Monthly Archives: June 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.9 – nANum niRaiyum

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki explains explicitly to her friend how she became determined in her heart to engage in madal.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki reveals her heart to her friend “I will engage in madal towards emperumAn who completely captured me and is remaining in an unreachable state, to have the whole world blame him”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Ninth pAsuram. Due to her femininity she hid her feelings in her heart while it was crying internally; now that “I have decided to destroy him [his reputation], who should I hide this from”, she tells the same [to her friend].

pAsuram

nANum niRaiyum kavarndhu ennai nal nenjam kUvik koNdu
sEN uyar vAnaththirukkum dhEvapirAn thannai
ANai en thOzhi! ulagu thORalar thURRi Am
kONaigaL seydhu kudhiriyAy madalUrdhumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ennai – me
nANum – shyness
niRaiyum – completeness
kavarndhu – capturing
nal – very friendly
nenjam – heart
kUvik koNdu – inviting

(as said in “viSvatha: prushtEshu sarvatha: prushtEshu“)
sEN uyar – very lofty
vAnaththu – paramapadham (which is indicated by the word paramAkASa)
irukkum – one who is being present
dhEvar – sUris (eternally free souls in paramapadham)
pirAn thannai – one who is greater than all (one who reveals his activities of the material realm)
en – one who is obedient towards me
thOzhi – Oh friend!
ANai – its my vow on you
ulagu thORu – in all worlds
alar – accusations
thURRi – spreading (to make it well known)
Am – which can be done
kONaigaL – all troubles
seydhu – performing
kudhiri – shameless girl who cannot be controlled by anyone
Ay – being
madal – madal
Urdhum – will engage.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn, captured my shyness and completeness, invited my very friendly heart, and is present in the very lofty paramapadham and is the lord of the nithyasUris and is greater than all; Oh obedient friend! I vow on you that I will spread all accusations in all words and perform all possible troublesome acts and be a shameless girl who cannot be controlled by anyone and will engage in madal.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nANum niRaiyum kavarndhu – He stole both my shyness which sustains me and my completeness which is present in youth. [That is] capturing her shyness which will stop her from stepping out of her house and her modesty which makes her hide her inner emotions even from her own mother.
  • ennai – me who is identified by these qualities.
  • nal nenjam kUvik koNdu – took away the heart (container) too so that even if the shyness and completeness are returned, there is no place for them to remain; capturing my heart which is the abode for those qualities, and which is more attached towards him.

emperumAn thinking “with her urge, if we still remain in milky ocean, she may sail across and reach me” and left for the unreachable abode [of paramapadham].

  • sEN uyar vAnaththirukkum – Both sEn and uyar mean “lofty”; by using these synonymous words, it is implied that the abode is very lofty. Being in the sky. Not in the residence of the sky-dwellers such as indhra, but in paramapadham.
  • dhEva pirAn thannai – Manifesting his victory by showing off the stolen wealth of my shyness and completeness; manifesting his victory by showing off the wealth of my shyness and completeness which were taken away from me who is like a strangled cow [bound in this material realm]. It is the primary and divine assembly in paramapadham where emperumAn shows off the wealth he captured from samsAram (material realm). Unlike the assembly which has brahmA et al (in this material realm) who are emotionless based on gain/loss, though the assembly in paramapadham does not know about suffering in separation (since the divine abode is always occupied by emperumAn), they know how to enjoy the presence of emperumAn there.
  • sEN uyar vAnaththhirukkum dhEva pirAn thannai – He thinks that “it being not destroyed during total deluge” as the distinguished greatness of the abode; but he does not know that “it is not beyond the reach of the deluge of separation” and had he known that, he would not have left from where he was.
  • thannai – You see what happens in my hands, to that assembly, him and his presence there; do you think I will let him be where he is peacefully?

Her friend asks “You are saying these words here, but would you be able to do anything?”, parAnguSa nAyaki says,

  • ANai – It’s a vow; now is she vowing on him or her friend? She cannot vow on the one who she is trying to destroy [his reputation]; so, this is a vow on her friend. Except for the friend who agrees with her, she does not consider anyone else as supreme [ANai – a practice of vowing on some one (who is dear) to accomplish a task]. She thought “this is not just for words’ sake, and this should be done” and embraced her friend saying “en thOzhi” (Oh my friend). Alternative explanation – ANai – thadai (hurdle). As the friend thinks “is parAnguSa nAyaki going to attain her goal?”, and parANguSa nAyaki says “ANai en?” (what is the hurdle [we will surely attain]?). If he is going to obey me, and if you are going to support my thoughts, there is no use of the words of mothers et al. So, what is the hurdle now? – this is another explanation. How will he obey her? Because he is sarvAdhika (greater than all), he will not let her die, and her friend is always following parAnguSa nAyaki’s thoughts only.
  • ANai en – What is the hurdle?
  • ulagu thORalar thURRi – For emperumAn to think “Those in paramapadham would not reveal emperumAn’s shortcomings” and remain pacified, parAnguSa nAyaki says – I will not reveal about him in that divine assembly, but I will torment him throughout my journey. I will enter all worlds and destroy his reputation. alar – pazhi – blaming, accusations. If he makes the people of the town accuse me, I will make the whole world accuse him.
  • Am kONaigaL seydhu – I will trouble him in whatever way possible for me. kONai – miRukku – trouble, insult etc. That is:
    • When I set out to engage in madal, I will praise his qualities and say “this is how a person who is immersed in his qualities will suffer”.
    • I will say “I will engage in pursuing different means to attain you” [we should consider emperumAn as the only means and pursuing any other means is a great insult for him].
    • When I start engaging in madal, he will be frightened and appear in front of me and at that time I will fall at his feet. As said in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 58.22 “ruNam pravruththam iva” (I feel like I owe you so much), I will touch him [his heart, and make him indebted]. I will make him suffer as he felt in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 24.19 “SirasA yAchathas thasya vachanam na kruthammayA” (I could not fulfil the words of bharathAzhwAn who bowed at my feet with his head). He deeply grieved saying “I ignored the words of the child (bharatha) who prayed to me”. If I did this [bowed at his divine feet], to not lose his own reputation, he will say “Is this not done by those who are having distinguished relationship?”; and I will reply “It is not that; I am engaging in sAdhanAnushtAnam [pursuing the bowing down as means to attain him]”. He will try to account it as said in mahAbhAratham mOksha dharmam “nithyAnjali putA hrushtA:” (they are always performing anjali); and I will say “No. I am specifically performing this [as means] to attain your [divine] body”.
    • kudhiriyAy – “kundhiri” has become “kudhiri”. That is an uncontrolled woman and free woman, saying she is having no limits; alternative explanation – kudhiri means pot/container; for a woman, her shyness and completeness are the wealth; the body is where they exist. Since they are taken away, it is simply a body. Also explained as – making a toy-horse with the palm leaves and holding it in the hand visibly.
    • madal UrdhumE – As she has decided to engage in madal, she is thinking “why should our thought and speech be contradictory?” and is saying about the same [madal]”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 13 – iyalvAga InthuzhAyAn adikkE

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked, “your tongue will not praise anyone other than him. But, for the others, when they make attempts to attain him they need total involvement. Is it possible?”. AzhwAr responds saying “those who attained him, as their nature, are the nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam). emperumAn will himself make arrangements for the others to attain him”

Let us enjoy the pAsuram and its meanings.

iyalvAga InthuzhAyAn adikkE sella
muyalvAr iyal amarar munnam iyalvAga
nIdhiyAl Odhi niyamangaLAl parava
AdhiyAy ninRar avar

Word by Word Meanings

munnam – from time immemorial
iyal amarar – nithyasUris who are fit
In thuzhAyAn adikkE sella – to approach the divine feet of purushOththama (emperumAn) who is adorning thuLasi garland
iyalvAga –  appropriately
muyalvAr – will attempt
iyalvAga – appropriately (to others)
nIdhiyAl Odhi – properly reciting the divine names
niyamangaLAl parava – praising as per the way SAsthras [scriptures] ordained
avar – the emperumAn
AdhiyAy ninRAr – was engaged (in attracting chEthanas)

vyAkyAnam

iyalvAga …. muyalvAr iyal amarar –   AzhwAr says that nithyasUris are the apt entities for serving emperumAn. The meaning for iyalvAga can be taken as “fit” or as “by nature”. For the others [samsAris, those who dwell in materialistic realm], it is a cycle of taking births in various forms (and bodies) due to bad deeds, getting involved with worldly matters and at some point of time, by the mercy of emperumAn, getting engaged with matters concerning emperumAn. However, for nithyasUris, their involvement with emperumAn is due to their nature.

In thuzhAyAn – emperumAn adorns thuLasi garland to display his aiSvaryam – that he is the Lord of both nithya vibhUthi [spiritual realm] and leelA vibhUthi [materialistic realm].

adikkE sella – in order to attain his divine feet. SrI rAma tells lakshmaNa in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 16-29 “bhAvagyEna kruthagyEna dharmagyEna cha lakshmaNa I thvayA puthrENa dharmAthmA nasamvruththa: pithA mama” (Oh lakshmaNa! My father is not dead as he has as his son, one who knows my mind, one who knows (dhaSaratha’s) activities, one who knows the customs of servitorship) [in other words, lakshmaNa is all these to SrI rAma]. The nithyasUris also carry out tasks as per emperumAn’s mind.

muyalvAr iyal amarar munnam – nithyasUris are capable, on their own, to take the initiative and serve emperumAn. lakshmaNa says in SrI rAmAyaNa ayOdhyA kAndam 31-25 “aham sarvam karishyAmi jAgratha: svapathaScha thE” (I will carry out all kainkaryam (services) to you when you are awake and asleep). nithyasUris will also carry out all kainkaryams.

Is it only nithyasUris who can carry out all services to emperumAn? AzhwAr says that he will create opportunities for us (the jIvAthmAs) to attain him [and serve him].

iyalvAga – in an appropriate way; reciting his divine names as per SAsthram; to learn vEdhas by carrying various penances as ordained in SAsthras.

niyamangaLAl parava – to be ecstatic after knowing about emperumAn through SravaNam (hearing), mananam (thinking about what was heard) and nidhidhyAsanam (meditating continuously about emperumAn) as ordained in SAsthras.

AdhiyAy ninRAr avarAzhwAr says that there is no shortcoming in us after emperumAn

  1. decides to bless us with his mercy by taking the initiative
  2. creates desire in us towards him
  3. provides all the implements to create that desire
  4. enjoys us
  5. provides us the end result
  6. makes us to attain him

krishNa says in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9-24aham hi sarva yagyAnAm bhOkthA cha prabhurEvacha” (only I am worshipped in all yAgams (spiritual rituals) and I am the one who gives benefits out of those rituals) and in 10-8aham sarvasya prabhavO maththassarvam pravarthathE” (I am the cause of all creations and all entities function because of me). There is no difference between nithyasUris and other chEthanas (sentient entities) as far as their relationship with emperumAn is concerned.

We shall move on to the 14th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.8 – pEy mulai

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Should we not have the vision of him in such a manner that the mothers who say emperumAn, who is a great benefactor, as guNahIna (one who is lacking good qualities), should feel ashamed of themselves that we have said such emperumAn to be lacking in good qualities?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki says “When will I attain emperumAn who effortlessly eliminates all hurdles?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction. parAnguSa nAyaki says “He saved himself and thus saves us too; when will we reap the result of having him surviving?”.

pAsuram

pEy mulai uNdu sagadam pAyndhu marudhidai
pOy mudhal sAyththup puLvAy piLandhu kaLiRatta
thUmuRuval thoNdaivAyp pirAnai ennAL kolO?
yAm uRuginRadhu thOzhi! annaiyar nANavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pEy – the demon’s
mulai – bosom
uNdu – consumed
sagadam – Sakata [wheel possessed by a demon]
pAyndhu – jumped on
marudhu – arjuna tree
idai – in between
pOy – went
mudhal – along with the root
sAyththu – knocking down
puL – bakAsura, the bird [demon in the form of a crane]
vAy – mouth
piLandhu – tore
kaLiRu – kuvalayApIda, the wild elephant
atta – killed

(smiling with disdain due to eliminating the confidence of the enemies)
thU – white
muRuval – shining smile
thoNdai – reddish like thoNdai (tindora) fruit
vAy – beautiful lips
pirAnai – the benefactor who enjoyed the gOpikAs, his devotees
thOzhi – Oh friend!
annaiyar – mothers (who blamed him)
nANa – to feel ashamed
yAm – we
uRuginRadhu – will attain
ennAL kolO – when?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn, the benefactor who enjoyed gOpikAs who are his devotees, has shining white smile and reddish thoNdai fruit like beautiful lips; after having consumed the milk from the demon’s bosom, jumped on the Sakata, knocking down along with the root while going in between the arjuna tree[s], tore the mouth of bakAsura and killed kuvalayApIda. Oh friend! when will we attain him to have the mothers feel ashamed?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pEy mulai … – Escaping the danger which came through pUthanA; effortlessly breaking the Sakata (wheel) which rolled towards him, after being possessed by a demon and not giving enough time to avert the danger; while crawling casually, entering through the twin arjuna trees.
  • mudhal sAyththu – Not only he escaped from them, he destroyed them along with their roots;  alternative explanation – saying that he uprooted the arjuna trees. One who tore the mouth of bakAsura and who finished kuvalayApIdam.
  • thU muRuval thoNdai vAyp pirAnai – Though those inimical entities where very strong, they were not a real match for his chivalry and hence he stood there smiling. One who is having pure white teeth and thoNdai fruit like reddish lips. The benefactor who has white [bright] smile and reddish lips. Why is parAnguSa nAyaki listing his favours if she sets out to engage in madal to destroy him [his reputation]? This is how she plans to destroy [this is the maximum she can do] – she is trying frighten him and make him appear and is not really focussed on destroying him [his reputation].
  • pirAnai – She considers that emperumAn did all of those favours for herself. In thamizh culture, there is a particular [romantic] tradition, that is “pUththaru puNarchchi, punal tharu puNarchchi, kaLiRu tharu puNarchchi” (union of man and woman facilitated by the man presenting the flower she desires, union of man and woman facilitated by the man saving the woman from drowning in the river, union of man and woman facilitated by the man saving her from an enraged elephant). pUththaru puNarchchi – As the woman goes to the garden to pluck some flowers, the flowers are out of her reach in a tall branch. The man, ignoring his safety, climbs up the tree and gets her the flowers she desired. Being amazed by his commitment, she gives herself to him. punal tharu puNarchchi – As the woman goes into a newly flooded river to bathe and as she plays in the water, she starts drowning. The man, saves from from drowning and the woman gives herself to him. kaLiRu tharu puNarchchi – As the woman plays in the street, and gets caught by an [enraged] elephant, the man saves her and the woman gives herself to him. This tradition is explained by thamizh scholars; [in this pAsuram] it is explaining that he did all of these to protect [attract] her and she too obliged and gave herself to him; alternative explanation – this is parAnguSa nAyaki‘s greatness. She offers herself exclusively to him for helping her. There (in the different types of unions), different woman will become captivated for different man [for different favours] – here, since emperumAn did all the activities, she cannot refuse to become his.
  • en nAL kolO yAm uRuginRadhu thOzhi – He made us survive; now when will we attain him?
  • thOzhi – The friend is as described in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 37.5 “SOkasyAsya kathA bAram rAghavaOdhigamishyathi” (When will SrI rAma cross over to the end of this sorrow?).

Now we are not desiring to get in touch with him for our own sake, but

  • annaiyar nANavE – Right in front of the mothers who blame both of us as in “After being separated, she is not being patient for him to come on his own, and he too delayed his arrival”; they should be ashamed and put their heads down seeing emperumAn feeling shameful thinking “I have delayed so much that she even set out to engage in madal” as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10.9 “hrIrEshAhi mamAthulA” (I am feeling immensely ashamed) and they should say “How could we have blamed such emperumAn?”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 12 – sevi vAy kaN

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avathArikai

In the earlier pAsuram, AzhwAr said that only emperumAn is the entity to be held on to. In this pAsuram, he says that bhakthi (devotion) is the path through which he is to be attained.

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings.

sevi vAy kaN mUkku udal enRu aimpulanum sendhI
puvi kAl nIr viN bUtham aindhum aviyAdha
gyAnamum vELviyum nallaRamum enbarE
EnamAy ninRArkku iyalvu

Word by Word Meanings

sevi vAy kaN mUkku udal – ear, mouth, eye, nose and body [skin]
enRu aimpulanum – the five sensory organs
sendhI puvi kAl nIr viN – fire, earth, wind, water and sky [ether]
bUtham aindhum – the five elements
aviyAdha gyAnamum – gyAna (knowledge) which is the indestructible form of bhakthi (devotion)
vELviyum nallaRamum – karmas (deeds such as agnihOthram, a ritual) and auspicious qualities
EnamAy ninRArkku iyalvu enbarE – are the path to attain varAhap perumAL, say people (how ignorant!)

vyAkhyAnam

sevi vAy …AzhwAr lists the lowest level of entities for those who follow bhakthiyOgam (devotion as a means of attaining emperumAn). prakruthi (primordial matter) is at the lowest level to be known. jIvAthmA is at a higher level, to be known. emperumAn is at the highest level and is to be attained. AzhwAr has first listed the five sensory organs viz. ear, mouth, eye, nose and skin. Mentioning these five implies the five organs of action (speech, hands, legs and the excretory organs) for carrying out tasks.

sendhI puvi kAl nIr viN bUtham aindhum – this refers to the five elements of fire, earth, wind, water and ether and by implication, their subtle elements of form, smell, feel, taste and sound respectively. Thus the five sensory organs, the five organs of action, the five elements and the five subtle elements, totalling twenty entities are mentioned. Taken together with prakruthi (primordial matter), mahAn (the derivative of prakruthi), ahankAram (ego) and manas (mind), these twenty four would together make up the body. Hence we must take it that AzhwAr is talking about the physical body here.

aviyAdha gyAnamum – the unquenchable knowledge. This term refers to bhakthi (devotion), which like a stream of oil, flows uniformly without any distraction. In vEdhArtha sangraham it is said “bhakthiScha gyAna viSEsha: eva” (bhakthi is a type of gyAna only). Hence gyAna here refers to bhakthi.

vELviyum – deeds like carrying out yagya (rites) for development of bhakthi and for overcoming sins, without focussing on the end result. brahma sUthram 4-1-16 says “agnihOthrAdhi thu thath kAryAyaiva thath dharSanAth” (deeds such as agnihOthram (a type of ritual with agni, fire) are to be carried out for the development of bhakthi, since it is seen this way in vEdham). brahma sUthram 41-12 says “AprayaNAth thathrApi hi dhrushtam” (one should observe such deeds till the end of one’s life. Such rules are seen at all times). bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6-4-22 says “thamEtham vEdhAnuvachanEna brAhmaNA vividhishanthi yagyEna dhAnEna thapasA anASakEna ” (the brahmagyAnis (those who know about emperumAn) like to know about the supreme entity through practicing of vEdha, yagya, dhAna (charity), thapas (penance) without desire in the end result). From all these it is to be known that deeds, which are carried out for creation of bhakthi and for its development, are the path to attain emperumAn.

nallaRamum – ability to distinguish between good and bad, as well as qualities such as compassion, charity etc are referred to by this word.

enbarE – these are famously mentioned in SAsthrams such as vEdham (sacred texts).

EnamAy ninRArkku iyalvu – all the above mentioned are considered as paths to attain emperumAn who is simplicity personified and who helps those who are in danger. Even if these are the means, it is emperumAn who gives the result [purushArthtam] as is brought about by the usage of the term “EnamAy ninRAr” (one who stood as a boar). emperumAn himself has said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 12-6 and 12-7 “yE thu sarvANi karmANi mayi sanyasya mathparA: | ananyEnaiva yOgEna mAm upAsithE  || thEshAm aham samudhdhArthA mruthyu samsAra sAgarAth | bhavAmi nachirAth pArtha mayyAvESith chEthasAm ||” (arjuna! I lift from the ocean of samsAra (materialistic realm) which takes people towards destruction, those who submit all their karmas (deeds or activities) to me  and who consider me as the end result, without looking for any other result [such as wealth, kaivalyam (soul enjoying itself) etc] through the path of meditation, worship etc, with total dedication).

Thus, AzhwAr divines through these that bhakthi is the path to attain emperumAn. There is another interpretation too for this pAsuram. Instead of assuming that the pAsuram is specifying the path of sAdhana bhakthi (carrying out devotion as a means of attaining emperumAn), one can consider that it is referring to AzhwAr’s sAdhya bhakthi (carrying out devotion to spend one’s time on earth after surrendering to emperumAn) which is a part of his experience in this world. Or, it can be assumed that he is condemning sAdhana bhakthi and is recommending us to carry out prapaththi (surrendering to emperumAn). In this case, for the word enbarE one should consider the meaning as mentioned in pAsuram 4aran aRivAnAm” viz. “people are interpreting like this. How ignorant are they!” In that case, the following meanings should be considered:

sevi vAy ….AzhwAr mentions about the five sensory organs which wade into matters other than emperumAn, the five elements which are the causative factors for the sense organs, (the physical) body which was created by these five elements, the knowledge which is focussed on other matters (than on emperumAn) and says, when no one sought him at the time of danger, emperumAn himself came as a huge boar to save the earth from deluge. Finally he condemns them saying, would these (the sensory organs, elements, body, knowledge etc) be the sAdhanam (means) for attaining emperumAn? nammAzhwAr too, in his thiruviruththam 99 says “gyAnappirAnai allAl illai nAn kaNda nalladhuvE” (there is no means other than knowledge personified varAha [boar] among all the means). During deluge, no one prayed to him; yet he came and saved all. Hence he is the means to be considered.

We shall next consider 13th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.7 – valaiyuL agappaduththu

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the seventh pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “I will ensure that he comes to me to shut the mouths of those who find faults in him, and I will bow my head to him for his favour of coming to me”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki tells her confidential friend “How can we see and worship sarvESvaran who is reclining in the milky ocean to give refuge, in front of these people of the town?”

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

valaiyuL agappaduththu ennai nannenjam kUvik koNdu
alai kadal paLLi ammAnai Azhip pirAn thannaik
kalai koL agalalkul thOzhi! nam kaNgaLAl kaNdu
thalaiyil vaNangavumAngolO? thaiyalAr munbE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ennai – me
valaiyuL – by his attractive qualities and activities
agappaduththu – capturing
nal – having goodness (more than me, towards him)
nenjam – heart
kUvik koNdu – who invited it, cutting off the other ties

(to develop attachment towards him in my heart, like being inside waves)
alai – wavy
kadal – in the ocean
paLLi – one who is resting in seclusion
emmAnai – my lord who manifested such reclining posture and made me his servitor
Azhi – having divine disc (which protects that beauty)
pirAn thannai – one who is a great benefactor
kalai – decorated by beautiful garments
koL – having
agal – vast
alkul – having waist area
thOzhi – Oh friend!
nam – our
kaNgaLAl – with eyes
kaNdu – see
thaiyalAr – women who blame us
munbE – in front of them

(highlighting our gratitude for his arrival)
thalaiyil – by our head
vaNangavum – to bow
Am kolO – can we?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh friend who is having vast waist area which is decorated by beautiful garments! In front of those women who blame us, can we see and bow our head to emperumAn who invited my good heart cutting off its other ties, capturing me by his attractive qualities and activities, who is resting in seclusion in the wavy ocean, who is my lord who manifested such reclining posture and made me his servitor, who is a great benefactor having divine disc?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • valaiyuL agappaduththu … – Capturing me in an inescapable manner with his smile, glance etc.
  • nal nenjam … – parAnguSa nAyaki is of the nature that she will make her heart which is more eager than her to reach emperumAn, to work with her as said in periya thiruvanthAdhi 1 “nenjE iyaRRuvAy emmOdu nI kUdi” (Oh heart! work with me here).
  • alai kadal paLLi ammAnai – emperumAn again entered the unreachable [milky ocean] thinking “If I remain in SrImath dhvArakA, every one will come there claiming their right saying ‘this assembly is specifically to help women'”.
  • alai kadal – The turbulent ocean which cannot be measured by women.
  • alai kadal paLLi ammAnai – As he attained great treasure [her heart], he went on an oceanic trip.
  • Azhip pirAn thannai – The divine combination of his hand and the chakra (disc) is so beautiful that we cannot withdraw from him thinking “alright, he reached an unreachable place now”. He is such that we will be tempted to even cross the ocean to attain him.
  • kalai … – Oh friend who is having vast waist area which is decorated with beautiful clothes! Should your words not reflect your beautiful form? Alternatively, it can be considered that parAnguSa nAyaki is resting on her friend’s lap and speaking this.

Previously she said “thOzhimIr ennai ini umakkAsai illai” (Oh friends! I don’t have to obey you anymore”; here, she is saying “thOzhi nam kaNgaLAl kaNdu” (Oh friend! both of us see …) – how do these two statements match? Since the friends spoke like the mother, she said “ennai ini umakkAsai illai“; but now she is speaking to her best friend who is like-minded instead of those other friends.

  • nam kaNgaLAl kaNdu – Though she (friend) is giving good advise now, while seeing they both see together through four eyes. Or she need not see using just her both eyes [i.e., normal vision and peripheral vision].
  • thalaiyil … – The people of the town were blaming “when in separation, she did not remain waiting for him matching her femininity, and he too delayed his arrival”; in front of such people, should he come and should I bow my head with gratitude for such favour? When kUraththAzhwAn was explaining this pAsuram in a scholarly assembly in the evening in a village named “rAjEndhra chOzhan“, a very elderly SrIvaishNava named Amaruvi nirai mEyththAn nambiyAr who was more than hundred years old, stood up with shivers and asked “AzhwAn, can a thalaimagaL (uththama nAyaki – most perfect woman [like the empress]) bow her head down?” and AzhwAn replied “Yes it is acceptable. We have SishtAchAram (practice of elders); sIthA, the divine daughter of SrI janakarAja, did that saying in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.56 ‘SirasAchAbhivAdhaya‘ (bowing down in salutation)”. For ordained practices, there is none better than the descendants of janaka as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 3.20karmaNaiva hi samsidhdhim AsthithA janakAdhaya:” (Have janaka et al not attained the result of self-realization through karma yOga only?). [SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.56 is explained in detail. sIthA speaks this SlOkam to hanuman during their meeting in aSoka vanam] kausalyE … – In this world, women usually pray and beget a son thinking “He will protect us here in this world and will also ensure that we don’t enter hellish regions [it is said that, sons, by performing their pithru kAryams (rituals for ancestors) properly, save their parents from reaching hell]”; but our mother in law, kausalyA, due to her broad-minded nature, prayed for a son who will protect the world; should her thoughts fail? Am I not part of that same world? Now, she advised to me “generally women support their husbands when they are good/smart and disregard them during other times; you have to support him at all times/situations”. While I was following her instructions, as crops will get destroyed under the originating place of a great flood, he forgot to protect me. Please tell SrI rAma that I asked “if this is because of his heart caring less for me?”. “tham mamArthE sukham pruchcha” – We don’t have to pray and achieve his protection for him, since even that is based on his heart’s desire, and we are only praying like this due to being unable to wait for the due course of his action. As long as he is present, we will be protected; that being the case, you tell him “we can only pray for his true existence and there is no shortcoming in him”. “SirasAcha abhivAdhaya” – sIthA mercifully told hanuman “As he has not given us special consideration of marrying us unlike being treated like ordinary citizens, we should at least get what he gives to ordinary citizens. And if we only get what they get, we too should do what they do towards him [simply being respectful towards him]; this being the case, you fall at his divine feet on behalf of us saying that we bowed with our head at his divine feet”. When asked “Are these words spoken out of praNaya rOsham (love fight) or spoken out of desire?”, AzhwAn mercifully explained “Previously, when she saw thiruvadi (hanuman) arriving, she spoke angrily, but he spoke pleasingly to change her anger, and becoming merciful, she spoke out of non-attainment of her desire due to not having prApthi (aptness of time)”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 11 – vAy avanai alladhu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that even if he wishes to move away from emperumAn, who is the protector of all, his senses will not leave emperumAn and praise anyone else. Just as emperumAn will not stop from protecting the worlds, AzhwAr’s senses will also not stop from praising emperumAn. Redeeming his senses from emperumAn is as difficult as making someone to get involved with emperumAn.

pAsuram

vAy avanai alladhu vAzhththAdhu kai ulagam
thAyavanai alladhu thAm thozhA pEy mulai nanju
UNAga uNdAn uruvodu pEr allAl
kANA kaN kELa sevi

Word by Word Meanings

vAy – (my) mouth
avanai alladhu – other than emperumAn
vAzhththAdhu – will not praise
kai thAm – the hands themselves
ulagam thAyavanai alladhu – other than thrivikraman who measured all the worlds by growing
thozhA – will not worship (anyone else)
pEy mulai nanju – the poison which was applied to pUthanA’s bosom
UNAga uNdAn – one who drank the milk as his food (to sustain himself)
uruvodu pErallAl – other than his divine form and his divine names
kaN kANA, sevi kELA – eyes will not see; ears will not listen to.

vyAkhyAnam

vAy avanai alladhu vAzhththAdhu – my mouth will not praise anyone other than emperumAn. Even if it is asked to praise others like the people of the world do, it would not do so.

kai ulagam thAyavanai alladhu thAm thozhA – my hands will not worship anyone other than the entity who kept his divine feet on the heads of all the people in the world when he went about the task of measuring the worlds. He did this even when nobody asked him to keep his divine feet on their heads. Even when I prevent my hands from worshipping, they will worship him automatically, after seeing the simplicity of emperumAn. His divine feet are such that they will make the hands of those who do not worship him, to worship him!

pEy mulai nanju UNAga uNdAn – the term pEy refers to pUthanA, the demon friend of kamsa. She came as if she could not live without giving him her milk. He [krishNa] also drank that milk as if he could not live if he had not consumed that milk.

uruvodu pErallAl kANA kaN kELA sevi – my eyes will not see any form other than emperumAn’s; my ears will not listen to anyone’s name other than emperumAn’s.

AzhwAr thus describes how all his sensory organs had got engaged with emperumAn. Is he not hrishIkESan! (one who controls senses)

We shall take up the 12th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.6 – annai en seyyilen

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s friends said “If you engage in madal boldly like this, your mother will not survive and the people will blame you”; parAnguSa nAyaki replies “I have been captivated by krishNa’s qualities and activities; what do I care about anyone else’s acts?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki says to her friends who arrived in a group “I am captivated by his attractive qualities, you can give up your desire for me”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Sixth pAsuram. Previously parAnguSa nAyaki said “annai en seyyum” and her friends said “she cannot tolerate your act”. parAnguSa nAyaki replies “What can I do for her intolerance? “. Her friends say “if she knows your attachment in this, she will not survive” and parAnguSa nAyaki asks “how does it matter whether she lives or dies?”.

pAsuram

annai en seyyil en Ur en sollil en? thOzhimIr!
ennai ini umakkAsai illai agappattEn
munnai amarar mudhalvan vaN thuvarApathi
mannan maNivaNNan vAsudhEvan valaiyuLE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thOzhimIr – Oh friends (who share my joy and sorrow)
munnai – the primordial
amarar – to nithyasUris (eternal servitors of emperumAn in paramapadham)
mudhalvan – having the greatness of being their leader
vaN – having unlimited wealth
thuvarApathi – for SrImath dhvArakA
mannan – having the quality of being the king

(cannot be given up even in the absence of these two qualities)
maNi – attractive like blue gem
vaNNan – having beautiful form
vAsudhEvan – (even if has no beauty, he cannot be given up for having high family heritage) one who is the son of vasudhEva, his
valaiyuLE – in to this (deeply strung with four strings) web (of attractive activities), in an inescapable manner
agappattEn – got caught;
ini – now
ennai – in my case
umakku – for you all (who are trying to withdraw me from him)
Asai – to be obeying you
illai – not required;

(hence)
annai – mother
en – whatever
seyyil – she does
en – what does it matter?
Ur – people of the town
en – whatever
sollil – they say
en – what does it matter?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh friends! I have been caught in an inescapable manner in the web of emperumAn who is the son of vasudhEva who is having the greatness of being the leader of the primordial nithyasUris, who is having the quality of being the king of SrImath dhvArakA which has unlimited wealth, and who is having an attractive blue gem like beautiful form; now, it is not required for me to be obeying you all; what does it matter for whatever my mother does? what does it matter for  whatever the people of the town say?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • annai en seyyilen – The mother says “I cannot live anymore. Let me die”. SrIvishNu purANam 5.18.22 “kurava:kim karishyanthi” (When we are burning in the fire of separation, what will the elders do?) – what is the use of talking to the one who has decided to give up her life?
  • Ur en sollilEn – When the friend says “If the people of the town blame you saying that you are so captivated by emperumAn‘s beauty etc that you don’t even give up on him, even after seeing your mother perish”, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Ur en sollilEn” (who cares about what the people say?) – what is the use if they blame me or praise my qualities? This is explained in thiruvAimozhi 6.7.4 “kollai enbarkolO guNam mikkanaL enbarkolO” (would they condemn me as crossing the limits or praise me as one with great qualities?).
  • thOzhimIr … – Instead of telling me “so what if your mother does anything, so what if the people say something?” and make me more attached to emperumAn, you are blaming me saying “Mother will not survive, the people of the town will blame you”.
  • ennai – As said in periya thirumozhi 5.5.4 “thAy vAyil sol kELAL than AyaththOdu aNaiyAL” (She does not listen to her mother and does not mingle with her friends), I who am attached to emperumAn that I don’t withdraw from him thinking “mother may not survive, people will blame me).
  • ini – after becoming uncontrollable by you.
  • umakku – for you all who are trying to make me withdraw myself from him citing that engaging in madal is wrong.
  • Asai illai – You can give up your attachment towards me.
  • thOzhimIr – Previously, parAnguSa nAyaki was only sharing her grief with her best friend; now seeing her great anguish, all her friends came together thinking “we should say something and get her back”; seeing that group of her friends, she is saying “thOzhimIr” (Oh friends!).
  • agappattEn – When the friends say “We considered and told this for your well-being and should you not know the difference between the mother and people of the town, and us?”  parAnguSa nAyaki replies “alright, there is no shortcoming in you; but I have been caught in this ocean, so what can I do?”.
  • munnai … – I have been caught in the ocean which drowns everyone without differentiating between small and big personalities. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 3.29 is explained here – “rUpaudhAryaguNai:” (beautiful form, generosity and other qualities) – rUpam indicates physical beauty. audhAryam indicates his generosity of letting everyone enjoy that beautiful form. guNam indicates Seela (simplicity) guNam, where he is too humble even while giving to others. If he gives manifesting his supremacy, there may not be anyone who will receive it [since people are generally egoistic and feel humiliated while accepting anything from others]; hence he keeps himself humble while giving also. “pumsAm” – Such form, generosity and humility will even melt a diamond [which is very hard by nature], it can make the hard-hearted [men] go through the same emotions as the innocent girls. Alternatively, these can attract every [chith (sentient)] entity [which is different from achith (insentient)]. “dhrushti chiththApahAriNAm” – Eyes, without needing the help of mind, will make the heart follow them [the eyes]. It is capable of even separating mother and son [kaikEyi and bharatha got separated from each other due to disagreeing with each other in SrI rAma’s exile to forest].
  • munnai amarar – Those who are explained as “yathra rushaya: prathamajAyE purANA:” (In that paramapadham, those nithyasUris who see everything, who are eternal and who are always engaged in enjoying bhagavAn).
  • mudhalvanemperumAn who is having the greatness of being the cause for the sustenance of such nithyasUris. Alternative explanation – for those who are enjoying eternally, he is the reason for eternal desire – I am caught in such emperumAn’s matters.
  • vaN thuvarApathi mannan – Did I get caught in the one who does not have an assembly where his supremacy is manifested? I have been caught in the one who gives his divine body to the girls. It is said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.9.4 “padhinARAmAyiravar dhEvimAr paNiseyyath thuvarai ennum adhil nAyagarAgi vIRRirundha maNavALar mannu kOyil” (the temple which is occupied permanently by krishNa who remained in the grand assembly of dhvArakA where he was served by 16000 wives).
  • mannan – Looking at his reign, his supremacy in dhvArakA where he came to manifest his simplicity, appears to be greater than his supremacy in the great assembly of paramapadham.
  • maNi vaNNan – His physical beauty which cannot be given up even if those two [supremacy and simplicity] are not present. Naturally, a beloved girl usually becomes obsessed over her beloved’s physical beauty only.
  • vAsudhEvan – Even if he does not have physical beauty, he has the high family heritage. sIthAp pirAtti consider herself to be the daughter in law of dhaSaratha as the greatest fortune as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.15.16 “snushA dhaSarathasyAham” (I am emperor dhaSaratha’s daughter in law). [Same SlOkam] “Sathru sainya prathAbhina:” (one who tortures the armies of the enemies) – if my father in law were alive, would I be in this [sorrowful] state now? He is not of the nature where both he and his enemies survive [he will simply finish them].
  • munnai amarar … – As his cruelty and mercy do not make a difference for her, as the praising and the blaming of the people of the town do not make a difference for her, both his supremacy and simplicity attract her towards him in equal measure.
  • valaiyuL agappattEn – Instead of getting captured in such common aspects, I got captivated  in his glance towards me and his smile towards me. AzhwAr thiruvarangap perumAL araiyar, while performing araiyar sEvai [the dance/drama performance done in front of emperumAn], showed the posture of a net to indicate “valai“, emperumAnAr who was witnessing it, mercifully showed him the divine eyes [indicating that emperumAn’s eyes are the net which captured parAnguSa nAyaki]; it is said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 14.4 “kamalak kaN ennum nedum kayiRu” (the long rope which is your lotus eye). I was caught in the glance of emperumAn which presents itself as favourable and captures us.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 10 – maNNum malaiyum

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avathArikai

In the earlier pAsuram, AzhwAr mentioned that with a huge form, he carried out a small task (of begging King mahAbali). In this pAsuram, he talks about carrying out a huge task (swallowing the entire world) with a small form [he lay down as a child on the leaf of a banyan tree after swallowing all the worlds].

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings first.

maNNum malaiyum maRi kadalum mArudhamum
viNNum vizhungiyadhu meyyenbar eNNil
alagu aLavu kaNda sIr AzhiyAykku anRu iv
vulagu aLavu uNdO un vAy

Word by Word Meanings

maNNum – the earth
malaiyum – the mountains
maRi kadalum – the oceans which throw up waves constantly
mArudhamum – the air
viNNum – the sky [all these]
vizhungiyadhu – ate up
mey enbar – (rishis, sages) will say that it is true
eNNil – if one were to delve into this
alagu aLavu kaNda sIr AzhiyAykku – one who has seen the boundary (limitlessness) of auspicious qualities and who has the divine chakra (disc)
anRu –  during that time
un vAy – your divine mouth
ivvulagu aLavum uNdO – was it bigger than the worlds

vyAkhyAnam

maNNum – the earth, which supports all the entities in the world

malaiyum – the mountains which serve the earth

maRi kadalum – the oceans which surround the earth and throw up the waves

mArudhamum – air which is required for living beings to breathe and for supporting them

viNNum – the skies which provide space for the aforementioned entities

vizhungiyadhu meyyenbar – vEdham and rishis,  who speak only truth, say that you had swallowed all the above mentioned entities like butter, to contain them in a small portion of your stomach.

Normally when one recounts the five elements, in thamizh, the usage is maNNum punalum (earth, water etc). Why did AzhwAr say earth, mountains etc? When he swallowed all the entities, he did not swallow them in any order! That he swallowed these was true is claimed by vEdhas and those who are highly knowledgeable in vEdhas (rishis or sages).

eNNil – if we have to get a measure of such you [you refers to emperumAn]

alagu aLavu kaNda sIr AzhiyAykku – alagu refers to the instrument used for measuring. It has several units of measurement such as lakhs, crores, Sankam, mahASankam, padhmam, kumudham etc. The count of auspicious qualities that you have is so huge that these units cannot measure them. He has auspicious qualities and weapons such as the divine disc. It is said “mathikshayAnnivarthathE na gOvindha guNakshayAth” (I am unable to about the qualities of gOvindha, not because of any shortcoming of his qualities but due to shortcoming of my knowledge).

anRu ivvulagaLavum uNdO un vAy – on that day when you swallowed all the worlds to keep them safely in your divine stomach, was your divine mouth bigger than these worlds to enable you to swallow them? AzhwAr hints here that with a small mouth, he was able to swallow such large dimensional worlds, thus exhibiting his wondrous activity.

We shall move on to the 11th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.5 – kadiyan kodiyan

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki tells her friend “Even if emperumAn is not having noble qualities  as I said and is having many faults like being cruel, my heart will not know anyone other than him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Fifth pAsuram. parAnguSa nAyaki tells her friend “Even if you say ‘he has no good qualities, he is cruel’, there is no use for such statements, and even if you highlight his defects to withdraw me from him, it will only help in me pursuing him”.

pAsuram

kadiyan kodiyan nediya mAl ulagam koNda
adiyan aRivaru mEni mAyaththan Agilum
kodiya en nenjam avan enRE kidakkum ellE
thudi koL idai madath thOzhi! annai en seyyumE?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kadiyan – having cruelty (ignoring others while quickly engaging in his activities)
kodiyan – being evil (walking away once such activity is completed)
nediya – (while leaving, difficult to stay away) great
mAl – having supremacy
ulagam – the whole world
koNda – accepting it for himself, without leaving anything for the others
adiyan – being the deceptive one, who is having it for himself
aRivu – to conceive
aru – difficult
mEni – captivating by his beauty
mAyaththan Agilum – though he is amazing
kodiya – bad (disregarding the worldly limits, unable to withdraw by highlighting the defects)
en – my
nenjam – heart
avanE – he (who is having the qualities explained here) is the only refuge
enRu – as
kidakkum – will remain
ellE – ellE (wonder struck thinking about having these qualities – since emperumAn pursues first, since he eliminates our attachment in external matters, since he has great attachment, since he places us at his divine feet exclusively, since he is an amazing entity who is having an inconceivable form after having helped us) – what amazing qualities does he have!
thudi – slender
koL – having
idai – waist
madam – having humility
thOzhi – Oh friend!

(Though you have the matching qualities such as beauty to know this situation of separation, you stopped me fearing my mother’s order)
annai – she (mother)
en – what
seyyum – will do?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Though emperumAn is cruel, evil and is having great supremacy in accepting the whole world for himself, without leaving anything for the others and is being deceptive in having it for himself, and though he is amazing in captivating us by his inconceivable beauty, my heart will remain considering “he is the only refuge”; what amazing qualities does he have! Oh friend who is having a slender waist and having humility! what will my mother do? ellE indicates her being wonder-struck as well as calling out to her friend. mAl indicates greatness and love.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kadiyan … – Even to highlight his faults, only I am qualified to do so; you have only seen him from distance unlike I who have fully understood him by being together with him; this being the case, parAnguSa nAyaki tells “just listen to me”.
  • kadiyan – Harsh. Very selfish. If we wants to get something done, he will disregard the other person’s interest and pursue forcefully.
  • kodiyan – While he pursues and enjoys with us, he cannot guarantee that “I will not leave you”. What can he not do when he thinks about separation while being together? Is there anything  impossible for him to do when he thinks about something else while being together as said in periya thirumozhi 9.3.3 “pEdhai ninnaip piriyEn ini enRu aganRAn” (saying “Oh ignorant girl! I won’t separate from you” and separated).
  • nediya mAl – mAl – greatness. By “nedumai”, the abundance of such greatness is indicated. By this, it indicates that while emperumAn is right inside the reach of our hands, he is also immeasurable. Though knowing well that “he is planning to leave”, his nature is as explained in thiruviruththam 8 “sENkunRam senRu poruL padaippAn kaRRa thiNNanavu” (an act of going to the mountain with high peaks to earn new wealth). Even when he himself pursues and unites, if he thinks about leaving, we would be unable to question him strongly “why are you planning to leave?”.
  • ulagam koNda adiyan – If he wishes to take over some one else’s belongings, he would do so without leaving anything for them. He will push them into pAthALam (lower planetary layer) [as in the case of mahAbali]. He bestows them the assembly of pAthALam. He is the one who is having the divine feet [adi explained as feet] to capture everything which he desires to grab from someone.
  • aRivaru mEni – He is having a form which makes one wonder when approached, “is he thinking to give us all his wealth or is he thinking to capture all our wealth?”. He captures oneself and the belongings by approaching and saying “my self and all my belongings are at your disposal”. First, he made himself and his belongings to be at her disposal and then captured her.
  • mAyaththan – While she has lost her heart thinking about his words “I and my belongings are yours”, he would disappear in thin air – he is having such amazing capability.
  • Agilum – I am capable of highlighting many of his faults which cannot be revealed by you or demoniac persons like SisupAla et al, if I plan on giving him up.
  • kodiya en nenjam – My heart which is of different nature from the worldly hearts and is of different species. For worldly people, good qualities lead them to pursue some one and bad qualities lead them to give up some one; but here, my heart is such that, his bad qualities are the reason for its attraction towards him.
  • avan enRE kidakkum – For this piLLAn explains “even these bad qualities belong to [my dear] emperumAn [So, I will enjoy them]”; [that is] if he is cruel, I want to see his cruely right now; if he is evil, I want to see his evil nature right now; if he is difficult to attain, I want to see that difficulty right now; if he is robber of all my belongings, I want to see him rob me and be robbed of everything; if he is difficult to be conceived, I want to understand the difficulty of conceiving him.
  • avan enRE kidakkum – Another explanation – even if my heart becomes attached to mAyAvAdha philosophy, it is alright. That is – ignoring the viSEshaNams (qualities) and just focussing on the viSEshyam (brahmam, the supreme entity) is sufficient. From this, it is understood that – our relationship with him is not based on his qualities, but it is based on the existence of both the entities [paramAthmA and jIvAthmA].
  • ellE – How amazing! Alternative explanation – The friend started leaving parAnguSa nAyaki saying “You have not listened to my words of trying to withdraw you. You be the way you want to be”; it can be said that parAnguSa nAyaki holds her friend’s hand, stopping her from leaving and calling her out.

Hearing that, the friend feels “what a great affection she has towards me” and became emotional; seeing that, parAnguSa nAyaki tells,

  • thudi koL idai madath thOzhi – She says “thudi koL idai madath thOzhi“. Oh friend who is having a slender waist and who is having noble quality of humility! You should speak matching your form, quality and our relationship. Her friend says “I am not speaking without knowing [your heart] and useless words. I am speaking like this fearing your mother”.
  • annai en seyyumE – Since I did not even obey your words, will I obey my mother’s words?

Beyond the simple meaning, the following needs to be thought through.

anasUyA told sIthAp pirAtti “For women, their husbands are their Gods” and hearing this, sIthA out of shyness, put her head down; she then said “the people of this world think that I have SrI rAma very dear to me due to his auspicious qualities; while by divine arrangement, he has auspicious qualities, I will remain faithful for him even if he is devoid of auspicious qualities and a beautiful form; but I can only prove this if I can separate his auspicious qualities from him [which is not possible]”. These are the words of the one who truly understands the relationship with bhagavAn. In periya thirumozhi 11.8.7, it is said “vEmbin puzhu vEmbanRi uNNAdhu” (a worm originated in neem, will not eat anything other than that neem) [to indicate that he is always dependent on emperumAn only]. If this is expressed in the matters of emperumAn who is filled with auspicious qualities, should it not have been said as “karumbin puzhu karumbanRi uNNAdhu” (a worm originated in sugarcane, will not eat anything other than sugarcane)? The neem is highlighted here, to emphasise “even if he does not have any good qualities, I will not give him up”; naturally in emperumAn who is filled with all auspicious qualities, this will be true. If we look at my nature, I cannot leave you and even if you don’t behave like yourself, I cannot leave you.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 9 – porukOttu Or EnamAy

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avathArikai

Will he protect only his followers? What would happen to those who are not his followers? Will they have to die? When there is a danger, without making any distinction between his followers and disbelievers, he will protect every living being, even at the cost of his greatness. AzhwAr says that when there was danger through mahAbali (a ruler in the lineage of hiraNyakashyap and prahlAdha) and deluge, he took the form of a mendicant to beg from mahAbali and took the form of a boar to dig out the earth respectively, not minding about what such forms would do to his greatness.

Let us look at the pAsuram.

porukOttu Or EnamAyp pukku idandhAykku anRu un
oru kOttin mEl kidandhadhanRE virithOtta
sEvadiyai nItti thisai nadunga viN thuLanga
mAvadivin nI aLandha maN

Word by Word Meanings

viri thOtta sEvadiyai – reddish coloured divine feet which resemble a lotus with blossomed petals
nItti – making them grow
thisai nadunga – making people in all directions to quiver
viN thuLanga – making people in the upper worlds also to tremble out of fear
mA vadivin – with a huge form (as thrivikraman)
nI aLandha – measured by you
maN – the earth
poru kOttu – with tusks which are meant for battle
Or EnamAy – a unique boar [incomparable]
pukku idandhAykku – (during deluge) immersed in water and dug it out
anRu – during that time
un – your
oru kOttin mEl – in a corner of one tusk
kidandhadhu anrE – was it not staying?

vyAkhyAnam

poru kOttu Or EnamAy – as a boar with tusks meant for battling. He took the incarnation of boar which keeps digging at all the places with its tusks. The boar cannot keep quiet without digging; it is its nature. When not digging the earth, he would dig the saffron present in bhUmip pirAtti’s bosom.

Or Enam – an incomparable, unique boar. Even if he has a body which could be destroyed, his beauty was such captivating that one would carry out Alaththy (a custom carried out in the southern parts of  India to ward off evils).

pukku idandhAykku – the way the boar went under water to search for earth which had got stuck to the walls of the universe. Just us pearl divers dive into the deep parts of the ocean in search of pearls, emperumAn also dove into deeper parts to search for earth.

anRu un oru kOttin mEl kidandhadhanRE – the earth that you dug out from the deep waters with so much of involvement was lying at one corner of your tusk like a bluish jewel! (the opinion here is that the earth was so small compared to his huge form that it could have passed through the gap between his teeth). It is clear from this that the involvement of the person who protects is much larger than the object that is to be protected. When a magnanimous person is asked to arrange food for one person, he would arrange for nine persons. In the same way, to dig out such a small earth, emperumAn took the huge form of a boar.

virithOtta sEvadiyai nItti – stretching his reddish coloured divine feet which were like the blossomed petals of a lotus. While there is reference to only the petals here, mentioning the petal is equivalent to mentioning the flower itself. Another interpretation is: “virithOtta” also refers to shining ear studs. Here it would be calling out to emperumAn who has shining ear studs [and then referring to his reddish coloured divine feet].

thisai nadunga viN thuLanga – emperumAn measured the worlds making people in various directions to quiver; making dhEvas who are in upper worlds (celestial persons) to quiver. He measured the worlds only for redeeming them for the sake of dhEvas. Why then should they be afraid? Here, their fear is out of affection for him, wondering “what will happen now?”

mAvadivil nI aLandha maN – the huge form that you had taken as thrivikrama in order to measure the earth. Wasn’t that same earth like a dot on your tusk when you took varAha avathAram! The opinion conveyed in this pAsuram is that emperumAn will carry the earth on his head as well as on his foot in order to protect it (as varAha and as thrivikrama respectively) when his focus in on protecting the earth.

We shall next enjoy the 10th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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