Monthly Archives: June 2017

mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 17 – adiyum padi kadappa

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says “did I lose emperumAn because he is at a long distance at thiruppARkadal (milky ocean) and attaining him there would be difficult? Did I not lose him when he came very close?”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings.

adiyum padi kadappath thOL thisai mEl sella
mudiyum visumbu aLandhadhenbar vadi ugirAl
IrndhAn iraNiyanadhu Agam irum siRaippuL
UrndhAn ulagu aLandhanAnRu

Word by Word Meanings

vadi ugirAl – with sharp nails
iraNiyanadhu Agam – iraNiyan (hiraNyakashyap)’s heart
Irndhan – tore apart
irum siRai puL – huge bird garuda with massive wings
Urndhan – emperumAn straddled
ulagu aLandha nAnRu – on the day when he measured the worlds
adiyum – (his) divine feet
padi kadappa – measured the worlds
thOL – the divine shoulders
thisai mEl sella – went beyond the directions
mudiyum – divine crown
visumbu – skies (ether)
aLandhadhu – pervaded
enbar – so will say (gyAnis, the knowledgeable)

vyAkyAnam

adiyum padi kadappaAzhwAr was asked, “is it possible to enjoy emperumAn staying in this world, as we wish? Should we not enjoy him only after going to SrIvaikuNtam?” AzhwAr responds “when his mercy flowed like flood on this earth, did I get it? Did I not lose it even then?”

adiyum padi kadappanammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 4-3-6kOlamAm en sennikku un kamalamanna  kazhalE” (your lotus like divine foot is like a decoration on my head). In the same manner, AzhwAr says that the earth also donned his divine foot, which he likes immensely, on its head, as a decoration. Alternatively, we can say that the soft divine foot, which the nithyasUris[permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam] wear on their heads, had to measure earth which contains hardened forests and streams.

padi kadappa – the divine feet which we had to go and worship, came on their own and measured the earth.

thOL thisai mEl sella – the divine shoulders, which would normally be embracing pirAtti (bhUmidhEvi, here), went past the directions.

mudiyum visumbu aLandhadhu – the divine crown went till the wall of the universe. The divine crown measured the immeasurable skies [ethereal layers]. Just as great warriors will win over enemies from the same place where they are standing, emperumAn also measured the worlds standing in the same place and won them over.

enbar – I have heard gyAnis (knowledgeable people) say that emperumAn did this. But I did not get to see this! AzhwAr laments, “when the divine feet came on their own and stood over my head also, where had I gone?”

vadi ugirAl IrndhAn iraNiyadhu AgamemperumAn tore apart the rough body of iraNiyan (hiraNyakashyap).

irum siRaip puL UrndhAn – emperumAn is soft and straddles periya thiruvadi (alternative name for garuda)[in our sampradhAyam, hanumAn is called as thiruvadi (divine feet) and garuda is called as periya thiruvadi (huge divine feet)].

ulagu aLandha nAnRu – it is not surprising that I did not get to see emperumAn when he went to annihilate the enemy of his devotee at one place [reference to emperumAn killing hiraNakashyap to protect prahlAdha]. It is not surprising that I could not see him when he went to another place to protect  gajEndhra, a devotee [reference here is to the elephant gajEndhar which was troubled by the crocodile]. AzhwAr laments that he lost when emperumAn came, not for one or two individuals, but for all, when he took the incarnation of thrivikrama and kept his divine feet atop everyone’s head.

Let us consider the 18th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.4.1 – UrellAm thunji

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Fourth decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram – parAnguSa nAyaki says “while this dangerous night is going on, emperumAn who is the protector when one is in danger, has not arrived. Now, who will be my protector?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “This night is stretching to have the whole universe to be dark, sarvESvaran who is the protector of all, now who will protect this AthmA?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

First pAsuram. parAnguSa nAyaki says “emperumAn who helped during the danger of total deluge, has not helped me during the deluge of separation; now, can I survive?” and gives up attachment in her living.

pAsuram

Ur ellAm thunji ulagellAm naLLiruLAy
nIr ellAm thERi Or nIL iravAay nINdadhAl
pAr ellAm uNda nam pAmbaNaiyAn vArAnAl
Ar ellE valvinaiyEn Avi kAppAr iniyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(not having to see any one irrespective of those neighbours et al who hurl accusations, mothers who give good advice, friends who share the grief and are good companions)
Ur – the whole town
ellAm – everyone
thunji – is sleep

(to not have them sustain by any other external thing)
ulagellAm – the whole world
naL – abundant
iruLAy – being dark
nIr – water
ellAm – all
thERi – quiet, without any tides (as the living beings that live in water have slept)

(being very quiet)
Or – just being night, without any difference between day and night
nIL – extended
iravAy – night
nINdadhu – stretched so that there appears no end to it;

(at that time)
pAr – earth which was in danger due to praLaya (total deluge)
ellAm – the whole
uNda – one who kept it in his stomach and protected it
pAmbu – thiruvanthAzhwAn (Adhi SEsha), the servitor
aNaiyAn – having as bed and protecting him
nam – one who is the refuge for us
vArAn – have not arrived and protected us
ellE – alas!
ini – now, when the protector has not helped
val – very strong (that which cannot be exhausted by experiencing the fruits of)
vinaiyEn – I, who am a sinner, my
Avi – AthmA (self)
kAppAr – protector/saviour
Ar – who?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The whole town is asleep; the whole world is filled with abundant darkness; the water bodies are all quiet, without any tides; there is just night with no difference between day and night, where the night is extended and stretched so that there appears no end to it; emperumAn who kept the whole earth which was in danger due to praLaya, in his stomach and protected it, who is having thiruvanthAzhwAn, his servitor as his bed and protecting him, who is the refuge for us have not arrived and protected us; alas! now, when the protector has not helped, who is the protector for this AthmA, that is, I who am a sinner who have very strong sins? Will the people of the town who are sleeping help me? Will the world which is consumed by the darkness help me? Will the insentient water help me? Or will the tormenting and never-ending night help me? ellE implies “ennE”, crying out in suffering.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Ur ellAm thunji – We were hoping to engage in madal having the accusations of the people of the town as the support; now whose accusations will we have as support to engage in madal? It is not just some people are sleeping and others are awake – everyone is fast asleep. When thiruvadi (hanuman) visited lankA, all the rAkshasis (demoniac women) were all sleeping there, similarly, all those who hurl accusations were sleeping. Alternative explanation – since it is her birth place, seeing her plight, everyone became sad and were all sleeping in sadness like wild grass had fallen down. When brahmAsthram attacked and made everyone lose consciousness in SrI rAma’s army, at least there were SrI jAmbavAn, sugrIva mahArAja, thiruvadi (hanuman) who were unharmed and awake; here, even such few people are not awake. Thus, those who hurl accusations (people of the town), those who give advice (mothers) and those good companions (friends) were all sleeping. By this, it is explained that – since everyone is sleeping including those who torment by hurling accusations, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s state of not being able to share her thoughts with anyone and spend her time.

Even if the whole town is asleep, when looked around for good companions in the world,

  • ulagellAm naLLiruLAy – As during praLayam (total deluge), the whole world was just dark. naL – middle, abundance. That is midnight darkness, and abundant darkness. Alternative explanation – when everything becomes quiet, the night has an unique sound, “naL iruL” may indicate such state of the night too. Thus, it is explained that there is nothing which is visible to the eyes.
  • nIr ellAm thERi – As all the living beings in the water stay deep in sleeping state, the noise became subdued there too. By saying “UrellAm thunji” – it is explained that she does not engage in conversation with some people [no use of vAk (sensory organ of speech)). By saying “ulagellAm” – it is explained that she does not have anything [worthy] for her vision and does not spend her time seeing anything [worldly].  nIrellAm thERi implies that there is nothing worthy available for her hearing to start with. This is a sample for all her senses – that there is nothing worthy in this world for the consumption of her senses. Since the senses would be active in the morning in their own activities, the anguish is less; but in the night, as they are fully focussed on emperumAn who is separated from her, the anguish is unbearable.
  • Or nILiravAy nINdadhAl – Even previously, there were times when the night was felt very long, yet day and night will occur in a cycle; now it feels like unending night.
  • nINdadhAl – The nights of dhEvas (celestial beings) are longer than the nights of manushyas (humans) – yet, even those dhEvas’ nights have an end; here it is endless.
  • pAr ellAm uNda – During the great danger of total deluge, he protected everyone without any discrimination. It appears the collective danger faced by everyone during total deluge, is singularly faced by parAnguSa nAyaki. During deluge too, During deluge, does emperumAn only help those who set out to engage in madal and give up being unable to do so? No, he helps anyone who cannot protect themselves.
  • nam pAmbaNaiyAn – One who gives his body to those who consider him very dear. One who is having thiruvananthAzhwAn (Adhi SEshan) as his bed. parAnguSa nAyaki says we are neither like asprushta samsAragandhar (one who is not touched by samsAram – the nithyasUris) nor like samsAris (worldly people). He lets the nithyasUris enjoy him eternally; he protects the samsAris when they are in danger though they don’t request for help, due to his [natural] relationship with everyone.
  • nam – She is saying “nam” (Our – with proximity), since he first united, and gave her what was required to call him.
  • vArAnAl – You need not protect me by keeping me in your stomach, you need not embrace me, just come and show your face to me. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 83.9 “dhrushta Evahi naSSOkamapanEshyathirAghava: – thamassarvasyalOkasya samudhyannivabhAskara:” (Just like the rising sun will dispel the darkness of the world, SrI rAma will dispel our sorrows as soon as we see him).
  • ini – now
  • Avi kAppAr Ar – Shall I who is in danger like being caught in deluge, rescue myself? Should my friend who suffer for my result even before me, as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.9.5 “emmin mun avanukku mAyvarAlO“, rescue me? Should the mother who give good advice protect me? Or should the people of the town who hurl accusations protect me?
  • ellE – Saying “alas!” out of amazement, or it can be said as parAnguSa nAyaki calling out her friend. Though parAnguSa nAyaki says subsequently “annaiyarum thOzhiyarum” (mothers and friends) highlighting that the friends too will be sleeping, considering the dangerous situation she is in, she thinks that her friend will be awake and hence calling her out.
  • val vinaiyEn – I have committed great sin that even emperumAn who is sarvarakshaka (protector of all) and who does not separate from those who embrace him, is not coming and helping me.
  • val vianaiyEn Avi – My self which is destined to live for 100 years even while being separated; she is thinking “is this AthmA which is not becoming weakened even after being separated, going to finish?”. The protector has not arrived, my friend is more anguished than me, now, are those harmful ones (the ones who hurl accusations), the protectors?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 16- pazhudhE pala pagalum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr feels regretful that he has wasted lengthy period of time in other means and other deities and thus lost emperumAn.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings.

pazhudhE pala pagalum pOyina enRu anji
azhudhEn aravaNai mEl kaNdu thozhudhEn
kadal Odham kAl alaippak kaNvaLarum sengaN
adal Odha vaNNar adi

Word by Word Meanings

kadal Odham – the waves in thiruppARkadal [kshIrAbdhi or milky ocean]
kAl alaippa – rising against his divine feet
kaN valAraum – sleeping because of that [soft caressing]
sem kaN – having reddish eyes
adal Odha vaNNar – emperumAn having he complexion of waves which are close together
adi – divine feet
aravu aNai mEl kaNdu – seeing atop the mattress thiruvananthAzhvAn (serpent AdhiSEsha)
thozhudhEn – worshipped (today)
pala pagalum – time immemorial
pazhudhE pOyina enRu – that they have been wasted
anji azhudhEn – cried out of fear

vyAkyAnam

pazhudhE pala pagalum pOyina enRu – in the days passed, instead of spending part of the time purposefully and the remaining, purposelessly, AzhwAr says that he has wasted the entire time purposelessly. If one were involved with emperumAn for some time and not involved with him for rest of the time, one can say that one had spent some of the time purposefully and the rest purposelessly. Instead, the entire time in the past had been wasted, says the AzhwAr.

pala pagalum – is it possible to specify this period? Isn’t it without a beginning!

pOyina enRu – is there any purpose in constructing a dam after the floods have receded? In the same way, AzhwAr says “what is the purpose in talking about something which has passed?”

anji azhudhEn – The time spent has been  without a beginning. The time to come now is without an end at all. AzhwAr cries for the time that he had spent in the past without any purpose, as he feels that that length of time is equivalent to the supreme time that he now spends experiencing emperumAn. AzhwAr says “anji azhudhEn” (cried out of fear). He could cry since he had wasted the time already passed. But why should he fear for the time that is going to come now? He fears for a reason which is going to appear in future. In other words, while his connection with emperumAn is permanent, it was he who had lost that connection in the past by not knowing about it. And, he is going to be there in future too! [He fears that he may again lose that connection]. Alternatively, instead of crying for the time that had passed, it could be taken that he fears that the future would also be like the past and he may spend it purposelessly and hence cries out of that fear. In SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 17-14 it is said “yaScha rAmam na paSchyEththu yancha rAmO na paSchayathi nindhithas sa vasEl lOkE svAthmApyEnam vigarhathE” (one who has not seen rAma or one who has not been seen by rAma will live in the world as a condemned person. His own mind will condemn him). People who do not see emperumAn even for a fleeting moment will suffer like this. When such is the case, is there any need to talk about his losing emperumAn since time immemorial?

aravu aNai mEl kaNdu thozhudhEn –  AzhwAr says that he saw emperumAn on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) like the gem carbuncle pressed on a silver plate. As a natural corollary of having his dharSan (seeing him) he worshipped him. aravaNai mEl – as mentioned in paryanka vidhyA he saw emperumAn atop AdhiSEsha. kaNdu – even if sees emperumAn through the vision of his mind, it appears to him as if he had seen emperumAn right in front of his eyes. In SrI rAmAyaNam, when sIthAppirAtti was in lankA and SrI rAma was on this side of the ocean, they were able to see each other through the vision of their minds, as if they were seeing each other in person. In the same way, AzhwAr too saw emperumAn who is in paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam).

kadal Odham kAl alaippak kaN vaLarum sengaN adal Odha vaNNar adi – the waves in the ocean come and gently caress his divine feet such that he is able to close his eyes and rest awhile; his divine eyes reflect his greatness due to their reddish colour [people who are magnanimous and who are loving towards others will have reddish eyes, it is said]; it appears as if one ocean is straddling another; he has a form resembling the beautiful waves; the waves display the divine feet of emperumAn who is reclining on thiruppARkadal (milky ocean).  kAl alaippa – the tiny droplets of water in the ocean gently rub  on his divine thighs. sem kaN – eyes appear reddish out of his love.

We shall take up the 17th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.4 – UrellAm

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Full series >> Sixth Centum

<< Previous decad

Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

pirAtti (parAnguSa nAyaki), who was firmly situated in engaging in madal, became too distressed to engage in madal;

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth decad – this pirAtti, not engaging in madal, due to her inability, the night set out, and she became grieved in separation, as everything fell asleep, and all her relatives too being unable to bear her suffering, were sleeping, having lost their control over themselves, thinking about

  • the endless night which appears to last for many eons and very dark and not giving her opportunity to survive
  • the cruel sin which led to such suffering for her
  • purushOththaman (supreme lord) who will help her in such dire situations
  • his qualities such as dhakshiNa (being courteous, helpful) etc

and repeating these again and again, being greatly distressed since emperumAn neither felt compassionate and blessed her nor he appeared and said “this is not apt” and condemned her; because of this she decided to finish herself but then realising emperumAn’s yOga nidhrA (meditation in milky ocean) where he resides thinking about the protection of the universe, and thinks “such emperumAn will not disregard seeing my distressed state” and survives.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth decad – previously, AzhwAr due to his great desire to enjoy bhagavAn , with great urge, set out to attain him even with his own efforts [engaging in madal], though the time is ripe for enjoying emperumAn, as he was not present, being greatly anguished, became incapable of doing anything and very grieved, being unable to handle the delay [in his arrival], highlights the following aspects which are reasons for his arrival and protection, [while he was] in such state:

  1. his actions which are done for the protection of all the worlds
  2. his humility which reveals his beautiful form
  3. his ability to eliminate unfavourable aspects
  4. his satisfaction of the newly acquired beautiful feature etc which came out of having his desires fulfilled
  5. his having a divine form which is a favour in itself
  6. his having the tools to sustain her
  7. his having distinguished symbol, which creates desire [in others to see him]
  8. his taking up arms for the protection of his devotees and accomplishing the task that is required
  9. his great wealth
  10. his acts which make one be exclusively exist for him

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr thinks “ISvara with such nature, is not coming to protect this AthmA (me) in this situation; what is the method to protect this AthmA [I] which is totally dependent on emperumAn that I cannot even kill myself?”; in this manner, AzhwAr explains his calling out, being unable to bear the delay, in the mood of a beloved woman (parAnguSa nAyaki) who is suffering in separation in the lengthy night time from his beloved man who is supreme lord himself.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

Previously – it went along with great urge for parAnguSa nAyaki where she said “nAdum iraikkavE – yAmadalUrndhum“; but she lost all her strength [as time passed by] and engaging in madal became as difficult as attaining him; now, when one engages in madal, the picture of his/her beloved person should be drawn on the cloth; either emperumAn hid the sun as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.1.8 “AzhikoNdu aniRiravi maRaippa” (hiding the sun with his sudharSana chakra, back then) or by divine arrangement, the sun set and the night arrived [making it difficult to draw] and it is not just the evening time but midnight when everything is fast asleep; as everyone irrespective of those who blame or those who give favourable advise to withdraw her from him, were sleeping and she was alone; at that time, she started meditating upon the qualities of purushOththama, who is the protector of all, and is of the nature of helping during total deluge; but such meditation during separation causes more anguish and she starts thinking to hang herself with the help of her own hair to kill herself and be saved [by giving up her life, she no longer needs to undergo the pain of separation].

[Is there anyone who tried to commit suicide like this in separation? sIthAp pirAtti’s example is highlighted from SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 28.25] vishaysa dhAthA – Will we find any more generous person who will give this best material [here, poison is considered good because it will help end her life]? mE – Even if such generous person is there would he give it [and end my agony]? SasthrasyavA – Or is there any one who can give me a weapon that will finish me quickly unlike poison which may take some time to finish me? vEsmani rAkshasasya – In this town where rAvaNa kills me every day by keeping me separated from SrI rAma, is there anyone who will give me the tool for my mercy killing?

As parAnguSa nAyaki becomes desirous of killing herself, emperumAn reminds her “Since I am sarvarakshaka (protector of all), I have descended to thiruppARkadal (divine milky ocean) for the protection of all and have set to out to protect you, and you appear to be running out of patience”; she then thinks “as he is protector of all, he is destined to protect me, and it is I who am becoming impatient; should my protection naturally happen?” and having realised about his qualities, she sustains herself.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.11 – iraikkum karungadal

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In  the end, AzhwAr says “In the abodes where there are those who are well versed in reciting this decad, emperumAn will himself descend and be eternally together [with such devotees]”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr declares the result as “the abode where those who are well versed in reciting this decad, will become paramapadham (spiritual realm)”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

iraikkum karungadal vaNNan kaNNa pirAn thannai
viraik koL pozhil kurugUrch chatakOpan sonna
niraik koL andhAdhi Or AyiraththuL ippaththum
uraikka vallArkku vaigundham Agum tham UrellAm

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

iraikkum – noisy due to rising tides
karum kadal – abundant like blackish sea
vaNNan – one who is having beautiful form
pirAn – one who is of the nature of letting his devotees enjoy such beauty
kaNNan thannai – krishNa
viraik koL – greatly fragrant
pozhil – having garden
kurugUravar – leader of those who dwell in [AzhwAr]thirunagari
satakOpan – AzhwAr
sonna – mercifully spoke
nirai – Poetic aspects such ezhuththu, asai, sIr, thaLai, adi, thodai, pA, isai, thALam and other decorative aspects
koL – having
andhAdhi – being in andhAdhi [antham + Adhi, a type of poem where the last word of one pAsuram is used as the first word in the next pAsuram]
Or – distinguished
AyiraththuL – among the thousand pAsurams
ippaththum – this decad
uraikka vallArkku – for those who can recite just the pAsurams (without understanding anything more)
tham – where they are located
Ur ellAm – the towns/abodes
vaigundham – to be said as paramapadham
Agum – have bliss.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

AzhwAr, the leader of those who dwell in [AzhwAr]thirunagari which is having greatly fragrant garden, mercifully spoke about krishNa who is having beautiful form, abundant like blackish sea which is noisy due to rising tides, in this distinguished decad which is having poetic aspects such as ezhuththu, asai, sIr, thaLai, adi, thodai, pA, isai, thALam and other decorative aspects and is in andhAdhi meter, among the thousand pAsurams; for those who can recite just the pAsurams (without understanding anything more) of this decad, the towns/abodes where they are located are to be said to have the bliss of paramapadham.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • iraikkum karum kadal vaNNannanjIyar came [from thirunArAyaNapuram] and mercifully mentioned to bhattar saying that he heard this from ananthAzhwAn – As the ocean heard SrI rAma’s [angry] words in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21.22 “chApamAnaya” (Oh lakshmaNa! bring my arrows), it became greatly agitated; in the same way emperumAn‘s supremacy got agitated on hearing her firm decision to engage in madal.  vaNNan implies one who has such nature.
  • kadal vaNNan – His great beauty which is to pursued even by engaging in madal, is explained here. One who is having an invigorating form like that of an ocean with rising tides.
  • kaNNa pirAn thannai – krishNa, who gave that form as a favour to me. Thus his beautiful form and his nature are explained.
  • viraik koL pozhil – As she set out to engage in madal, the town became filled with fragrance of freshly blossomed flowers, expecting his arrival.
  • niraik koL andhAdhi – Though he engages in madal without any specific plan, the various poetic aspects fell in place in the prabandham naturally. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 2.40 “SOkaSSlOkathvamAgatha:” (as the SlOkam followed the SOkam (sorrow)), though SrI rAmAyaNam was started out of sorrow, by brahmA’s grace, all aspects fell in place for it; similarly, though AzhwAr was grieved and could not even start the prabandham, the prabandham started flowing by bhagavAn‘s grace and thus there is nothing wrong in saying that every poetic aspect fell in place naturally.
  • uraikka vallArkku – One need not engage in madal, it is sufficient to recite this pAsuram.
  • vaigundham Agum tham UrellAm – Their target abode is paramapadham. Alternative explanation – not to have them set out to engage in madal to be known by everyone, he himself descends to wherever they are and remains together with them eternally; hence, their abodes can be called as paramapadham. There is nothing wrong in saying that wherever his presence is, that abode is SrIvaikuNtam. One cannot doubt “Is it possible to attain this just for [reciting] this pAsuram?”; if we consider the qualities of bhagavAn explained in this decad, one can understand that he is of the nature where even this singing is extraneous [to get his mercy]; and if he will not show his mercy for reciting this pAsuram, it can be said that there is no use of paripUrNa AsrayaNa [complete surrender – paramabhakthi stage] too; if this is not the case, even purushOththama can be considered as any other mortal being.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 15 – mudhal AvAr mUvarE

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked “you say that emperumAn is the primary deity. But in the world we see that there are people who follow other deities and that these deities fulfil their wishes”. AzhwAr responds saying “all those are of no use”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings first.

mudhalAvAr mUvarE am mUvaruLLum
mudhalAvAn mUri nIr vaNNan mudhalAya
nallAn aruL allAl nAmanIr vaiyagaththu
pallAr aruLum pazhudhu

Word by Word Meanings

mUvarE – brahmA, vishNu and Siva, the three
mudhalAvAr – are important
ammUvaruLLum – among these three mummUrththis (the three forms)
mUri nIr vaNNan – emperumAn who has the complexion and nature of the vast ocean
mudhalAvAn – is the causal entity
mudhalAya – the cause of everything
nallAn – the benefactor’s
aruL allAl – apart from his grace
nAmam nIr vaiyagaththu – in the famous earth surrounded by ocean
pallAr – many others’
aruLum – grace
pazhudhu – is of no use.

vyAkyAnam

mudhal AvAr mUvarE – instead of holding on to everyone saying “he is emperumAn” “he is emperumAn”, it is good to say that there are three important deities so that it will be easier to discard two.

am mUvaruLLum mudhal AvAn mUri nIr vaNNan – there is no one apart from these three who is an important deity. Nor is there anyone else who, along with these three, could be termed as a primary deity. Among these three, the causative entity [who is the cause for all the worlds] is the one who has the complexion and form of ocean which keeps throwing out waves. It is he who dwells within the souls of brahmA and Siva as antharyAmi (in-dwelling soul) and manifests himself as the unique vishNu, and protects the worlds. In thirunedunthANdakam 2, thirumangai AzhwAr says “Or uruvam pon uruvam onRu sendhee” (one of them is of golden hue [brahmA] and one is red in colour [rudhra]). AzhwAr rejects these two and says that the thirumEni (divine form) of emperumAn is like the ocean.

mudhalAya nallAn aruL allAl – emperumAn, being the cause for all the worlds as well as having these as his possessions, has deep love for these. Apart from his grace ……

nAmam nIr vaiyagaththu – this world which is famous and which is surrounded by ocean

pallAr aruLum pazhudhu – the grace of all others [deities] is of no use. The grace of brahmA and Siva as well the grace of many other deities, without any difference, are of no use. Alternatively, we can consider nAmam nIr vaiyagaththup pallAr aruLum pazhudhu as one sequence and say that the grace of all those deities who believe that they have some name on this earth is of no use. pazhudhu not only denotes that it will not bear fruit but will also be responsible for losing  emperumAn’s grace. Giving up the other deities is equivalent to obtaining emperumAn’s grace for the jIvAthmA (sentient soul). thirumazhisai AzhwAr in his nAnmugan thiruvndhAdhi 68 says “thiruvadi than nAmam maRandhum puRam thozhA mAndhar” (even if people forget the divine names of emperumAn, it could be acceptable; but they should not worship other deities). rishi mArkaNdEya who was for a very long time a devotee of Siva, felt ecstatic when Siva gave him up. The rishi felt as happy as vibhIshaNa felt when rAvaNa gave him up. emperumAn is the antharAthmA (in dwelling soul) of all deities and all means. If he does not wish to shower his grace on someone, he will create interest for such a person in other matters and remove that person from him. He will remove the desires of his followers in other matters and enable them to enjoy him.

Let us move on to the 16th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.10 – yAmadalUrndhum

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Even if I have to engage in madal to jolt him severely, we will see that emperumAn who is perfectly enjoyable”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki says “We will wear the garland of emperumAn who is having distinguished symbols which are perfectly enjoyable, even by engaging in madal to jolt him in this world by accusing him everywhere”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

yAmadalUrndhum em Azhiyangaip pirAnudaith
thUmadal thaNNanthuzhAy malar koNdu sUduvOm
yAmadaminRith theruvu thORayal thaiyalAr
nAmadangAp pazhi thURRi nAdum iraikkavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(Due to overwhelming affection)

yA – matching the femininity, in any manner
madam – shyness
inRi – without

(not just going up to the universe)
theruvu thORu – in every street
ayal – neighbouring
thaiyalAr – women
nA – tongue
madangA – saying continuously
pazhi – accusations
thURRi – hurling
nAdum – all of the world
iraikka – to call out in an angry/agitated manner
yAm – we (who have femininity and hence cannot engage in madal)
madal – madal (which does not match our nature)
Urndhum – even by engaging in
Azhi am kai – one who lets us enjoy the combination of his hand and chakra
em – attracted us
pirAnudai – benefactor’s
thU – pure due to its freshness
madal – having leaf
thaN – invigorating
am – attractive
thuzhAy – thuLasi
malar – garland
koNdu – accepting it from him
sUduvOm – will wear it in our head.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Without shyness matching our femininity in any manner, we will even engage in madal by entering every street and by engaging in hurling accusations continuously with the tongue as done by the neighbouring women, to have all of the world call out in an angry/agitated manner for emperumAn, the benefactor, who let us enjoy the combination of his hand and chakra and attracted us by that and will accept his invigorating and attractive thuLasi garland which is pure due to the freshness of its leaves, and will wear it in our head. parAnguSa nAyaki is addressing herself as “we/us” (the royal we) due to her pride in engaging in madal.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yA madal Urndhum – Even doing by what is forbidden. We who are to remain fully dependent on emperumAn as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 9.30 “… thath thasya sadhruSam bhavEth“ (SrI rAma himself destroying lankA and rescuing me is that which will fit his nature – so I will wait for his arrival), even by engaging in madal. Here madal is thought to be – 1) the greatness of upEyam (goal), i.e., bhagavAn, who must be attained for survival 2) meditating upon the greatness of the upAyam (means), i.e., bhagavAn only, which can help one attain the goal 3) the confidence in “the goal is attained only through him” 4) not considering any thing else as upAyam and 5) not being able to wait for attaining emperumAn in due course of time. Previously, she said “madalUrdhum” (I will engage in madal); parAnguSa nAyaki‘s friend tells her “you cannot say this; to start with, it is forbidden for women to engage in madal; further more, you are a well-wisher for him even at the cost of hurting yourself as said in sankshEpa rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam ‘nithyam prANa samhithA’ (always focussed on the well-being of her beloved consort); he is more eager to attain you than you desiring to attain him; you are just not patient enough to attain him in due course of time; this adventurous act of yours does not fit your nature” and parNaguSa nAyaki says “my love towards him is so much that I cannot see these”.
  • yA madal Urndhum – I will not give up in pursuing him, even at the cost of hurting my own nature.
  • madal Urndhum – Even if by engaging in this act [of madal]. I will attain him even by engaging in forbidden acts. Even by engaging in activity which does not match the meaning of “aham” (I). aham in praNavam is explained in “yAm”. AthmA is explained with reference to bhagavAn only [as bhagavAn’s servitor].
  • em Azhi … – This is the explanation of the word “nArAyaNa” [in thirumanthram, ashtAksharam]. bhagavAn is explained with reference to AthmA only [as AthmA’s master].
  • em … – Just as he appears with the divine chakra in his hand, I appear with the madal in my hand. When I set out with the madal in my hand, if he places the ornaments in his hands, on my hands and if he places the garland on his shoulder, on my shoulder, he will survive; otherwise everything will be finished.
  • thU madalparAnguSa nAyaki tells her friend – You look at the garland on my shoulder, I would like to wear a fresh garland.  Her garland is withered due to suffering in separation, and fresh garland is available on emperumAn.

Her friend says “You can speak like this, but can you do anything about it? Your femininity will block you from engaging in such acts”, parAnguSa nAyaki replies,

  • yA madam inRi – Oh! let me first do what is done by those who don’t have such femininity [those who are independent].
  • theruvu thORu … – Previously she said “ulagu thORu alar thURRi” (accusing him in all worlds); when all the people of the world assemble, would I just say something about him and leave him? I will go to every street and make everyone aware of his defects by hurling accusations about him to those who don’t know about him. [inner meaning of going to every street] People may be thinking that “archA vigrahams (deities at home) are fully at the disposal of those who worship them [it is considered as emperumAn‘s ultimate simplicity]”, and will I let them continue to think like that? [I will make everyone realise that emperumAn is not truly fulfilling my desire and will drive out their attachment towards archAvathAra emperumAn too]. ayal thaiyalAr – women who consider them to be independent [inner meaning – SisupAla et al who consider themselves to be independent from bhagavAn]; I will make such accusations that [even] those women cannot speak anything. emperumAn is going to hear those words of accusations which are not even heard from SisupAla et al. Alternative explanation [nA madangAdhE] – like the continuous accusations of those who cannot stop their tongues. Another explanation [nAm adangAdhE] – us, overstepping you, setting out to engage in madal and accusing him.
  • nAdum iraikkavE – If he does not eliminate the “Uravar kavvai” (the noisy accusations of the people of the town), I will make him be accused by the whole kingdom. I will ensure that the whole world is tormented. I will ensure that it is known to everyone “a woman tormented a man! [since] he did not acknowledge her”. She is setting out to invalidate all the pramANams which glorify him and the means to attain him; I will ensure that it is known everywhere “if emperumAn is present, will he let a woman who desired for him suffer like this? This being the case, this universe is devoid of ISvara (lord)”. Would anyone disregard the words of me who united with emperumAn previously and believe in the authorless words of vEdham? As I have destroyed the best of pramEyams (goals) [i.e., emperumAn], how will the best of pramANams (authentic texts) have any standing now? I will ensure that the whole world becomes nAsthika (non-believers) making them say ‘when this is the result for those who desired emperumAn, there is no use of upAsanam [bhakthi yOgam and other such means]’ “.
  • nAdum iraikkavE – yAmadalUrndhum – The accusations of the people are those which sustain her. She herself said in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.4Uravar kavvai eru” (the accusations of people of the town are the manure), she sustains by firmly rooting in them.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 14 – avar avar thAm

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avathArikai

When asked “While emperumAn stands ahead and creates interest in him among the samsAris, why are these people following various other dhEvathAs (deities)?”, AzhwAr says that even if they do so, the deities that they hold on to, ultimately attain emperumAn.

Let us see the pAsuram and its meanings.

Avar avar thAm thAm aRindhavARu Eththi
Ivar ivar em perumAn enRu suvar misaich
chArththiyum vaiththum thozhuvar ulagaLandha
mUrththi uruvE mudhal

Word by Word Meaning

avar avar – people who have raJo guNam (yielding to passion) and thamO guNam (yielding to laziness)
thAm thAm aRindhavARu – appropriate to their qualities and knowledge
ivar ivar em perumAn enRu Eththi – praising a few deities as “he is our swAmys (Lords)”
suvar misaich chArththiyum – drawing their figures on walls
vaiththum – installing (as an idol)
thozhuvar – will worship

But

ulagu aLandha – (one who kept his divine feet on the heads of those who worship and those who are worshipped and) measured all the worlds
mUrththi uruvE – the divine form of thrivikrama
mudhal – is primary

vyAkyAnam

avar avar – it is said that “lOko binnaruchi” (people have different tastes). Some people of the world will have excess of rajO guNa (such people will be very passionate about everything) while others will have excess of thamO guNa (such people will be very lazy, will be ignorant and will be disinterested in anything). AzhwAr calls such people as avar avar, indifferently.

thAm thAm aRindhavARu Eththi – such people who have rajO and thamO guNas will also have appropriate knowledge only. They will not follow SAsthras (scriptures). They will worship as per their knowledge.

ivar ivar em perumAn enRu – they will hold on to some deity or the other and say “he is my swAmy (my Lord)”. When the sons of King sakara went searching for their aSvamEdha horse (horse let out freely to denote their boundaries), they started catching anyone that they came across as “you only stole our horse”. In the same way, these people will hold on to anyone that they fancy and denote him as their perumAn (supreme entity). Just as some people leave out good materials and have liking for neem and onions, these people will leave out the supreme entity SrIman nArAyaNa and and go after deities with inferior qualities. rudhra (sivan) says in harivamSam 138-8 “sathvanishtA hi purushA:” (people with sathva guNam (purely good qualities) should always meditate on hari (SrIman nArAyaNa)) and “harirEkas sadhA dhyEya:” (only hari should be always meditated upon).

suvar misaich chArththiyum vaiththum thozhuvar – they will worship their deities after drawing their forms on walls and/or installing their deities as idols in some places. [Even] If emperumAn incarnates in some forms to shower his grace on people, they will offer their prayers to these deities instead of to emperumAn.  Even if they carry out such worship…..

ulagu aLandha mUrthy uruvE mudhal – the form of emperumAn which he took to keep all the people of the worlds under his divine feet [thrivikrama], is the primary one. Did he not keep his divine feet on those who are holding on to other deities and on those deities too to measure the worlds!

We shall take up the 15th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thirunedunthANdakam – 4

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Introduction


By the three pAsurams, ‘arththam aRRadhirE’ (thirumanthra arththam (meaning) has been explained).

In the first pAsuram – SEshaSEshithvam (lordship, subservience) was clearly seen (as He put His divine feet on AzhvAr’s divine head (thiruvadi en thalai mElavE));

In the second pAsuram – anyaSEshathvam (subservience to others) was removed. (since the misunderstanding that the three dhEvas are equal, was cleared);

In the third pAsuram – talked about enjoyableness (of emperumAn, enjoying His divine form).

==> (So how do these three pAsurams talk about the meaning of thirumanthram?)

1st pAsuram -> Om  (SEsha SEshithvam)

2rd pAsuram -> nama:   (ananyaSEshathvam)

3nd pAsuram -> nArAyANAya  (nAra -> emperumAn’s wealth & divine form; these are enjoyable)

Then, it is a matter of finding companions for enjoying Him, together.  In that, since nithyasUris are far off, and samsAris are people indulged in worldly matters, neither of them would be of companionship. So, it is the inevitable mind of his is the one that would be a companion. So, Oh mind! Let us enjoy this together, says AzhvAr.

Please set to enjoy through thirumanthram that enlightens His true nature (manthiraththai manthiraththAl), about the glory of His having distinguished divine form/body talked about in the previous pAsuram, the One who is the source of creation of the world (kAraNathvam) – please see about doing that, says AzhvAr (to his mind).

If he is enjoying based on thirumanthram (whose main word is ‘nArAyaNa’) , isn’t the meaning of this (word ‘nArAyaNa’) mainly about his lordship over the two world realms, and about His nature of having qualities? (How come AzhvAr is using this word/thirumanthram to enjoy Him as being the source of creation of the world?). That thirumanthram (word nArAyaNa), due to many authoritative references (on the word nArAyaNa), is about Him being the source of creation of the world.

They are: ‘EkO havai nArAyaNa Aseeth [mahOpanishath – 1](Only He was present (it means He is the reason for creation)), and,

narAjjAthAni thathvAni [mahAbhAratham -anuSAsana – 13.12] (the twenty five truths (thathvams), which can undergo change/annihilation) got created from emperumAn) ,  and,

‘ApO nArA ithi prOkthA: [manu smruthi – 1.10] (water was created by emperumAn who is called naran; so the nAram indicates water; since emperumAn held water (milky ocean) as his abode during the time of creation, He is called nArAyaNan);

by these and other references, His creating the world shall be said by the word nArAyaNan.

Why is AzhvAr taking up mentioning His jagath kAraNathvam? Since residents of this world is having it upside down (where some in this world think of others as lords and as reason for creation of worlds, and emperumAn trying to prove His lordship), it is in this world where it is needed to use authoritative references.  It is only when someone else is using our land that we would have to show proof of our ownership; that is why he is saying so;

So, Oh mind! Let us enjoy the janakan (creator of births).

indhirarkkum piramarkkum mudhalvan thannai
  iru nilam kAl thee neer viN bUtham aindhAy
senthiRaththa thamizhOsai vada sollAgith
  thisai nAngumAyth thingaL nAyirAgi
antharaththil dhEvarkkum aRiyalAgA
  anthaNanai, anthaNar mAttu andhi vaiththa
manthiraththai manthiraththAl maRavAdhenRum
  vAzhudhiyEl vAzhalAm mada nenjamE.                            3

emperumAn revealing thirumanthram assuming the forms of nara (human) and nArAyaNa (superhuman)

Word by word meaning

mada nenjamEOh mind which is amicable (to me)!
indhirarkkum piramarkkum mudhalvan thannai Being the reason/source for indhra and brahmA,
iru nilam kAl thee neer viN bUtham aindhAybeing antharyAmi (inside resident) to the five core elements – the big earth, air, fire, water, space,
senthiRaththa thamizhOsai vada sollAgiHis showing the thamizh vEdham (dhivya prabandhams) (which show Him clearly), and samskrutha vEdhams,
thisai nAngumAy being antharAthmA for all the things in all the four directions,
thingaL nAyirAgi being antharyAmi for the moon and the sun,
antharaththil – when being antharyAmi in that way,
dhEvarkkum aRiyalAgA anthaNanai – being purest who cannot be known by even dhEvas,
anthaNar mAttu anthi vaiththa manthiraththai – sarvESvaran the secret entity who is kept safely in the knots of vEdhams (anthi -> end/tail -> vEdhAntham) which are the wealth of brAhmaNas (safe like in the knots of clothes worn),
manthiraththAl – by thirumanthram
maRavAdhu vAzhudhiyEl – if you enjoy without fail/forgetting,
enRum vAzhalAm – you can get good life always (in paramapadham).

vyAkyAnam

indhirarkkum piramarkkum mudhalvan thannai – In ‘mU uruvum kaNda pOdhu onRAm sOdhi [thirunedunthANdakam – 2]’,  it was by squeezing the words we get the true meaning; AzhvAr is showing that it is what the meaning he means, by showing it explicitly here. You see, AzhvAr is saying ‘that is what I said earlier that He is the only one who is the lord!’.

Creator of indhra who is accepted by all as a jeevAthmA, and for brahmA who could be misunderstood as eeSvaran (controller).

While it would have been appropriate to talk first about brahmA who could be doubted as eeSvaran,  why say indhra first – it is to show that like indhra, brahmA is also one included in all that are created by emperumAn.

But, rudhran also could be doubted as eeSvaran. Why has AzhvAr not mentioned about him? As said in ‘brahmaNaSchApi sambhUtha: Siva ithyavadhAryathAm [mahAbhAratham – anuSAsana]’ (emperumAn talking to garudAzhvAr: Can say about four types of creation in another way too – hiraNya garbha that is said as lotus is first creation; brahmA who was created from it is the second creation; Siva was created from brahmA – conclude this in your mind;  this was the third creation;  from him skandha was created; this was fourth creation), and in other such references, it is famous that he is the son of brahmA, and so when having said about the main of all, that is brahmA and the ending dhEva of all that is indhra, by prathyAhara nyAyam (when first and last letters of alphabet are mentioned together, it includes the ones in between as well), it is to be concluded that rudhra is also included amidst this list.

Instead of saying indhiranukkum piramanukkum, why use ‘r’ (rEphAntham) – it is not due to having any mind of venerating them; AzhvAr is showing contempt (kShEpam);  it is even while brahmA is creatable by eeSvaran (emperumAn), he is thinking ‘I am the controller of the three worlds’, (indhran thinking)  ‘all the fourteen worlds were created by me and I am the controller of them’, and making everyone prostrate/worship him;

mudhalvan – (reason/source) – that is emperumAn who does not have a source for Himself;  Himself who is the reason/source (kAraNam) for vyashti srushti  (variegated creation of world by combining elements);

iru nilam, etc. (earth, etc.)  – The aforementioned (about brahmA, et al) phrase said about vyashti srushti; by the current phrase it says about samashti srushti  (initial creation of independent five great elements (space, air, etc.), (before vyashti srushti);

(emperumAn first created Sabdha thanmAthrai – (thanmAthrai -> like the stage between milk and curd, where it is neither milk nor curd); from Sabdha thanmAthrai, AkASam (space) is created. Then from it, sparSa thanmAthrai is created (stage in-between AkASa and vAyu); from that vAyu (air) is created;  then rUpa thanmAthrai is created (state in-between vAyu and thEjas); then from it thEjas is created; from it rasa thanmAthrai; from it water; from it gandha thanmAthrai; from that pruthvi (earth); So each creation includes cumulative qualities of earlier stages of creation; for example, pruthvi includes all the qualities of Sabdha, sparSa, rUpa, rasa, and gandha; this is also explained in ‘pUnilAya aindhumAy [thiruchchandha viruththam – 1]’.

Reason for saying vyashti srushti (which is a latter creation) first and then samasthi srushti (which is a prior creation) in this pAsuram is – since it is with brahmA et al where there may be doubt whether they are eeSvaran; there is no such doubt in core elements.

Reason for saying earth etc.,(iru nilam kAl thee neer viN bUtham aindhAy), in a different order instead of in order of annihilation in to its immediate prior source stage, or in the order of creation, is due to some other specific thinking (of AzhvAr):

Being a support for everything, being immobile, and not troublesome, AzhvAr first talked about such earth;  other  three core elements being mobile, being of both protection and disturbances, AzhvAr told about them in different order after earth; considering that space gives room for other elements, he mentioned it in the end;  if these are not considered, then there would not be an use for AzhvAr saying in this order;

earlier he said ‘mudhalvan thannai’; here he says ‘aindhAy’ (literal: emperumAn as the five elements  – which means: emperumAn being creator of five elements).  So, the association in this sAmAnAdhikaraNayam is – uthpAdhya uthpAdhaka bhAvam (the created – the creator);

senthiRaththa , etc. – For saying later in the prabandham about creation of those who are to be obedient to SAsthram (SAsthra vaSyar; humans), here he is talking about creation of SAsthram. Creating thamizh (dhrAvida), and samskrutham;

While it would be valid to say samskrutham  and then thamizh which is its changed/derived form, instead, he enumerated thamizh first because – it is eligible to be perused by everyone, being very good at conveying clear meaning, and it is his area of language usage, and also like samskrutha vEdham, thamizh vEdham (dhivya prabandhams) is also authoritative reference – hence AzhvAr mentions thamizh first.

AzhvArs’ words are not like that of vEdhas and ithihAsas and purANas. These words (in thamizh) is that of anushtAthA (who executes the words as per SrIvaishNavam), you see! AzhvArs say about shunning aiSvaryam, kaivalyam and not consider them as required (whereas vEdhas talk about those things also as means/goals).

sen thiRaththa thamizh Osai – thiRam -> its feature/capability and ways;  thamizh words enlighten in the best way the meanings they carry.  Not having need for an upabrahmaNam to explain it more.  (There ARE thirumangai AzhvAr’s six prabandhams that are called ‘Aru angam’ for thiruvAimozhi. But thiruvAimozhi does not need them for explaining itself); vEdhas require upabrahmaNam (to explain it well).

Osai  (Agi) – Osai is the name for poem, and sound. But here it is talking about the words of thamizh (lakShaNai – like: ‘house is in the ganges’ means it is in the shores of the ganges); this can also be seen in the next phrase ‘vada sol’ (words of samskrutham);

vada sol – is – talk about samskrutham. thamizhians call thirumalai as the north border for the places (in south) where thamizh is in use. samskrutham is in vogue in north of thirumalai. thamizh would not be in vogue in those places;  the greatness of this place (south) is that both the languages are in vogue here;

Agi – His creating SAsthram is about His revealing/spreading it.

thisai nAngumAy – creating all the things/people in all the four directions;  (It is by lakShaNai, it talks about the things- that is,) like saying ‘manchA: krOSanthi [mammadar’s kAvya prakASam 2nd ullAsam] (bed is crying – means – babies on the bed are crying). By this it says about creation of those who are to be obedient to SAsthram (SAsthra vaSyar; humans);

thingaL nAyirAgi – It is as said in ‘agnau prAsthAhuthis samyag AdhithyamupathishtathE | AdhithyAjjAyathE vrushti: vrushtErannam thatha: prajA: || [manu SAsthram – 3.76]’ (offering that is submitted in the fire for homam (vEdhic ritual) reached the Sun; from Sun, rain is obtained; by rain, food items are grown; using food items, humans live and are created (through father eating the food)); (Agi -> becoming) shows the completion of creation.

In previous phrases it showed the meaning of ‘nAra’ (indhran, brahmA, five core elements, etc.). Rest of the phrases of the pAsuram show the meaning of ‘ayanam’.

antharaththil – (anupravESam as part of creation) when being inside; when permeating within everything created; by ‘pruthivyA anthara: AnthanESnthara: [bruhadhAranyaka upanishath – mAdhyandhina – 5.7.72](One who is present outside and inside of land/jeevAthmA, One who is not known by the land/AthmA, One who is being inside the land/AthmA and letting it act, such paramAthmA is the AthmA that is never destroyed), so by the word anthara it talks about the permeating quality of emperumAn.

dhEvarkkum aRiyalAgA – being not known/aware about Him by all that are created (even dhEvas);  as said in ‘yamAthmA na vEdha [bruhadhAranyaka upanishath – mAdhyandhina – 5.7.72]’ (One who is not known by AthmA), the One whom the AthmA would not know, He is being inside and called as antharyAmi. To indicate that AzhvAr is saying that He is dhur-gyEyan (hard to learn about (antharyAmi));

But, by ‘dhEvarkkum’, why take up about them specially? even for those who are most knowledgeable, it would not possible to know about Him, that is why AzhvAr is considering them in the phrase.

anthaNanai(emperumAn being a) pure one (in mind; (won’t tolerate others’ suffering; won’t think trouble for others, etc.);  there is a greatness in AzhvArs using this word for implying pure one. nammAzhvAr said ‘aRavanai Azhip padai anthaNanai [thiruvAimozhi – 1.7.1]’ ( most benevolent (due to him bestowing the results); one having the sudharSana chakram (which purifies the heart); the purest eeSvarAn (supreme lord)).

(Why not give meaning to that as ‘brAhmaNa’ (in thiruvAimozhi)?) there is no brAhmaNa holding conch and disc, isn’t it? (kAnchi swami said something along the lines of ‘there IS one, and that is AchAryan’; so we could qualify as, One using them as weapons, there is no one other than emperumAn);  for kEvalan (one who is after kaivalyam (enjoying one’s own AthmA, and not emperumAn)) emperumAn is shown as the One to meditate upon as the pure one, for getting pure experience of kaivalyam, so nammAzhvAr is divining in that way, in that context.

And, one who wishes to get to emperumAn shall meditate upon His having all auspicious qualities, so that he would get those qualities;  The one who wishes to enjoy own AthmA (kaivalyam), shall meditate upon Him as having purity; It is because ‘jarA maraNa mOkshA’ (liberation from aging, death) that he considers;

But, here (for thirumangai AzhvAr), is purity required? AzhvAr first talked about creation (indhirar, piraman, etc.,), and then about that emperumAn permeating in all things created (being inside as antharyAmi is required for completing the creation, and for sustenance of the created ones);  then he says that the  blemishes of those things in which He is present, would not affect Him (He would stay pure (anthaNan)) – this is the point wished to be said by thirumangai AzhvAr here.

By ‘Esha sarvabhUthAntharAthmA – apahathapApmA [subAla upanishath -1]’, wherever it is talking about Him permeating, it is also talking that the blemishes of those things would not affect Him (He would remain pure); this is what is in the divine mind of this AzhvAr? The most vaidhikas are called AzhvArs, isn’t it? (parimElazhagar has shown that noble ones have a name as AzhvAr, and meaning for AzhvAr is noble one)

anthaNar mAttu anthi vaiththa manthiraththai – The matter (emperumAn) mentioned earlier is on the head of vEdhas (vEdhAntham) in mystic ways.

anthaNar mAdu – (brahmaNa’s wealth) – As said in ‘brAhmaNAnAm dhanam vEdha’ (wealth for a brAhmin is vEdham), wealth for brahmins is vEdham isn’t it? wealth is not emperumAn who is said in ‘dhanam madheeyam thava pAdhapankajam [sthOthra rathnam – 30](your divine feet is my wealth); it is vEdham – that told about emperumAn; that is the greatness of emperumAn that He is identified by vEdham; only by authoritative reference (pramANam) that one can know that the wealth is emperumAn (pramEyam) who is told by vEdham;

anthi vaiththa manthiraththai – the secret that is kept in vEdhAntham (anthi -> end/tail of vEdham); mAttu anthi – at the end of vEdham; that is, in vEdhAntham;

manthiram and sarvasmAthparan  (supreme to everyone) seems paryAyam (equivalent/alias/synonym); saying emperumAn as secret is – like the one who closes the front door and back door and then opens to see a bundle of valuables, this emperumAn is valuable so that, manthram is to be advised and implemented only among the four ears (AchAryan and disciple);

Or, ‘manthram’ is said as His divine name in SrI sahasranAmam – manthra: chandhrAmSu: bhAskaradhyuthi: [vishNu sahasranAmam 281, 282, 283]’ (protector of one who thinks about Him; One having comfortable light like moon; One who is too bright like the sun (these are some of His divine names)); by the root of the word manthram,manthAram thrAyatha ithi manthra: (since it protects the one who recites it, it is called manthram), so the word manthram is the divine name of emperumAn.

anthaNar mAdu – (why say it is the wealth of brahmaNas (and not him)) – saying so to show that he is not of such birth; even though all of it is bright in his mind, saying it out would be a damage to the respect for his eligibility was his state. Even while he is being an at most follower of vEdhas, like saying “others’ wealth”, he is saying in this way in unconnected way in order to establish the respect of the ways.

anthaNar mAtttu andhi vaiththa manthiraththai manthiraththAl – vAzhudhiyEl – Who is being said (emperumAn), and the one that is saying it (thirumanthram given by perumAn) are both being there (emperumAn);

manthiraththai – vAzhudhiyEl – if you experience/enjoy the One who is the reason/creator of the worlds (jagath kAraNa bhuthan), One who is present inside all (sarva antharyAmi), not knowable (dhurgyEyan), and not affected by the blemishes of the body He is present in;  (these qualities are mentioned in the earlier phrases of this pAsuram);

manthiraththAl – vAzhudhiyEl – When experiencing/enjoying that One, instead of trying to do that through vEdhAntham, or through ithihAsa purAnams, try to do that through in the way how I enjoyed:- try to do that through thirumanthram.  Other ways would not be delightful like enjoying through thirumanthram; As said in ‘sarvam ashtAkSharAnthasthatham [hAreetha smruthi – 3.45]’ (the meanings in the four vEdhas and in other references are all present inside the manthram of eight letters/syllables), this manthram tells all the meanings collected together;

Aren’t there innumerable manthrams. Does the word manthram indicate periya thirumanthram? As said by ‘yAni nAmAni gauNAni [mahAbhAratham – anusA 135.13]’ (names based on His qualities), other manthrams are about his qualities only; for the aforementioned meanings (creator, antharyAmi, etc.) there is no other manthram. So that is why manthram here means periya thirumanthram.

Can’t the other manthrams that indicate his permeating everywhere be considered as one said here? No, since the other two manthrams (vAsudhEvan, vishnu), need thirumanthram to complete the full meaning.

The manthram which he said with surety as ‘nAn kaNdu koNdEn [periya thirumozhi – 1.1]is this periya thirumanthram only isn’t it.

maRavAdhu vAzhudhiyEl – if you enjoy it without forgetting;

Reason for forgetting about experiencing emperumAn would be interest in material matters, so is AzhvAr saying – enjoy without interest in material matters? No, that would not suit AzhvAr; he is enjoying in his final state after sAkShAthkAram (enlightenment / seeing emperumAn (kaNdu koNdEn [periya thirumozhi – 1.1])).

So, what then would be for him the reason for forgetting?  Since having connection with the body which is having the three types of sorrows (thApams) (AdhyAthimika, Adhi baudhika, Adhi dhaivika), seeing having association with the body, seeing his old history, and seeing the greatness of emperumAn, there is the thought of him having emperumAn as the means for removal of such connection of body without seeing his prior history, and for getting the loved matter that is emperumAn;  that thought (of thinking Him as the means) would be the time of/reason for – forgetting to enjoy emperumAn!

So try to enjoy Him without getting into the pUrvArdham  (first line of dhvayam – which uses Him as means, (that our thought that He is the means, even such thought is not the means; it is His thought that would be the means) (and second line of dhvayam is about enjoying and serving Him);  AzhvAr is follower of dhvayam isn’t it?

Why explain the meaning in this way? Earlier when we have submitted our living to emperumAn, and after that now thinking about our living/upliftment  would be like interfering in the business of others (that is, of emperumAn); there is no difference in ineligibility between addressing one’s own well-being and thinking of creating/addressing well-being of the world (which we cannot not do);

vAzhudhiyEl – without involving in His purifying nature (anthaNanai), and in His being the means, if you would be involved in his enjoyableness (only),

vAzhudhiyEl – prosperity would be yours; I too am your colleague, isn’t it?

As vAzhudhiyEl – talking about his mind considering it as a sentient doer, which is his faculty, is due to seeing the predominance of mind. Till the end of life, it is the mind that is the helper for involving towards emperumAn, which is what a mumukshu (one wishing to be liberated from material world) expects from his mind, isn’t it?

enRum – vAzhalAm – can live amongst nithyasUris (in paramapadham) till the time AthmA exists (eternal). Everywhere, it is the experience/enjoyment that is there for him. vaishNavan is – a prince, isn’t it? (emperumAn is the king, and vaishNavan can live with many qualities that are equal in emperumAn, after reaching SrIvaikuNtam);

mada nenjamE – Oh mind who is obedient to me! Without any difference in the time when getting rid of vishaya prAvaNyam (interest in worldly affairs), and in the time of upliftment (experiencing emperumAn), and during the time of enjoyment, I got the mind that is following me obediently – saying so he is celebrating/appreciating his mind. It is like ‘nenjamE nallai nallai [thiruvAimozhi – 1.10.4]’ ((what you have done is) good, good.).

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Translation by raghuram SrInivAsa dAsan

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