  • kadal gyAlam koNdEnum … – After creating the worlds, instead of leaving them on their own, he carefully follows them and protects them. She said “when persons like mahAbali claim ownership of them as an eagle would grab a helpless animal, I will do whatever it takes to reclaim them”.
  • yAnE – indhra only requested emperumAn “please reclaim my kingdom” knowing well that the demoniac persons cannot win over him; but it was only emperumAn who knew the tactics to make himself a seeker to satisfy mahAbali’s generosity and reclaimed the world.
  • kadal gyAlam kINdEnum … – She said “Instead of the demoniac persons destroying this world, when the ocean which was placed as a protective layer for the earth, itself consumed the world, I was the one who immersed into the water, reached up to the world which was stuck in the wall of the ocean and brought it out”. The earth which drowned in the ocean did not request him to be protected, but he rescued it on his own desire.
  • uNdEnum … – She said “Instead of leaving some but consuming others, irrespective of creators, annihilators or common objects, everything was under threat of extinction during total deluge; at that time, I placed them all in my stomach and protected”. At that time, no one else existed to even claim that they protected these entities.
  • Isan – I am not sure “if sarvESvaran who is the creator of all, the omnipresent, the protector of all, has entered her and she has become possessed of him”.

While we have come to enquire you about her, you are asking us this question? How can we determine her situation now?

  • kadal gyAlaththIrkku … – Like it is said in “vaikunthaththamarar” (nithyasUris of paramapadham) [here they (enquirers) are addressed as kadal gyAlaththIr“], how can I explain it to you who are nithya samsAris (eternally bound in this material world) who have no idea about bhagavath vishayam? kolO should not be considered as a doubt [that emperumAn may or may not have entered her], but it is certainty [surely, emperumAn has entered her].
  • kadal … – These words [which are spoken by parAnuSa nAyaki] are spoken by nithyasUris; when my daughter who is in this material world recites the words of nithyasUris, what can I do!

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 43 – manamAsu thIrum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that since emperumAn’s consorts are always with him, it is not necessary that to attain him we have to get rid of all our sins. Even as we carry out the deeds that we like, our sins will disappear on their own. Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

manamAsu thIrum aruvinaiyum sArA
dhanamAya thane kaikUdum punamEya
pUnthuzhAyAn adikkE pOdhodu nIr Endhi
thAm thozhA niRpAr thamar

Word by Word Meanings

punam mEya pUm thuzhAyAn – emperumAn who is adorned with thuLasi garland which blossoms as if it is on its own land [even when it is on emperumAn’s divine form]
adikkE – to his divine feet
pOdhodu nIr Endhi – taking flower and  sacred water
thamar – his followers
thAm – themselves
thozhA niRpar – will keep worshipping

(Once they worship)
manammAsu thIrum – all the faults in their minds such as ignorance etc will exit
aru vinaiyum sArA – sins which cannot be got rid of, will not come anywhere nearby
dhanamAya – the wealth of kainkaryam (service to emperumAn)
thAne kaikUdum – will come on its own

vyAkyAnam

manamAsu thIrum – (if emperumAn is worshipped) all the faults in the mind would go away. Hurdles such as ignorance etc which prevent thinking about emperumAn would leave.

aruvinaiyum sArA – It is not enough if only the middle portion of the weed is thrown out. Even the root has to be removed as otherwise it will grow again. Hence, deeds such as puNya (virtue) and pApa (sin) which are the roots for ignorance, will not come anywhere near [the person who worships emperumAn].

dhanamAya thane kaikUdum – once the faults leave the mind and puNya and pApa deeds which are the reasons for samsAram (being born in materialistic realm) also leave, the wealth for such a person namely gyAna (knowledge about emperumAn) and bhakthi (devotion towards emperumAn) which are the harbingers of kainkaryam (service) would come to him on their own. Did not vAlmIki call vibhIshaNa [younger brother of demon rAvaNa] as a wealthy person in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 16-17 “antharikshagatha: SrImAn” (vibhIshaNa, who went through the path of sky and who is wealthy)! This was after he had left all his wealth behind in lankA and gone with empty hands to SrI rAma. samam (control over mind) and dhamam (control over the five senses) which are the components of bhakthi will also come.

punamEya pUndhuzhAyAn adikkE – in order to obtain whatever has been said so far, one has to consume this margosa decoction! (the opinion here is that to get the result, the means is also sweet) [margosa decoction is considered to be very good for health and is hence deemed as sweet].

punam mEya pUm thuzhAyAn adikkE – thuLasi will remain fresh on emperumAn’s divine locks just as it remains fresh in its own ground! For those followers who take flowers etc to lay at the divine feet of emperumAn, all the faults and bad deeds in the mind will disappear. When the follower does what he is expected to do, wouldn’t emperumAn do what he is supposed to do? It is the svarUpam (basic nature) of the follower to carry out kainkaryam to emperumAn and it is emperumAn’s svarUpam to accept the kainkaryam.

We shall move on to the 44th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 42 – thirumagaLum maNmagaLum

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avathArikai

What is the need for emperumAn to put up with our faults? AzhwAr says that since the pirAttimArs (his consorts), who make him tolerate, are beside him, he has necessity to do this. When pirAtti says, [as sIthAp pirAtti said] in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116-44 “pApAnAm vA SubhAnAm vA vadhArhANAm plavangama | kAryam karuNamAryENa na kaSchinnAparAdhyathi ||” (Oh monkey! Whether they are sinners or virtuous persons, mercy should be shown on those who are fit even to be killed. There is none who has not committed a sin), is there any impediment for emperumAn to say “dhOshOyadhyapi thasa syAth” (even if he has faults, let them be)?

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings.

thirumagaLum maNmagaLum AymagaLum sErndhAl
thirumagatkE thIrndhavARu enkol thirumagaL mEl
pAl Odham sindhap pada nAgaNaik kidandha
mAlOdha vaNNar manam

Word by Word Meanings

pAl Odham sindha – droplets to fall on the milky ocean
padam nAgaNaikkidandha – reclining on the mattress of thiruvandhAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) with hoods
mAl Odham vaNNar – emperumAn with the complexion of large ocean
thirumagaL mEl manam – divine mind which is (full of love) on thirumagaL (SrI mahAlakshmi)
thirumagaLum maNmagaLum AymagaLum sErndhAl – if SrIdhEvi, bhUdhEvi and neeLA dhEvi are together
thirumagatkE thIrndha ARu enkol – what a surprise that it is totally involved with SrI dhEvi!

vyAkyAnam

ananthAzhwAn, one of our Acharyars (a disciple of bhagavadh rAmAnuja) would explain the meaning of this pAsuram as: When thirumagaL (SrI mahAlakshmi), maNmagal (bhUdhEvi) and Aymagal (neeLAdhEvi) get together, emperumAn with the complexion of a large ocean, who is reclining on the mattress of AdhiSEshan, would be such that he is (a) totally dedicated to mahAlakshmi,  (b) totally dedicated to bhUdhEvi and (c) totally dedicated to neeLA dhEvi. In other words, when he is with each of his consorts, it would appear that he is totally involved with and dedicated to that consort. ananthAzhwAn would say, how wondrous it is that he is involved equally with all the three consorts!

parASara bhattar (divine son of kUraththAzhwAn) would give a different meaning, it is said.

pAl Odham sindha – in such a way that tiny droplets of thiruppARkadal (milky ocean) would come and touch emperumAn’s divine feet as if to massage

pada nAgaNaik kidandha – since emperumAn is reclining on him, AdhiSEshan is spreading his hoods in ecstasy. Such emperumAn who is …

mAl Odha vaNNar – having the complexion of a large ocean which throws waves

thirumagaL mEl manam – his divine mind which is affectionate towards periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi)

thirumagaLum maNmagaLum AymagaLum sErndhAl thirumagatkE thIrndhavARu – when he is with SrI mahAlakshmi, bhUdhEvi and neeLAdhEvi, his mind will be totally engaged with SrI mahAlakshmi.

In SrIguNarathnakOSam, SrI parASara bhattar has said mercifully while talking about the other consorts of emperumAn except SrI mahAlakshmi that they will be like “pushpAngarAgais samam” (similar to flower and sandalwood paste). In other words, when emperumAn is with SrI mahAlakshmi, the other consorts will be like aids such as the moon, sandalwood paste, flower, gentle breeze etc in enhancing his delight. The other consorts of emperumAn are like the divine limbs of SrI mahAlakshmi. Hence when emperumAn is with SrI mahAlakshmi, she would think that other consorts of emperumAn are also with her in partaking the experience. In samsAram, when a man has more than one wife, there will be constant fight among his wives as each wife feels that she has not had enough of her husband. In the case of emperumAn, since the experience is like a great flood, even if his consorts come together to experience him, their experience will not be sated. Hence there is no competition or jealousy amongst them.

We shall take up the 43rd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.6 – kadalgyAlam

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Audio

nammAzhwAr as parAnguSa nAyaki – SrIrangam

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth decad – previously, while AzhwAr was joyful due to the internal experience, he was also having anguish due to lack of physical experience; this led to great desire which brings out the great sorrow due to the lack of physical experience and her emotions took shape into making him think about himself to be bhagavAn; he then highlights the following aspects of emperumAn:

  1. the activities of the controller of all, the sarvESvaran, such as the creation of universe etc
  2. the knowledge sources which reveal such nature of sarvESvaran
  3. the great elements which are the main causes for the universe
  4. all activities
  5. his acts of protection of the universe
  6. his incarnations and activities
  7. all types of relationships in this universe
  8. the types of celestial species such as brahmA, celestial sages et al
  9. karmas in the form of puNya (virtues) and pApa (vices)
  10. the results such as svarga (heaven), naraka (hell) etc

Highlighting these aspects to be fully under her (AzhwArin the feminine form of parAnkuSanAyaki) own disposal, AzhwAr speaks imitating emperumAn; those who care for AzhwAr (i.e. mothers) observing her state, explain that to the curious ones who are in close proximity; this is explained as a mother would explain to those who enquired about the state of her daughter who imitates the aspects of ISwara, her divine consort, as the gOpikAs (cowherd girls) imitated krishNa [in separation].

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In previous decad, AzhwAr had equal joy and sorrow; when both were together, joy should became prominent, but due to her [AzhwAr in feminine form] misfortune, sorrow became prominent; her sustenance by meditating upon emperumAn also became lost, and she only remained weakened due to non-attainment of physical experience; parAnguSa nAyaki who is weakened as a result of separation in this manner, tries to sustain herself by imitating bhagavAn. Like those who set out to advice others, she sat in a posture with gyAna mudhrA (instructing posture) like gIthOpanishath AchAryan [krishNa, the speaker of SrI bhagavath gIthA]; seeing that, her mother doubted “is this change due to some mystic gem, manthra or medication?”, but since she did not find any such evidence, she comes to know that it is not the case; now, due to her own bewilderment, the mother cannot understand “she is sustaining herself by imitating him to overcome the suffering in separation”; at this time, her relatives arrive there and enquire “what is going on here?”; as the mother does not realise the truth, on observing her words which resemble emperumAn‘s and on seeing her gyAna mudhrA posture, she says “emperumAn must have possessed her body”.

When there is suffering in separation, it is common to see them sustain by imitating their beloved person. In thiruvAyppAdi (SrI gOkulam), the gOpikAs sustained themselves by imitating (enacting the activities of) krishNa; SrIvishNu purANam 5.13.26 and 5.13.27 “… krishNOham Esha lalitham vrajAmi AlOkyathAmgathi: …” – she [one gOpikA] said “I am krishNa; look how amazingly I walk; whoever has eyes, please see”. “dhushta kALIya thisthAththara” – one gOpikA pretended to be kALiyan and another one climbed upon her and danced on her. The gOpikA who enacted the role of the inimical kALiya thought “at least this way, krishNa’s feet will touch my head”; the gOpikA who enacted the role of krishNa became too immersed in her role and hence stomped on the other gOpikA thinking her to be kALiyan. Since they are immersed in krishNAvathAram only, they enacted those pastimes, but since parAnguSa nAyaki was divinely blessed with faultless knowledge and devotion by emperumAn, she is imitating the lord of ubhaya vibhUthi (spiritual and material realms). As she is incapable of taking even a single step, it is not physical enacting, but is visual enacting through her speech. Thus, the divine mother of parAnguSa nAyaki thinking “my girl who is born in parathanthra janmam [subservient birth – female], could recite the words of bhagavAn who is supremely independent by birth [i.e., naturally], she who is the epitome of femininity could recite the worlds of the lord who is the epitome of masculinity; while she has the knowledge to know [who is the supreme], she spoke the words of sarvagyan (omniscient lord)”, replies to those who enquired about her.

[Explanation of svApadhESam (inner meaning)]

In the previous decad, AzhwAr enjoyed emperumAn‘s distinguished physical form through visualisation, and that divine physical form is SubASrayam (auspicious target of meditation). [Now she is ] experiencing bhagavAn‘s svarUpam [true nature]. Due to such overwhelming experience, AzhwAr starts thinking himself as bhagavAn as seen in SrIvishNu purANam 6.7.95 “thadhbhAva bhAvamApannas thathA sau paramAthmanA – bhavathyabhEdhI” (A chEthana (AthmA) who attained the qualities of sarvESvara, in liberated state becomes non-different from paramAthmA), and in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 3.4 “aham manurabhavam sUryaScha” (vAma dhEva rishi who realised brahmam said “I have become manu, I have become sUrya” and in SrIvishNu purANam 1.19.85 “maththas sarvam aham sarvam mayi sarvam sanAthanE” (prahlAdha said “Everything originated from me and everything subdued into me, who is eternal) – as one thinks about self as bhagavAn himself, he/she will speak like bhagavAn; in that manner, parAnguSa nAyaki elaborately enacts emperumAn’s speech in vibhUthi adhyAyam (SrI bhagavath gIthA 10th chapter). In atharva Siras, rudhra elaborately spoke about his own glories; Sruthi (vEdham) itself wondered “while he is not in control of this world, what is the reason for his speech?” and itself concluded that he spoke like that due to being possessed by paramAthmA as in “sOntharAth antharam prAviSath“. When one acquires such emotion [of deep meditation on bhagavAn], one will speak like that. Thus, the divine mother of parAnguSa nAyaki, without realising “parAnguSa nAyaki is imitating and sustaining herself during separation from emperumAn”, replies “it looks like she is possessed by sarvESvaran” to those who enquired about her.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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