Monthly Archives: April 2017

rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 104

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

Seeing you enjoying the knowledge based on my advises, what if you realize emperumAn; how much more you might enjoy it – may be the thought of emperumAnAr – so thinks amudhanAr and says – even if (you) easily and in detail show emperumAn, I would not want other than the radiant qualities in your divine body;  in both the worlds I would sustain myself only if you would grant me that; otherwise I would not.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – As he was engrossed in the happy thought that emperumAnAr advised the true inner meanings of thathva, hitha, purushArtham, he thought that emperumAnAr might be thinking as – just for advice itself you are enjoying in this way; if I got you to realize emperumAn how much more you might enjoy and be happy?’

amudhanAr replies – even if you show in the palm of my hand (that is, making it easily accessible), that krishNan who is sakala jana manO hAri (one who captures the minds of everyone), and who was doing divine playing, I would not wish for anything other than the auspicious qualities that are present bright in your divine auspicious body;

whether you get angry thinking that I am talking too much foolishly and make me fall in to the hell that is this samsAram, or, thinking that – ‘he has surrendered only to me’ and so with your kindness get me to reach paramapadham of boundless brightness,  Oh emperumAnAr who is the most generous like rainy clouds, if by your at most voluntary kindness help me enjoy your divine auspicious body,  then I will sustain regardless of the two places to which you may send me; otherwise I would not sustain – and so amudhanAr is ascertaining his destiny (enjoyment of the beauty of radiant divine body of AchAryan).

kaiyil kani enna kaNNanaik kAttith tharilum undhan
meyyil piRangiya seer anRi vENdilan yAn nirayath
thoyyil kidakkilum sOdhi viN sErilum ivvaruL nee
seyyil tharippan irAmAnusA en sezhum koNdalE               –   104

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

sezhum koNdal – distinguished and most generous like a cloud
em irAmAnusA – Oh you who showed (that kindness) to us!
kAttith tharilum – (even if you) get  me to see the
kaNNanai – sarvESvaran who is easy to attain for His devotees
kaiyil kani anna –  like a gooseberry fruit in the palm of the hand (that is, easily and fruitfully),
yAn – I
vENdilan – would not want (anything)
seer anRi – other than the qualities of beauty etc.,
unRan – of your
piRangiya – bright
meyyil – divine body;
whether
kidakkilum – immersed in
nirayth thoyyil – slushy mud, that is samsAram;
Or,
sErilum – reached
viN – paramapadham
sOdhi – which is of boundless radiance
because of its pure sathva (tranquil) quality;
That is, to stay enjoying only the attributes of your divine body,
iv aruL – this grace for that,
nee seyyil  tharippan – if  you do that, I will stay put in some place; Otherwise, I would not be able to sustain myself, is the thought.

piRangu – brightness;   nirayam – samsAram that is ‘vidiyA ven narakam [thiruvAimozhi 2.6.7]’ (~hell with no light at the end of the tunnel).
thoyyil – mud;
When some recite as ‘nirayath thoyyil kidakil en, sOdhi viN sEril en – it does not matter whether I stay put in samsAram or I reach paramapatham – I have got nothing to do with them;

Thinking about the blemish of samsAram, and distinguished nature of paramapadham, I am not with the attitude of leaving the former and getting the latter; if your highness grants me this experience (of enjoying the qualities of your divine body), then I will sustain myself even in samsAram;  if not granting, then I would not sustain myself even in paramapadham, is the point.

Even if you show Him and give him to me..

vyAkyAnam

em sezhum koNdal – Like the paddy whose face would be dull/withering if there is one less spell of rain, as said in ‘vidhyAnyA SilpanaipuNam [SrIvishNu purANam 1.19.41](Other knowledge are like mundane skills which are useless for self/god realization), been reciting other than the true SAsthram, which are equivalent to learning to stitch a foot wear, and not reaching the knowledge of thathvam as ‘sAvidhyAyAvimukhthayE [SrIvishNu purANam 1.19.41] (That knowledge which leads to liberation is true knowledge), and so not having a way to be saved, as said in ‘vAdinEn vAdi [periya thirumozhi – 1.1.1]’ (was withered (due to being in samsAram)), and so our faces were dull;

emperumAnAr, like a spell of rain for us,  created association to his distinguished divine feet, and advised true knowledge, saved us, and made us something – so amudhanAr is calling him as ‘sezhum koNdal’ (rainy cloud).

Unlike the cloud that is formed by (only if there is) a mix of smoke, light, water, and air, and which is of material realm, and not pouring on those who need it, but on oceans etc., and for whom that did not ask for it,

the cloud that is emperumAnAr is the head of true inner knowledge of thathvam,etc., and has incarnated with a vow to save everyone in the world whether they asked for it or not – emperumAnAr is having such distinguished auspicious qualities – so amudhanAr is calling him ‘sezhum koNdal’.

irAmAnusA  – Oh emperumAnAr of such nature!

kaiyil kani anna kaNNanaik kAttith tharilum – As said by ‘paththudai adiyavarkku eLiyavan [thiruvAimozhi – 1.3.1]’ (easily approachable to devoted servants), He is subservient to His devotees, He performed the work of messenger,  charioteering, etc.,

and as said in ‘kaNNik kuRum kayiRRAl kattuNdAn kANEdi [periya thirumozhi – 11.5.5]’ (~Oh kaNNan got tied with a small rope, you see my friend!), He got tied by a weak rope, and got beaten,

and as said in ‘koRRak kudaiyAga Endhi ninRa gOvardhdhanaththu ennai uyththidumin [nAchchiyAr thirumozhi – 12.8]’ (~please unite me to the gOvardhan hill which kaNNan lifted as an umbrella),  lifting the gOvardhana mountain,

and as said in ‘thiNNan veedu mudhal muzhudhumAy [thiruvAimozhi – 2.2.1]’ (being the controller for all results like giving strong and unique mOksham, etc.) – being distinguished, and the lord of everyone (sarvasmAthparan), and having wonderful qualities and acts –

even if (you) give such krishNan for me to see easily like having a gooseberry fruit in the palm of the hand (that is, easily and fruitfully),

unRan meyyil piRangiya seer anRi vENdilan yAn – As said in ‘pathim viSvasya’ (emperumAn is our lord/husband) and, ‘dhEvAnAm thAnavAnAncha’  ‘dhEvAnAm dhAnavAnAncha sAmAnyamathi dhaivatham” (~He is the lord who is common to dhEvas and asuras), and ‘ulagukku Or mundhaith thAy thandhai [thiruvAimozhi – 5.7.7]’ (~He is the distinguished mother and father for the world), am I dedicated to the one who is common to all? Am I not dedicated to your highness who is the lord only for those who are dedicated only to you?

Always, interest would be born only in the matter where we have got love towards, isnt’ it? So, I would not wish for anything other than the qualities of elegance and beauty (saundharyam and lAvaNyam), that are bright in your divine auspicious body; I would not even think of those others;

piRangu – being bright.

If asked – how so: when it is SAsthram that says ‘prApyasya brahmaNO rUpam [hArItha smruthi 8-141] (brahmam (bhagavAn) is the destiny to be attained), that is, destiny is sarvESvaran who is the target of all who surrender, and when you the sentient is the one who surrender (to Him), can you say like that? While He is the sarvESvaran who is the destiny, who is ever present, and who is present as antharAthmA (in-dwelling supersoul) for me, but, from time eternal till now I did not locate the shore of sea that is samsAram; after I got your highness today (now), adiyen reached the shore;  So the thought is – only your highness is my destiny.

Or,

when krishNan was being a messenger, charioteer, etc., even after He made visible His full form to everyone whether they are amicable or opposed, and even after advising about thathva, hitha, purushArtham from within the chariot seat of His, the desire for liberation was not born for even at least one person; it is well known, that after just seeing your highness the dumb got that desire for liberation, and your highness got him to see the distinguished divine body of yours, and gave him paramapadham at that time itself – kUraththAzhvAn heard this news, and hated himself by thinking he might not get such benefit;  in these ways, there is a big difference between emperumAn and your highness, so, I am having faith in this way – can also be the reply of amudhanAr.

Or, else,

even if you show the easy way to approach emperumAn, but since He can punish as well, seeing my lowliness He might be unfavorable, so, I am having faith that it is only your love that would uplift me from the samsAram.

It is said too as  ‘nArAyaNOpi vikruthim yAthi gurO: prachyuthasya dhurbudhdhE:
jalAtha bhEtham kamalam sOshayathi ravirna pOshayathi
‘ (Just like the sun which nourishes the lotus will itself scorch the flower when the flower comes out of water, for the ones who give up the attachment from their guru, SrIman nArAyaNan (who helps everyone) himself will lead to their suffering);

Or,

Even though He is the destiny, when enjoying Him, since it says ‘bhagavath vandhanam svAdhyam guru vandhana pUrvakam – kSheeram SarkarAyA yuktham svatha dhEhi viSEshatha:’ (Such a visual of emperumAn preceded by that of AchAryan is the most wonderful experience. It is like drinking the milk mixed with sugar), for us who are devoted (rasikar), it is appropriate to be in the state of considering the AchAryan’s divine body  only, isn’t it? Accordingly  I too understood the difference of this based on your accepting me; so other than enjoying along with your divine body, I do not agree to enjoy Him separately, is also the meaning.

If your highness becomes angry that – he (amudhanAr) against true nature took himself up to be independent (svAthanthriyam)’,  and your highness decide either to –

nirayath thoyyil kidakkilum – keep me immersed in the slushy mud that is samsAram which does not have any dawn (relief);  thoyyil – mud;  nirayam – due to its sad nature, it talks about samsAram.

Or, if your highness think  – Oh he is ours only – and so show your kindness and –

sOdhi viN sErilum – or you  set me into paramapadham which is of unbounded radiance since it is purely of sathvam (tranquility);

When some recite as nirayath thoyyil kidakkil en  sOdhi viN sEril en’ – It does not matter whether I stay put in samsAram, or go and reach paramapadham; I don’t  have any thing to do with either place, is the thought.

Or, for, nirayath thoyyil, etc., it can also mean – whether I am immersed in the slushy mud that is samsAram, or go reach paramapadham which is of unbounded radiance due to it being of pure sathvam.  {Difference in the meaning here is that it does not say that emperumAnAr decided one of them for him}.

ivvaruL nee seyyil dharippan – if your highness would just show your grace that would help me be fully enjoying the qualities like elegance etc., of your divine body, then I would sustain myself.

If your highness would grant me this experience, then I would sustain even if in samsAram, and if not, then I would not sustain myself even in paramapadham, is what he is saying, you see!

As said in ‘thariyEn ini un charaNam thandhu en sanmam kaLaiyAyE [thiruvAimozhi – 5.8.7]’ (~Please give your grace and remove my cycle of births, as I cannot withstand it anymore), and,

kaLaivAy thunbam un kaLaiyAdhu ozhivAy kaLai kaN maRRilEn [thiruvAimozhi – 5.8.8]’ (Whether you would remove my sorrows or not, I don’t have any other shelter to go for this), and,

na dhEham na prANAnna cha sukhamaSEShbhilashitham, na chAthmAnam nAnyath kimapi thava SEshathvavibhavAth |bahirbhUtham nAtham! kshaNamapi sahE yAthu SathadhA,
vinASam thathsathyam madhumadhana! vigyApanamidham ||  [sthOthra rathnam – 57]’ (Oh my lord! Anything outside the wealth of being surrendered to you, I will not tolerate even for a moment my body, vital airs, those pleasures which are desired by everyone and my own AthmA (self) which are devoid of servitude; let (all these aspects which are devoid of servitude) disappear. Oh my lord who killed madhu (the demon)! this is the truth; this is (my) request.), and,

naragum suvarggamum nAN malarAL kOnaip, pirivum piriyAmaiyum [gyAna sAram – 2]’ (hell and heaven are – separation and non-separation from (emperumAn) the husband of the one of the lotus flower)

and so, like how AzhvAr, ALavandhAr, and aruLALap perumAL emperumAnAr had considered in case of prathama parvam (emperumAn), amudhanAr too considerd it in case of charama parvam (AchAryan).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

kaiyil … kAttith tharilum – kaNNan – attracts everyone’s heart. Even if you give such beauty in may hand, I would not want it, says amudhanAr.

Name kaNNan is used to show that He is very simple to approach and to get Him into our hands.

Kannan is every where {engum uLan kaNNan [thiruvAimozhi – 2.8.9}, and even if you get such vyApakan kaNNan to be held within my hand and enjoyed, I would not want it, says he.

undhan meyyil piRangiya seer anRi vENdilan yAn – By this amudhanAr has shown that a disciple should consider AchAryan’s divine body only as auspicious shelter (subASraya) and nurture and support it.

niraya … seyyil tharippan – amudhanAr is saying that samsAram is hell. Like seethA pirAtti said ‘nirayOyasthvayA vinA’ (Hey rAma! being separated from you itself is hell), this place where the sentient are separated from emperumAn is considered as hell.

Even if immersed in the slushy mud that is samsAram, if I get the opportunity to enjoy the qualities of your divine body, then I would stay in this mud without being worried.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.10 – onRum dhEvum

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Previous Decad

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

AzhwAr, after thinking “it is better to die than being amidst avaishNavas”, asks emperumAn “you mercifully finish me”, and as he did not oblige, AzhwAr thought “since I have no means to give up my association with them, let me convert them as vaishNavas and live with them” and instructed to them about the supreme lordship and easily approachable nature of emperumAn and instructs them “You take shelter of such emperumAn”. In the perspective of AzhwAr who is seeing and being together with emperumAn and being blissful due to such union, and being compassionate towards the AthmAs (souls) who are missing out on emperumAn, he mercifully instructs them “you take shelter of emperumAn”.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In tenth decad – AzhwAr, previously prayed attainment of bhagavAn after meditating upon the faults of this material realm, and [now] has become satisfied having seen the goal, i.e., the supreme state of emperumAn as manifested by him and thought “the samsAris (materialistic people) cannot miss out on this supremacy of emperumAn” and highlights the following aspects, setting out to instruct his supremacy which is the ultimate goal:

  1. his being the cause of all, which helps him establish his supremacy
  2. his being with eternal auspicious qualities which matches his being the cause of all
  3. his protection of the created entities highlighting his supremacy
  4. his supremacy which is well revealed
  5. the revelation of his great simplicity which well explains his supremacy
  6. the ability to control the material world
  7. his having garuda as flas mast, which well reveals his supremacy
  8. his being the power-giver for all the other dhEvathAs
  9. his divine abode being the target of knowledge for those who are seeking upliftment
  10. that the service rendered at the divine feet of emperumAn who is sarvaSarIrI (having everything as his body), is the desired goal

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr concludes by explaining how emperumAn‘s pleasure is the only goal for this AthmA, due to emperumAn being the ultimate goal, and his ultimate enjoyable nature.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

As in a land, when one side is barren and other side is fertile, while the nithyavibhUthi (paramapadham – spiritual realm) and nithsasUris (eternally free souls in paramapadham) are fully engaged in bhagavath anubhavam (enjoying bhagavAn), the residents of this desert like samsAram (material realm) are attached to sensual pleasures and having such gains and losses as joy and sorrow and being distressed turning away from bhagavAn – meditating upon this, AzhwAr decides to reform them and is thinking “why should we worry when sarvESvaran exists?”, prays at the divine feet of emperumAn “While your highness is present, can you let these AthmAs suffer? you should reform them too and bring them into the ideal path” and emperumAn replies “this is not my fault; they are not achith (insentient entities) where I can use them as I desire, and they are chEthanas (sentient entities) and should have the attachment towards me to attain irrevocable liberation; I too like you, tried my best and returned with teary eyes, being unable to uplift them”. AzhwAr then asks “Though they don’t have the attachment, and since desire is the only expectation to attain the [ultimate] benefit, why can’t you yourself create such desire in them?” and forces emperumAn like udhanga did. After the mahAbhAratha battle ended, when krishNa arrived after helping pANdavas defeat dhuryOdhana and his army, udhanga, being partial towards dhuryOdhana and his brothers, asked krishNa “While you are commonly related to both pANdavas and kauravas, you were partial towards pANdavas and destroyed dhuryOdhana et al”, krishNa replied “I tried to mediate as best as possible, but dhuryOdhana et al said ‘we will not live if pANdavas lived happily’ and only then I destroyed them”. udhanga further asked “as you are the controller of all, why did you not create the desire in them to live peacefully?”. emperumAn replied to AzhwAr “As they are chEthanas, I have to bestow the benefit only based on their desire; let that be; there is no loss for you; you see the divine abode where I am going to carry you and place you” and showed him paramapadham and AzhwAr became grateful seeing that – this is what happened in previous decad; further, in this decad, due to his great compassion, he tries to reform the samsAram which was even given up by sarvESvara.

AzhwAr desired to uproot the samsAram [materialistic existence]; the root for samsAram is two fold – attachment towards other dhEvathAs and lack of knowledge in supremacy of bhagavAn; for that, AzhwAr is instructing about supremacy of bhagavAn. [Is there any use of such instructions?] embAr, having learned all vEdha SAsthrams, still unable to determine “who is supreme”, thought “is there any knife that cannot cut a root vegetable, is there anyone who is not worshippable by me?” and bowed in front of any one he saw; and [the Acharyas] will mercifully explain “among emperumAnAr‘s followers, even those ladies who have not taken up formal education, will consider dhEvathAntharams (other dhEvathAs) as a stone which is part of building stove in the kitchen, due to knowing the principle explained in this decad” [As SAsthrams explain the glories of SrIman nArAyaNan as well as other dhEvathAs, they could lead to confusion even for great scholars. But as thiruvAimozhi simply explains the glories of SrIman nArAyaNa, the principle is very clear for everyone to understand]. embAr [subsequently] said “thruNikrutha virnchAdhi” [In comparison to taking shelter of SrI rAmAnuja‘s divine feet, even [the post of] brahmA et al are considered as grass only”. [nampiLLai explaining the attitude of materialistic people who refuse to accept bhagavAn’s supremacy] kArthavIryArjuna, a great king, while ruling over his kingdom, if anyone thinks about engaging in sinful activities, he would right away appear in front of them with his bow and arrow and avert such sinful acts – scholars of vEdham would agree to this fact; while chEthanas (sentient beings) accept whatever is done by a lowly human king, they will question if it is attributed to sarvEsvara who is omnipotent, omnipresent, will pervade everywhere and protect everyone. These people will agree if it is said “jAthi vyakthithORum parisamApya varthikkum” (the category/species of an entity pervades all through the entity) and will say “yes, it is reasonable for an achith entity (jAthi which is an insentient aspect) to pervade all through the body” but when it is said “the supreme lord will pervade everywhere”, they will doubt that principle and refuse to agree.

In the first thiruvAimozhi (decad) 1.1, for his own experience, AzhwAr meditated upon emperumAn‘s supremacy which was revealed by emperumAn himself and explained it as mentioned in Sruthi (vEdham) as in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.7 “uLan sudar migu suruthiyuL” (bhagavAn is present in the radiant vEdham); realising that his own experience could be useful to others, he thought “since they are chEthanas, this is enough for them [to be reformed]” and explained emperumAn’s supremacy as done in ithihAsams and purANams in thiNNan vIdu, 2.2 decad; but since they did not get reformed even by that, AzhwAr thought “let me instruct emperumAn’s supremacy to them [again]”, and as part of that, in this decad, AzhwAr eliminates any doubt on any other dhEvathA having supremacy and establishes bhagavAn’s supremacy.

In the first thiruvAimozhi (decad) 1.1, AzhwAr mercifully explained bhagavAn‘s supremacy in paramapadham; but that was beyond the reach of samsAris [worldly people of this material realm]; so, he then mercifully explained bhagavAn’s supremacy in his incarnations in 2,2thiNNan vIdu” decad; even that was beyond the reach of those who are living subsequent to those ancient times; those two were difficult to reach due to gap in dhESa (place) and kAla (time); to eliminate those shortcomings. as said in thirunedunthANdagam 10 “pinnAnAr vaNangum sOdhi” (the radiant form which is worshipped by future [all] times), here AzhwAr is mercifully explaining emperumAn‘s supremacy in archAvathAram which is easy to behold for people of all times.

Now, what is the method pursued by AzhwAr to reform them? While everyone desires to have joy and be free from sorrow, but as one does not acquire the desired joy and gets the undesired sorrow, it is to be admitted that “there is a controller who makes people go through these joy and sorrow at specific times”. Why is that needed? Why can’t we just say that puNya (virtues) and pApa (vices) are the causes for joy and sorrow respectively, and they themselves could control these? When we look at the nature of those puNya and pApa karmas, they are achEthana (insentient) and as they are different types of activities, they will be finished when the action is completed; when it comes to wood carving, without the carpenter, as the machines and tools are of no use, even for these puNya and pApa, without the presence of a sentient being, they themselves cannot give the fruit of the actions; now, more than imagining a principle called “apUrvam” and saying “this invisible component will bestow the result based on one’s action”, it would be better to say “after a paramachEthana (supreme sentient being) contemplates about the actions, the results are bestowed based on his condemnation or mercy”.

Now, who is that paramachEthana (supreme lord)? What are his nature and characteristics? What are his activities? These should be known through pramANams (authentic sources of knowledge). Among the pramANams, since prathyaksham (perception) is limited to our senses and cannot reach beyond our senses, it cannot be considered as a pramANam (fool proof source of knowledge); can we consider Agama texts as pramANams? No, since they have the faults based on being error prone (such as deception etc) due to being conceived by individuals’ intellects; so, vEdham which is considered as primary among 14 types of sources of knowledge, and which is nithya (eternal), apaurushEya (not created by any individual), being free from errors such as deception, explained by sAthvika purANams (purANams that are in the mode of goodness), must be the pramANam (authentic source of knowledge). Why is their special mention of “sAthvika purANams” instead of just “purANams”? The compilers of purANams learned a few things from brahmA and then compiled their respective purANams; as said in svEthAsvathara upanishath “yO brahmANam vidhadhAthi pUrvam yOvaivEdhAmScha prahiNOthi thasmai“ (first, bhagavAn created brahmA and then bhagavAn instructed him the vEdham), though that brahmA was created by sarvESvara himself, while he was explaining the rishis (sages) as in SrIvishNu purANam 1.2.10 “prushta:prOvAcha bhagavAnabhjayOni: pithAma:” (brahmA who was born in the divine navel of SrIman nArAyaNa and who taught the great sages), he instructed them “I am bound by the three types of qualities [sathva (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance)]; you leave aside what I said when my passion and ignorance were more, and pursue what I said while my goodness was more”; this is explained in mAthsya purANam “agnESSivasya mAhAthmyam thAmasEshu prakIrthayathE | rAjasEShucha mAhAthmyam adhikam brahmaNOvidhu: | sAthvikEshvadhakalpEshu mAhAthmyam adhikam harE:” (When I am in mode of ignorance, I speak the glories of agni (fire god) and Siva; when I am in the mode of passion, I speak the glories of myself; when I am in the mode of goodness, I speak the glories of SrI hari (vishNu)”; thus, through the guNa bhEdham (difference of qualities), one can understand the different individuals who are glorified and through these, the gradations in the purANams can be understood; thus, vEdham which is explained through sAthvika purANams is considered as the authentic source of knowledge.

Though vEdham does not have the fault caused by the three qualities [sathvam, rajas, thamas], as it set out to explain bhagavAn who is with spiritual/material realms, as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 2.45thraiguNya vishayA vEdhA:” (are focussed on the well-being of the ones having the three qualities (sathva, rajas, thamas)), since vEdhams are focussed on the chEthanas (sentient beings) who have the three qualities, vEdhams will give advise based on the qualities of each type of individual. Though vEdhams are advising in this manner, one is not forced to accept everything as a thirsty person will drink as much water as required to quench his thirst, even though the river may be flooded as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 2.46yAvAn artha udhapAnE sarvatha: sampluthOdhakE | thAvAn sarvEshu vEdhEshu brAhmaNasya vijAnatha: ||”  (For the one who desires to use some water, only that much is accepted from a reservoir which is filled with water in all sides. Similarly, For a wise mumukshu (one who is desirous of mOksham), though being a vaidhika [follower of vEdhas], in all of vEdhams, only that which is required (as means for mOksham) is pursued [Implies that all aspects of vEdhas need not be pursued by mumukshus]); so, a mumukshu (one who desires liberation) shall only absorb what is required for him/her. This vEdham is considered to be two parts, namely pUrva bhAgam (former part) and uththara bhAgam (latter part); in this, pUrva bhAgam elaborately explains the method of worship, and explains the goals such as svarga (heaven in this material realm) and the means to attain them; uththara bhAgam explains in great detail about sarvESvaran’s svarUpa (nature), rUpa (form), guNa (qualities) etc.

Now, what is the object/target of worship/meditation? The kAraNa vAkhyams (the aphorisms which identify the cause) establish that one should worship the cause of the world and other creations in the world. How so? Explaining in thaiththirya upanishath bruguvalli “yathO vA imAni bhUthAni jAyanthE … thadhvijigyAsasva thadhbrahma” (From which, the universe is created, on which, the universe is sustained, in which the universe dissolves, that is to be known and that is brahma), eliminating the scope of worship for other entities, established the worshippable nature of jagath kAraNa vasthu (that which is the cause of the world); it is said in chAndhOgya upanishath “kAraNam thu dhyEya:” (the object of meditation is that which is the cause of everything). That dhyEya vasthu (object of meditation) is explained by the word “sath” as in chAndhOgya upanishath “sadhEva sOmya idham agra AsIth” (Oh SvEthakEthu who is qualified to drink sOma juice! before creation, sath only existed) [first, eternity/permanence is established]; in another SAkhA (branch of vEdham), it is explained by the word “AthmA” in aitharEya upanishath “AthmAvA idhamEva agra AsIth” (before creation, the world existed as the soul) [then, its sentient nature is explained]; since that could be confusing, it is referred to by the word “brahma” in vAjasnEya “brahmavA idham agra AsIth” (before creation, the world existed as the brahma, the great)  [then, its huge/great nature is explained]; since brahma could have many meanings, it is explained by the word “nArAyaNa” in mahOpanishath “EkOhavai nArAyaNa AsIth” (only nArAyaNa existed before creation); but, vEdham also explains rudhra et al being the cause and worshippable as in svEthAsvathara upanishath “nasannasAchasachchiva Eva kEvala:” (neither sath (sentient entities) existed; nor asath (insentient entities) existed; only Siva existed) and in svEthAsvathara upanishath “Sambu: AkASa madhyE dhyEya:“(meditate upon Sambu who is amidst the ether); what is the purpose of those? Though they are indicated in this manner, by having purity and the ability to bestow joy, those names will only indicate nArAyaNa who is the viSEshya (substratum) [for those entities who are viSEshaNa (forms, attributes)]. Alright, if names like Sambu, Siva can be attributed to nArAyaNa, why can’t nArAyaNa name/form be attributed to one who is called Sambu, Siva etc? While Sambu, Siva names can be attributed to nArAyaNa by guNa yOgam [nArAyaNa having those specific qualities indicated in those names, i.e., Siva means pure, and nArAyaNa is obviously the source of all purity and so the name Siva can be attributed to nArAyaNa], name nArAyaNa cannot be indicated to any one else due to indicating nArAyaNa only by yOga rUdi (etymology/root and common prevalence). How is that certain names which commonly indicate certain personalities, are attributed to some other personalities? Words like indhra, prANa, AkASa do not just stop explaining the gross object and will go up to the underlying personality. Now, name indhra does not stop with indhra and will lead up to sarvESvara [who is the in-dwelling super soul of indhra and all]; similarly the word prANa does not stop with the five types vital air in the body but leads up to the one who sustains that prANa; similarly, the word AkASa does not stop with the great element space, but leads up to sarvESvara who sustains that space; similarly, the names Sambu, Siva et al will not stop short of indicating sarvESvara. In the same manner, as the words indicating prakAra (mode) will lead up to the prakAri (substratum), it will not stop short of indicating the prakAri [bhagavAn who is the prakAri of all].

Now, how can we explain what is explained in “thathOyath uththaratharam” [Others explain this as, there is purusha [nArAyaNa], but there is Siva, who is purushOththama. But our AchAryas explain this as, emperumAn who is greater than all individuals]? [Others ask] Having previously said sarvESvara using the word “purusha” and uththaratharam indicates “purushOththama”. How can this be explained? But since it is said in “yasmAthparamnAparamasthikinchith” (there is no one who is equal or greater than the supreme lord), the one who speaks like this [saying Siva is greater than sarvESvara] is speaking out of ignorance. He is speaking without studying the SAsthram properly first. When it says in “thasmin yadhanthasth upAithavyam” (that which is inside that bhagavAn should be meditated upon), it is stating that “just like him, his qualities [which rest on him] are also to be meditated upon”.

Now, bhagavAn who is the cause of the world and the object of meditation, should be present at all times. While explaining this in the context of samhAram (deluge), it explains “EkOhavai nArAyaNa AsIth” (Only nArAyaNa existed) and explains that others did not exist saying “nabrahmAnESAna:” (brahmA did not exist; rudhra did not exist). Now, to clear our doubt “do they have any greatness in comparison to others?”, it considers them equal to other entities as in “nEmEdhyAvApruthivI na nakshathrANi” (Sky did not exist, earth did not exist, stars did not exist). Even while explaining creation, it treats everyone equally as seen in thiruvAimozhi 7.5.4 “nanmaip punal paNNi nAnmuganaip paNNi” (emperumAn created the water and then created brahmA).

In this manner, AzhwAr mercifully removes any doubt in our mind about any supremacy of other dhEvathAs and tells “sarvESvaran who is greater than all, the creator of all, who is the abode of all auspicious qualities, the protector of all, in-dwelling supersoul of all, who is indicated by the name ‘nArAyaNa’, has descended along with all his greatness in AzhwAr]thirunagari to be visible for everyone; all of you enjoy him and be grateful to him”.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 103

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In this way for all your senses to fall in love with him, what did emperumAnAr do by his generosity; let us hear you say that;  amudhanAr replied – he destroyed my karmas and gave beautiful knowledge that is easy for me to benefit from.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – As amudhanAr became happy talking about how emperumAnAr made all of his senses to be most loving towards him, and showered his generosity specially for him, – if so, to make all your senses to be most loving towards him, are there more help that he showed towards you due to his generosity?  amudhanAr replies –

In this pAsuram – amudhanAr is celebrating the most angry and narasimha avathAr (incarnation) which is/are unique;, that sarvESvaran easily tore like tearing a small piece the beautiful body of  hiraNyAsura who was invading the abodes of dhEvas and troubling everyone in the world, with sword in his hand, was ruling with independent mind as a rogue;

keeping that sarvESvaran’s valor in his mind, emperumAnAr made all three types of sorrows in me run away without trace, and gave the inner knowledge of thathvam (truth), hitha (means), purushArtha (destiny), for me to very easily access them (like an easily available fruit in the palm of our hand).

(Three types of sorrows: AdhyAthmika (due to our own doing),  Adhi dhaivika (by god),   Adhi baudhika (due to nature)).

vaLarndha venkOpa madangal onRAy anRu vAL avuNan
kiLarndha ponnAgam kizhiththavan keerththip payir ezhundhu
viLaindhidum sindhai irAmAnusan enthan mey vinai nOy
kaLaindhu nal gyAnam aLiththanan kaiyil kani ennavE               –   103

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

vaLarndha – As said in ‘muLaiththa seeRRam viN sudap pOy [periya thirumozhi – 1.7.7]’ (~with anger that scorched those in the sky (dhevas)), even the devotees like dhEvas too were scared and anguished, He started growing very quickly,

vem – and with very fierce
kOpam – anger,
onRu –  and in unique form
madangalAy – (incarnated) as narasimha,
and as said in ‘anja eyiR ilaga vAy madiththadhen nee [mudhal thiruvanthAdhi – 93]’ (for hiranyan to fear, showing your teeth as with protruding folded lips – why did you continue to have that anger?),
seeing the frightening face, with lips having folded tongue, and with arms raised for finishing hiraNyan, as hiraNyan saw this and got fiery fear and got cooked well (suitable) to get killed,
then,
like tearing a dry grass,
kizhiththavan – easily tore away
pon – the golden
Agam –  body
kiLarndha – (that is grown without any deficiency)
avuNan – of hiraNyAsuran
anRu – on that day when he (hiraNyAsuran) harassed the little boy
as said in ‘vayir azhala vAL uruvi vandhAn [mudhal thiruvanthAdhi – 95]’ (came charging with sword for those seeing it to feel scared to the stomach about what might happen to emperumAn who has just been born (from the pillar)),
vAL – and who came opposing with his weapons;
irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr
sindhai – having divine mind
in which such sarvESvaran’s
keerththi – divine glory
payir – as a crop
like how in the good land, crop would grow rich and taller,
ezhundhu – it grew
viLaindhidhum – and became fruitful;
such emperumAnAr
kaLaindhu – removed
enRan – my
nOy – sorrows that are
mey vinai – result of karma related to the body;
kaiyil kani anna – and like a fruit in own hand, which would be easy and obvious
aLiththanan – (emperumAnAr) gave (me)
nal – distinguished
gyAnam – knowledge.
This is the result of love of my senses towards him: the help that emperumAnAr showed – is the answer of amudhanAr.
madangal – lion;  Saying ‘kiLarndha pon Agam’  also can mean, gold like body that is capable of opposing emperumAn.

(Note: This pAsuram can be read with inter-twining words for getting beautiful meanings:

vaLarndha vem kOpa madangal onRAy;
madangal onRAy anRu vAL avuNan kiLarndha pon Agam kizhiththavan;
pon Agam kizhiththavan keerththip payir;
keerththip payir ezhundhu viLaindhidum sindhai irAmAnusan;
irAmAnusan endhan mey vinay nOy kaLaindhu ;
mey vinay nOy kaLaindhu nal gyAnam aLiththanan;
nal gyAnam aLiththanan kaiyil kani ennavE)

vyAkyAnam

vaLarndha vem kOpam madangal OnRAy – As said in ‘asmin kshaNE mahA Sabdha sthambhEs samSruyathE bruSam (~ (hiraNyan) went fast and hit the pillar with his fist; it made huge noise of breaking)

‘ samvardhA aSani sangAtha ravavathsputithAndharam’ (~a form started growing big)

thEna SabdhE na mahathA dhaithyaSrOthravikAthinA (hearing that big sound, all the asuras were shivering with fear),

‘sarvE nipAdhithA bhUmau chinnamUla ivadhrumA: (like how a tree would fall, dhithi’s sons (asuras) fell)

‘pibhyanthi sakalA dhEvA:  menirEvai jagath kshayam (all the dhEvas were scared with fear, and thought that the world has come to an end),

‘ thAmsthUNAm  SathathAbhithvA (the pillar broke into hundreds of pieces)

‘vinishkrAnthO mahA hari:  (Hari in huge form came out, he who can see beyond the usual)

‘chakAra su mahAnAdham layASanibayasvanam (also made huge noise, which could create fear in every one) –

thEna nAdhEna mahathA thArakA: pathithA bhuvi  (hearing the noise, stars fell from the sky), ‘nrusimha vapurAsthAya thathraiva AvirabhUth hari: (incarnated as a lion head with human body)

‘anEka kOti sUryAgni thEjasA mahathAvrutha: (with divine body that is having brightness of crores of suns and fire)

‘mukE panjAna prakya: SareerE mAnushAkruthi: (with body in the form of human, and face in the form of a lion),

‘dhamshtrAkarALa vadhana: (With beautiful elongated canine teeth)

thrayakSha:  thri satOdhrutha:’ (with dense mane (hair) and three fiery eyes),

and,

‘angaN gyAlam anja angu Or AL ariyAy [periya thirumozhi – 1.7.1]’ (all three world to be afraid, there as a unique human-lion), and,

munaiththa seeRRam viN sudap pOy mUvulagum piRavum anaiththum anja AL ariyAy [periya thirumozhi – 1.7.7]’ (with driving anger reaching the sky (dhEvas) and scorching, with all the three worlds etc., everyone being afraid, incarnated as a human-lion), and,

erindha paingaN ilangu pEzh vAy [periya thirumozhi  – 1.7.6]’ (with fiery eyes and mouth like cave entrance),


narasimhar at bhavishyadhArchAryar sannidhi

Having the fury that whether humans or dhEvas they were scared and anguished, He grew quickly, completely frightening , completely fierce, and completely unbearable, and quite unique, and spewing flames  from the three eyes,  with lips having folded tongue, in one form in the upper part, and another form in the lower part – in such narasimham form;  madangal – lion.

anRu – As said in ‘dhEva thiryang manushyEshu sthAvarEshvapi janthusu – vyApthishtathi sarvathra bhUthEshvapi mahathsucha ((prahlAdhan says) whether dhEvas, humans, or even plants, and all beings, emperumAn is present fully in all the places and stays in them; He is in all the bhUthams as well, and in mUla prakruthi, etc.)

‘ithi prahlAdha vachnam SruthvA dhaithyapathis thathA, uvAcha rOshA thAm rAkSha: (hearing prahlAdhan’s words, the head of asuras (hiraNyan) talked with anger and red eyes) –

bharthsayan sva sutham muhu: ((and commanded-) torture and kill my son);

‘asau sarvagathO vishNu: ( (at that time) vishNu who is present everywhere)

‘abichEthparama:pumAn, prathyaksham dharSaya svAdhya’ (appeared in the pillar)

‘bahupi: kim pralApithai: ((prahlAdhan said) why do you keep asking, He is present in this pillar too) –

ith yukthvA sahasAdhaithya: prasAdhAth sthambhAmAthmana: – thAdayAmAsa hasthEna’  (hearing this, hiraNyan asked whether He would be present in this pillar, and went and hit the pillar with his fist),

‘prahlAdha idhamabraveeth asmin dharSayamE vishNum yadhi sarvagathO bhavEth (Oh prahlAdha! if what you said is true, then show Him to me in this pillar)

‘anyathAthvAm vadhishyAmi mithyA vAkhya pralAphinam’ (if he does not come from this pillar, I will punish you for lying),

and,

engum uLan kaNNan enRa maganaik kAyndhu ingu illAiyAl enRu iraNiyan thUN pudaippa [thiruvAimozhi – 2.8.9]’ (Harassing the son who said that emperumAn is present everywhere, hiraNyan hit the pillar, saying if he is not present here (then I will punish you)),

as he harassed the boy who fully explained emperumAn’s glory, and kicked the pillar with his leg;

on that day;

vAL avuNan kiLarndha pon Agam kizhiththavan –  As said in ‘ith yukthvA sahasA kadga mAdhAya dhithi jESvara:’ (the king of asuras came charging with his drawn sword),

and,

vayiRu azhala vAL uruvi vandhAnai [mudhal thiruvanthAdhi – 95]’ (came charging with sword for those seeing it to feel scared in the stomatch about what might happen to emperumAn who has just been born (from the pillar),

having sword (kadga) in hand, and charged towards Him – such hiraNyAsuran’s.

The asuran who troubled indhra and other groups of dhEvas, and who had invaded and fully occupied their abodes, and who forcefully took away the offerings given to dhEvas and ate it, and due to which had grown without any restriction, and having bright gold body;   that body;

Saying ‘kiLarndha pon Agam’  also can mean,  gold like body that is capable of opposing emperumAn.

As said in ‘evvam vevvEl pon peyarOn Ethalan in uyirai vavvi Agam vaLLugirAL vagirndha ammAnadhidam [periya thirumozhi – 1.7.4]’ (emperumAn who tore the stomach of the one having name as hiraNyan (name as gold)), and,

avuNan udal  [amalanAdhipirAn – 8, periyAzhvAr thirumozhi – 1.6.2, thiruvAimozhi – 7.2.5, thiruvAimozhi –7.6.11, thiruvAimozhi – 8.1.3, thiruvAimozhi – 9.10.6 ]’ (hiraNyan’s body), and,

idandhittiraNiyan nenjai iru piLavAga mun keeNdAy [periyAzhvAr thirumozhi – 2.7.7]’ (That time you split the chest of hiraNyan into two),

using sharp nails, very easily, like tearing the guts of a goat, tore into two pieces and threw away;

That emperumAn’s  –

keerththi – divine glory;

as said in purusha sUktham – ‘sahasra SIrshA purusha: sahasrAksha: sahasrapAdh I sa bhUmim viSvathO vruthvA athyathishtadhdhaSAngulam II” (nArAyaNa, who is called as purusha, has countless heads, countless eyes, countless legs; he surrounded the earth on all sides and pervaded for countless yOjanas (one yOjana is 10 miles or 16 kilometers) beyond the earth) ,

purusha EvEdha(g)m sarvam | yadhbhUtham yachcha bhavyam uthAmruthathvasyESAna: | yadhannE nA thirOhathi ||’  (Whatever has been or whatever is to be is all, purusha; He is the ruler of immortals,  and He appears to grow immensely through food; He is the owner of Himself)

‘EthAvAnasya mahimA’ (all that is His greatness);

and,

yachcha kinchith jagath sarvam dhruSyathe SrUyathE bhi vA,  antharbahiScha thathsarvam vyApya nArAyaNa sthitha: [nArAyaNa sUktham – 5]’ (nArAyaNan spans everywhere in the world, in everything that we see and hear, and is in its inside and outside)

and,

vEdhAhamEdham purusham mahAntham, Adhithya varNam thamsa: parasthAth, thamEvam vidhvAn amrutha ihabhavathi, nAnya: panthA ayanAya vidhyathE  [purusha sUktham]’ (I understood that purusha, having bright body, beyond thamas, he only understands Him, that is the only way to reach Him),

such glory of no equals, that is expressed by vEdha purusha.

payir ezhundhu viLaindhidum sindhai – If we plant seeds in a good field,  it would grow tall and rich and be fruitful; in the same way the paddy that is azhagiya singar’s (beautiful narasimhan emperumAn’s) glory to grow everyday and spread all over the world and be fruitful – one having such divine mind of valor (good field) – is –

irAmAnusan emperumAnAr.

Since for emperumAnAr the thiruvArAdhana perumAL is azhagiyasingar, amudhanAr is divining like this.

endhan mey vinay nOy kaLaindhu – As said in ‘karma brahma param vidhdhi ‘ (understand about karmam, understand about brahmam), and,

prakruthE: kriyamANAni guNai: karmANi sarvaSa:’ (jeevAthmA does not do anything, it is prakruthi that does it, and AthmA thinks it is doing it),

removing the sorrows that are the fruit of bad deeds which were done in batches of batches due to eternal ignorance, habit of such deeds, taste for that, and association with material realm.

kaiyil kani ennavE – nal gyAnam aLiththanan – As said in ‘sarva guhya thamam bhUya: SruNumE paramam vacha: – ishtOSimEdhruda ithi thathO vakShyAm dhEhitham [SrI bhagavath gIthA] (I am advising the most secret one to you. Hear the most noble words of me. I am telling you this good advice because you are important to me),

As part of love of my senses that was talked about in earlier pAsuram, emperumAnAr gave the inner knowledge of thathvam (truth), hitham (means), purushArtham (destiny/goal), for me to very easily access them (like an easily available fruit in the palm of our hand) – emperumAnAr imparted it in that way, is the conclusion.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

vaLarndha .. keeNdavan – chakravarthi thirumagan is known for not getting angry; He did not get angry even at the one who separated his soul and kept it on the other side of the ocean; but He bacame angry at rAvaNan when he hurt His devotee hanuman; emperumAn cannot tolerate those who hurt His devotees.

In the same way, narasimha perumAn too could not tolerate hiraNyan troubling His devotee prahlAdhan.

Like how it was ‘sinaththinAl – manaththukku iniyAn [thiruppAvai – 12] (He is sweet to our mind, due to His anger towards rAvaNan) there, it is ‘vem kOpam – keerththi’ (His glory is due to His anger) here.

The anger was due to harassing of his devotee. Such anger was so intense due to that, and so it was fearful even for the amicable ones like dhEvas. Such anger is a blessing for His devotees.

keerththi – is – narasimhan emperumAn’s glories of supremacy, helping a devotee when there is a danger, anger and at the same time showering His grace, etc.

emperumAnAr nurtures the thought of such qualities of this emperumAn everyday in his mind.

It is such thinking of this emperumAnAr the reason for his giving me this good knowledge, is the thought of amudhanAr.

Wealth for His devotees is this anger of His towards those who troubles His devotees. emperumAnAr is always having this emperumAn’s glory in his mind, and it helps remove the hiraNyan in me that is the disease called karmas.

gyAnam -> knowledge about narasimhan;  nal gyAnam -> knowledge about emperumAnAr who keeps the thoughts of knowledge about narasimhan. He gave me nal gyAnam.

So this help is such that the karmas are removed and it instigates interest for the senses to be involved in emperumAnAr’s qualities.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.11 – thiruvadiyai nAraNanai

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “This decad will help those who practice (learn/recite) it to attain the divine feet of emperumAn; hence,  you practice it, reach his divine feet and be uplifted”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

thiruvadiyai nAraNanai kEsvanaip param sudaraith
thiruvadi sErvadhu karudhich chezhum kurugUrch chatakOpan
thiruvadi mEl uraiththa thamizh AyiaraththuL ippaththum
thiruvadiyE adaivikkum thiruvadi sErndhonRuminE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thiruvadiyai – being sarvaSEshi (master of all)
nAraNanai – having the ability to be present as in-dwelling soul in every entity, to lord over every entity
kEsavanai – eliminating the hurdles of his devotees just as he killed kESi, the demoniac horse
param sudarai – on krishNa who is having unsurpassed radiance (due to having the relationship with all, having vAthsalyam (motherly forbearance) and having the ability to eliminate the enemies)
thiruvadi – his divine feet
sErvadhu – to attain
karudhi – having the intention
sezhum kurugUr – being the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which is having unsurpassed enjoyability
SatakOpan – nammAzhwAr
thiruvadi mEl – on his divine feet
uraiththa – mercifully spoke
thamizh AyiraththuL – among the thousand thamizh pAsurams
ip paththum – this decad
thiruvadiyE – those divine feet themselves
adaivikkum – help attain;

(you who are engaged in this decad)
thiruvadi – those divine feet
sErndhu – attain
onRumin – (being inseparable) try to serve them.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nammAzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which is having unsurpassed enjoyability, having the intention to attain the divine feet of krishNa, mercifully spoke about him who is the sarvaSEshi, who is having the ability to be present as in-dwelling soul in every entity, to lord over every entity and who eliminates the hurdles of his devotees just as he killed kESi, the demoniac horse; mercifully spoke in this decad among the thousand thamizh pAsurams on his divine feet; such decad will help one attain those divine feet themselves; you, who are engaged in this decad, attain those divine feet and try to serve them (being inseparable).

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • AzhwAr meditates upon emperumAn‘s act of eliminating the attachment towards other aspects and nurturing attachment towards emperumAn himself, and praises emperumAn;
  • thiruvadiyai – one who is the lord of all.
  • nAraNanai – Not just the having lordship, but even when one rejects such lordship, emperumAn has the vAthsalyam (motherly forbearance) which makes him not give up on anyone.
  • kEsavanai – Instead of merely showing motherly affection from outside, he appeared as a human [cowherd boy] and eliminated the enemies of them [the cowherd clan].
  • param sudarai – His supremacy which was visible even while assuming a human form.
  • thiruvadi sErvadhu karudhi – One who has the desire to reach his divine feet. From the beginning this is AzhwAr‘s desire, as seen in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1thuyaraRu sudaradi thozhudhu ezhu” (bow at the divine feet which removes the sorrows and rise).
  • sezhum kurugUrch chatakOpan – It is the birth in this town which caused this great love in AzhwAr [towards emperumAn] – similar to the nature of the land in SrI ayOdhyA will nurture rAma bhakthi.
  • thiruvadi mEl uraiththa ... – Among the thousand pAsurams, this decad will help one reach his divine feet; you too, for this, please go and pursue his divine feet. As you approach his divine feet, like a rice pot [which is totally dependent on its owner], giving up all enjoyment for self, try to serve his divine feet eternally. You serve him to his divine heart’s content, by being inseparable like iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) and serve him, as said in “sAyujyam prathipannAyE” (having attained an equal position, and having their hurdles eliminated, they remain eternal servitors) and as said in parama samhithA “yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi thEna thEna saha gachchathi” (wherever the lord goes, the servitor follows). For those who serve in this manner, do they have to give up what was given up by AzhwAr and pursue what was pursued by AzhwAr? This decad, on being meditated and practiced upon, will nurture detachment in worldly pleasures and will also help one reach his divine feet.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 102

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<< previous (mayakkum iruvinai valliyil)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In this way, in the matter of emperumAnAr who is having the quality of being most enjoyable, such that his quality of purifying is invisible/not given importance (asahyam), amudhanAr talks about how his inner and outer senses are focused with at most love towards him, and asks –  when there is so much of area in this world, what is the reason for your generosity to be growing towards me?

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – He talked about how if he talks about celebrating the purifying quality of emperumAnAr when one should be involved in his quality of enjoyability, it would be a blemish for those who are immersed in his quality of enjoyability and are weak out of love;

In this pAsuram – Due to the grace of those noble ones for the blemish to be rectified, both his inner and outer senses due to utmost love towards emperumAnAr has fully involved in it, says amudhanAr, and also, he is asking himself – what the reason could be for emperumAnAr’s divine generosity to grow surging towards me when there are so many sentient in this world.

naiyum manam un guNangaLai unni en nA irudhu em
aiyan irAmAnusan enRu azhaikkum aru vinaiyEn
kaiyum thozhum kaN karudhidum kANak kadal pudai sUzh
vaiyam idhanil un vaNmai en pAl en vaLarndhadhuvE                 –   102

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

manam – mind
unni – would contemplate
guNangaLai – the qualities
un – of your highness
naiyum – and become weak within;
en – my
nA – tongue
irundhu – would be focused / always
em aiyan irAmAnusan enRu – and say about our absolute relationship (aiyan – father), and, divine names,  {translator’s note: ‘em aiyan irAmAnusan’ is the divine name of maNavALa mAmunigaL’s  divine son of pUrvASramam}
azhaikkum – and call (you);
While this is so, since time eternal , these (senses) were kept subservient to inappropriate matters
aru vinaiyEn – by me who is the at most sinner (that is, I was not understanding the glory of devotees, but was doing services only to emperumAn)
such is me,
kaiyum – my hands
thozhum – always perform anjali bandham (joining of palms of hands, with reverence);
kaN – eyes
kANa – seeing your highness at all times
karudhidum – is what it wishes for;
when there are so many being born
idhu vaiyaththil – in this earth
pudai sUzh – that is surrounded fully in all sides
kadal – by ocean,
en – due to what reason
un – your
vaNmai – generosity (audhAryam)
en pAl – towards me
vaLarndhadhu – has grown?
azhaikkum – will call (the name);
kaN karudhidum – eyes will contemplate – says due to ‘chEthana samAdhi’  (it is not the eyes themselves, but the AthmA that directs the eyes);

vyAkyAnam

naiyum manam un guNangaLai unni – Since it is the reason for not fulfilling the wish of bharathAzhvAn who came thinking ‘EbiScha sachivais sArdham’ (~I have come along with everyone, please come back to ayOdhyA), and since it is the reason for leaving periya pirAttiyar in the forest who had said ‘ananyA rAghavENAham’ (~I will never separate from rAghavan), and since it is the reason for giving up of iLaiya perumAL (lakShmaNa) who had said ‘guNair dhAsyam upAgatha:’ (I am his servant who am lost to his qualities), those auspicious qualities of sarvESvaran would invoke fear in his devotees.

unlike that, my mind is completely staying weak inside due to the experience of contemplating sauSeelyam, saulabhyam, vAthsalyam, etc., qualities of you who has incarnated with a vow to save the sentient entities who are immersed in the leelA vibhUthi (this world), and scorched by disagreeableness.

As said in ‘AhlAdha seetha nEthrAmbu: pulakeekrutha gAthravAn sadhA paraguNAvishta:’ (tears flowing from eyes, hairs bristling, mind always enjoying emperumAn’s qualities), he is saying that his mind suffered the suffering a sentient would go through.

His auspicious qualities are so enjoyable that even the non-sentient mind also would melt, you see!

en nA irundhu em aiyan irAmAnusan enRu azhaikkum aru vinaiyEnby kAkAkshi nyAyam (crow seeing sideways), (aru vinaiyEn) needs to be included for previous and next phrases.

en nA – my tongue (jihvA)

From time eternal till now, it was engaged in other lowly matters; my tongue which was ‘asath keerthana kAnthAra parivarthana pAmsulai’ (tongue is looking around to praise some one, like looking around lost in a forest);

irundhu – experiencing your auspicious qualities, it stayed completely involved in it fixed in one place; even for you who granted this it would be difficult to shake it off from the place; like the creeping plant that would be having only the stem, my tongue would talk about only one thing (now).

em aiyan – As said by ‘asannEva bhavathi’ (I was staying like a rock), I was staying like a non-sentient, and, as said by ‘santhamEnamthathOvidhu:’ (He becomes a noble one (who understands about brahmam)), emperumAnAr gave his grace and made me something – thinking about this grace, and considering what is said in ‘sahi vidhyAthastham janayathi’ (AchAryan gives the birth of knowledge), and, ‘gururmathA guru:pithA’ (guru is mother, guru is father), and, ‘anRu nAn piRandhilEn piRandha pin maRandhilEn [thiruchchandha viruththam – 64]’ (before getting birth of knowledge I was like unborn; after getting the birth of knowledge I have not forgotten about emperumAn), and ‘mAtha pithA yuvathayas thanayA vibhUthis sarvam [sthOthra rathnam – 5]’ (mother, father, women, children, are all nammAzhvAr for me), and ‘thandhai nal thAy thAram [Arththi prabandham – 3]’ (Father, good mother, wife, (brothers, huge wealth is all you for me ethirAsA)), and in thousand such references it is talked about this special relationship;  considering you as the absolute relation; considering your relationship,

irAmAnusan – when incarnated as younger brother of chakravarthi thirumagan (SrI rAman), he said ‘nacha seethA thvayA heenA nacha aham api rAghava – muhUrtham api jeevAvOjalAn mathsyA vivOdhruthau’ (Like how a fish would lose its life if left outside the water, seethA and I will lose our life if we are separated from you (if you go to the forest alone by yourself)), was ananyArhar (not wishing for anyone else) like pirAtti, and won mEghanAthan (indhrajith) who is the enemy of devotees – involved in such auspicious qualities, and which is shown by this divine name as well.

emperumAnArvAnamAmalai

enRu azhaikkum – like how in the shore of the pool SrI gajEndhrAzhvAn wailed loudly, (my tongue) called (your divine name);  azhaikkum – calling (the name).

In case of emperumAn that divine name is called after forgetting to call for some time, as said in ‘dhasyubhi: mushithEnaiva yuktham AkranthithumbruSm’ (If thieves come together to steal, one would shout to alert) (In the same way one calls emperumAn’s name when there is difficulty of senses (which are like thieves) which trouble the person).

It is unlike that here, it is wished to call emperumAnAr’s name while continuously thinking about him itself;

AzhvAr too called with loud voice thinking about what happened in the past, as ‘puNarA ninRa maramEzh anRu eydha oru vil valavAvO, puNarEy ninRa maram iraNdin naduvE pOna mudhalvAvO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.5]’ ((‘O’ is a calling of Him about the situation) – you broke through the seven trees by His arrow, you went in between the two trees).

That is, due to the overflowing love born out of experiencing your auspicious qualities, my mind fully called your name of glories;

aru vinayEn kaiyum thozhum ­ – As said in ‘nAnE nAnAvidha narakam pugum pAvam seydhEn [periya thirumozhi – 1.9.2]’ (I myself (automatically) performs sins that would set me up for various types of hells), and ‘pAvamE seydhu pAviyAnEn [periya thirumozhi – 1.9.9]’ (~became a sinner by doing only sins), and, ‘na nindhitham karma thadhasthi lOkE sahasraSO yanna mayA vyadhAyi’ (sthOthra rathnam 23 – There are thousands of karmas in this world, I have accumulated all the disapproved karmas), and,

‘and,

yAvachcha yachcha dhuritham sakalasyajanthO: thAvachcha thaththadhadhigam cha mamAsthi sathyam’, (all the sins committed by all the people in the world for how many ever times, sins above that level are truly present in me),

hands of me who from time eternal, made the faculties that belong to you to be belonging to inappropriate matters, and due to that, performed completely cruel sins, and now, involving in the auspicious qualities of yours, is doing anjali bandham (badhdhanjali (joining of palms with reverence)) towards you.

You see, amudhanAr is standing shoulder-to-shoulder with (doing the same thing as) those living in SvEtha dhveepam as said in ‘badhdhAnjali puda hrushtA: nama ithyEva vAdhina:’ (~with automatically joined palms, and shouting nama: those in SvEtha dhveepam ran towards emperumAn).

kaN karudhidum kANa – My eyes which till now was thinking about seeing other lowly matters, as said in ‘undhan meyyil piRangia seer [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 104]’, is now wishing to see the divine body of your highness which is bright due to the enjoyable auspicious qualities of yours.

As said in ‘kadhA dhrakShyAmahE rAjan jagatha: klESa nASanam [SrI rAmAyaNam – 83](bharathan prays – when will I see rAman who can remove the sorrows of the world), and,

kANumARu aruLAy [thiruvAimozhi – 7.2.3]’ (~ grace me to see you),  and,

kANa vArAy [thiruvAimozhi4.7.1 / 6.9.4 / 8.5.1 / 8.5.2 / 9.2.4]’ (~come (for me) to see), and,

kadhAnu sAkShAthkara vANi chakShushA [gadhya thrayam] (When will I see my lord bhagavAn nArAyaNan), and, ‘nEthrAsAth kuru kareeSa sadhA’ (When will I be able to see emperumAn (dhEvap perumAL)),

SrI bharathAzhvAn, AzhvAr, and AchAryas divined these in the matter of emperumAn;

in the same way amudhanAr is divining this (in the matter of emperumAnAr).

It is said too, ‘rUpam thavAsthu yathirAja dhruSOr mamAgrE’ (~I, without any effort of mine, shall see your beautiful form to the satisfaction of my eyes);

If asking whether it is appropriate to say that eyes which are non-sentient as ‘would wish to see’, as said in ‘kAmArththAhi prathikrupaNA chEthanA chEthanEshu’ (~If someone grows with desire, he would do anything even which should not be done), due to the spell of love, talking about it as a sentient is acceptable.

kadal pudai sUzh vaiyam idhanil – When there are so many sentient in this world surrounded by oceans on all sides;

un vaNmai – generosity of yours, you who came and incarnated with a vow to save all the sentient, is making only me to be involved in this way, and also, my senses/faculties also are involved individually – such generosity of you who graced this to happen – is the thought.

en pAl en vaLarndhadhuvE – It grew further and further towards me only; what is the reason for this – I would not know – I am ignorant. Is there any effort/eligibility on my side? Knowing that it is not there, I ask you this question. Your highness knows everything. If your highness knows anything about this, please reply about it.

Since emperumAnAr did not seem to reply to that, amudhanAr concludes that emperumAnAr did this without any reason, and becomes happy.

thiruvarangaththu amudhanAr celebrates emperumAnAr’s generosity in each pAsuram; it is like a delicate youth (prince) who knows the enjoyment of food, would wish for ghee for every handful of food.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

naiyum manam un guNangaLai unni – By this it talks about the inner sense, that is, mind. Saying these as the doer shows that without expecting amudhanAr they are automatically attracted to emperumAnAr’s qualities.

un guNangaLai – Qualities like the beauty of your divine body. Since the other senses talked about in the pAsuram are related to body, the qualities of emperumAnAr also shall be about his divine body.

Now, it can also be about his qualities like kindness, generosity etc., which show the nature of his body which is not of material realm.

en nA irundhu em aiyan irAmAnusan enRu azhaikkum – Since it is your divine name, the tongue that got the taste of it would not stop saying it.  It would be sweet for anyone who recites his name; in addition, if there is a relationship with him, it would be a double treat. So my tongue would always be talking about our relationship and your name.

em aiyan – our father. Since he gave knowledge and made us something worth, he is a father.

kaiyum thozhum – While reciting your names, the hands automatically join together. Even today we see the noble ones joining their hands (anjali) when reciting ‘kurugUrch chatakOpan’, isn’t it?

kaN karudhidum kANa – Why ‘karudhidum’ (would wish to), whereas for tongue and hands it is definitive, but not so in case of the eyes?  It is because, as said in ‘kaNda kaNgaL pani arumbu udhirumAlO en seygEn [thirumAlai – 18]’, due to happiness, eyes would be filled with tears and cannot see clearly, so it has to be said like this.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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జ్ఞానసారము 1

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                    ఆత్మకు అపారమైన ఆనందమును ఇవ్వగలిగినది కుటుంబపు పేరు. దానిని పొందుటకు 1. తిరు మంత్రము 2. ద్వయ మంత్రము   3. చరమశ్లోకము అను మూడు మంత్రముల సారమును ఆచార్య ముఖముగా తెలుసుకోవలసి వుంది. ఈ మూడింటిని  రహస్య త్రయములని అంటారు. దీనిని తెలుసుకోవాలన్న కోరిక వున్న వారికి తప్ప అన్యులకు చెప్పరాదను నియమము కలదు. అందు వలననే వీటిని రహస్య మంత్రములని పేరు. ఈ మూడు మంత్రములు సమస్త వేద సారములుగా విరాజిల్లుతున్నవి. పైగా ఇవి పరమాత్మ స్వరూపమును, ఆయనను పొందు ఉపాయమును, ఆయనను అనుభవించటము వలన కలుగు అపార ఆనందమును తెలియ జేస్తాయి. ఇవి జనన మరణ చక్రములో పడి కొట్టుకొను చేతనులకు ముక్తి మార్గమును తెలుపునవి , మోక్షమును ఇచ్చునవి,  భగవతుడి చేత చెప్పబడినవి.”తిరుమంత్రము ” బదరికాశ్రమములో భగవంతుడు తానే  నరుడిగా  శిష్యుడై అవతరించి ,  నారాయణుడిగా ఆచార్యుడై  అవతరించి ఉపదేశించారు.  ” ద్వయ మంత్రమును ” శ్రీ వైకుంఠములో శ్రీమహాలక్ష్మి కి ఉపదేశించారు.  ” చరమ శ్లోకమును ” మహాభారత యుధ్ధ సమయములో అర్జునుడికి రథము మీద ఉండి చెప్పిన శ్రీమద్భగవద్గీత చివరలో   ఉపదేశించారు. ఈ మూడు మంత్రములు  అనాదిగా గురుపరంపర ద్వారా తరతరాలుగా ఉపదేశింబడుతున్నవి. వీటి ఔన్నత్యము తెలిసిన మన పూర్వాచార్యులకు ఇది పెన్నిధిగా విరాజిల్లినది. అంతే కాక నిత్య అనుసంధానముగా అమరినవి. ((ఈ మూడు రహస్యములు బీరువాలో దాచి పెట్టిన లౌకికమైన సొత్తు వలెకాకుండా , ఎంత ఉపయోగ పరచ గలిగితే అంత ఉపయోగపడేవి. మన పూర్వాచార్యులు వీటిని తమ దినచర్యలో భాగముగా పొందుపరిచారు. అటువంటి గొప్ప ఔనత్యము కలిగినవి ఇవి.

తిరుమంత్రము ” ను  మొదటి రహస్యమని అంటారు. ఇది మూడు పదములతో కూడిన మంత్రము. అవి “ఓం “, “నమః” , “నారాయణాయ ” అనునవి.  “ఓం “,అనే పదము ప్రణవము యొక్క అర్థమును సూక్ష్మముగా తెలియజేస్తున్నది.  “నమః”,”నారాయణాయ ” అనే  పదములు ఓంకారములో చెప్పిన అర్థములను వివరిస్తున్నట్లుగా అమరినవి.( జీవాత్మ, పరమాత్మా స్వరూపం , శేష శేషి సంబంధం, ఈ సంబంధం యొక్క మొదలు, ఎప్పటివరకు ఉంటుందో మరియు ఈ జీవుడు మరి ఇంక ఎవరికైనను శేషిగా ఉండే విషయముల గురించి చెప్పబడినది.)

తిరుమంత్రములోని మధ్యమ పదమైన “నమః” ,చివరి పదమైన “నారాయణాయ ” లోని అర్థాలు క్రమముగా ద్వయ మంత్రములో మొదటి భాగములోను  చివరి భాగములోను చెప్పబడినది. ఈ విధముగా రెండు భాగములతో వున్న ద్వయ మంత్రము , మంత్రములన్నింటిలోను ఉన్నతమైనది .అందువలన ఇది మంత్ర రత్నమని పొగడబదింది. ఇందులోని మొదటి భాగములో భగవంతుడిని శరణాగతి చేయు  మార్గములు చెప్పబడింది. భగవంతుడిని శరణాగతి చేయు నప్పుడు ఇతర సంబంధములన్నింటినీ పూర్తిగా వదిలివేయాలి, అలా చెసే శరణాగతి కూడ ఇతర ప్రయోజనములను పొందడానికి కాక భగవంతుడిని పొందడమే ప్రయోజనముగా వుండాలి. ఇంకను , ఈ శరణాగతి కూడా ఉపాయముగా భావించవలదు.( ఎందుకనగా, అలా భావించిన భగవానుని శ్రీ చరణములు కాకుండా మరి వేరే యొక్క అనగా మనము చేసే శరణాగతి కూడా మోక్షము ను ఇవ్వగలుగుతుంది అన్నట్టుగా ఉంది. మనము చేసేశరణాగతి ఎట్టి పరిస్థితులో మోక్షం ఇవ్వజాలదు).  భగవంతుడి  శ్రీపాదములే శరణమన్న భావనతో శరణాగతి చేయాలి. ద్వయ మంత్రములోని చివరి భాగములో ధృడ అధ్యవసాయము కలవారికి పురుషార్థమైన మహాలక్ష్మితో కూడిన స్వామికి , అర్థాత్ ఆ దివ్య దంపతుల మిథునమునకు కైంకర్యము చేయుట గురించి చెప్పబడింది. 

ఇది శ్రీరామాయణములో సీతారాములకు లక్ష్మణుడు చేసిన కైంకర్యము వంటిది. ఈ  కైంకర్య భాగ్యము విరోధి స్వరూపమిలన్ని తొలగిపోయిన తరువాతనే లభిస్తుంది. రెండు భాగములతో కూడిన ఈ ద్వయ మంత్ర సారమును చరమశ్లోకమనే మూడవ మంత్రములో  వివరించబడము జరిగింది.  ఈ మూడు మంత్రములలోను ద్వయ మంత్రమే ముఖ్యమైనదిగా మన పూర్వాచార్యులు భావించారు.

ద్వయ మంత్రం  తిరుమంత్రము మరియు చరమ శ్లోకం నడుమ అమరినది. ఇది తిరుమంత్రములోని  నమః మరియు నారాయణ పదముల  అర్థమును వివరిస్తుంది అదే సమయము ద్వయములో ని కొన్ని నిగూఢ అర్థంలు వివరించు  చరమ శ్లోకం నుకు ఒక పునాది వేస్తుంది. తిరుమంత్రమునకు మరియు చరమ శ్లోకం లో శ్రీ సంబంధము ఉన్నప్పటికిని  కేవలము ద్వయములోనే ప్రస్ఫుంటగా శ్రీ శబ్దం చెప్పబడినది. ఇంత గొప్పదైన ద్వయ మంత్రములోని మొదటి భాగములో ఏమి చెప్పబడింది. భగవంతుడి శ్రీపాదములకు శరణాగతి చేయటము. అవి రెండు విధములు. ఇప్పుడే పరమపదము పొందాలని కోరటము ఒకటి,అలా కాక నీ శ్రీపాదములకు శరణాగతి చేస్తాను. నువ్వు ఎప్పుడు పరమపదము ఇస్తావో అప్పుడే ఇవ్వు అనటము రెండవది. ఇందులో మొదటిది కోరతగనదిగాను, రెండవది కోరతగనిదిగాను పెద్దలు చెపుతారు. ఇప్పుడే పరమపదము పొందలని చేయు శరణాగతిని గురించి  ఈ జ్ఞానసారములోని మొదటి పాశురమైన  ”  ఊన ఒడల్ శిరై ” లో  చెప్పారు.

pattabhishekam

పాశురము-1

ఊన ఒడల్ శిరై నీత్తు ఒణ్ కమల కేళ్వనడి

త్తేన్ నుగరుం ఆశైమిగు సిందై యారాయ్దానే

పళుంత్తాళ్ విళుం కని పోల్ పత్తత్తు విళుం

విళుక్కాటే తాన్ అరుళుం వీడు

ప్రతి పదార్థము;

ఊన = చీము,నెత్తురుతో కూడిన

ఒడల్ = శరీరము

శిరై = చెరసాల నుండి

నీత్తు = బయటపడి

ఒణ్ కమల కేళ్వన్ = అందమైన తామరయే నెలవైన లక్ష్మీ దేవికి నాథుడైన శ్రీమన్నారాయణుని

అడిత్తేన్ = శ్రీపాదములనె తేనెలను

నుగరుం = అనుభవించు

ఆశైమిగు సిందై యారాయ్ =కోరిక గలవారై

పళువీడుత్తాళ్ = ముదర పండితే

దానే విళుం = తానుగా పడిపోయే

కని పోల్ = పండులాగా

పత్తత్తు = వైరాగ్యముతో (భవ బంధములను చేధించుకొని)

వీళుం = శరణాగతి చేయు

విళుక్కాడు తానే = వైరాగ్యమే

వీడు  అరుళుం = ఉన్నత స్థానమును కల్పించగలదు

వివరణ:

శరీరము, చీము నెత్తురు, మాంసములతోను, నరములు, ఎముకలు, మజ్జ, మలమూత్రములతో కూడినది. దీనిని ” పుండారము” అంటారు. శరీరము మీద ఈగ రెక్కంత తోలు లేచి పోతే , ఈగ,చీమ, కాకి వంటివి వచ్చి వాలుతాయి ( “నాలడియార్ తురవరవియల్”-తూయ్ తన్మై లో -1) . శరీరము లోపలి భాగము బయటి భాగము చేస్తే కాకులను తోలటమే జీవితమవుతుంది.

ఇటువంటి హీనమైన శరీరములోని దోషాలను తెలుసుకొన్న వారికి , ” నేను” అని చెప్పబడే ఆత్మ దీనిలో బందీ అయిన ఖైదీలా (తినుట, వస్త్రము కట్టుకొనుట, జీవించుట) తోస్తుంది. కుండలో పెట్టిన మాణిక్యము యొక్క ప్రకాశము కుండలోనే ఉండి పోయినట్లు, దేహములో ఉన్న ఆత్మ గుణములు దేహములోనే బందీ అయి ఉన్నవి. ఆత్మ ,శరీరములో దాగి ఉన్నది.  ఇది ఆత్మకు భగవంతుడు ఇచ్చిన చెఱశాల దండన అని తెలుసుకోవాలి. దీనిని చెఱశాల శిక్షగా భావించక , భోగముగా భావించుట  మూఢత్వమే అవుతుంది. కావున శరీరము యొక్క వాస్తమైన స్థితిని తెలుసుకున్న వారు జ్ఞానులవుతారు. వారు లౌకిక జీవనము నుండి బయట పడుటకు ప్రయత్నము చేస్తారు. అలా ప్రవర్తించే జ్ఞానులు భగవంతుని దగ్గర శరణాగతి చేయటము తప్ప మరే ఇతర మార్గమును చూడ లేరు. ఈ చెఱ నుండి విడిపించు వాడు భగవంతుడే అని భగద్గీతలో  ఆయనే చెప్పారు.  ఆత్మకు శరీరము ఏర్పడుట పురాకృత కర్మ వలన. అటువంటి కర్మను పోగొట్టుకొనుటకు శరణాగతి ఒక్కటే తప్ప మరేదీ ఉపాయము కాదు. నా పాదములను పట్టి శరణాగతి చేస్తే ఆ చెర నుండి నేను తప్పిస్తాను అన్నాడు భగవంతుడు.

ఒక (బంగారు) పిచ్చుక కట్టిన గూటిని మనము విడదీయ లేము, అలాంటిది భగవంతుడు కట్టిన ఈ శరీరమనే గూటిని మనము విడదీయగలమా? చెఱలో చిక్కిన శ్రీమంతుడికి దానినుండి బయట పడి సుఖభోగములననుభవించిటము కంటే చెఱ నుండి బయటకు రావడమే ముఖ్యముగా తోస్తుంది. అలాగే ఆత్మ ఈశరీరము నుండి బయట పడుటే పెద్ద  విషయముగా తోస్తుంది. కానీ అది అంత సులభము కాదు. దానికి శరణాగతి చేయటము ఒకటే మార్గము. ఆ శ్రియః పతి శ్రీచరణాలలో శరణాగతి చేయటము తేనె లాగా ఎంతో తియ్యనిధి. ఆ  తియ్యదనమును అనుభవించిన వారికి,  మిక్కిలి ప్రీతితో దానిలోనే మునిగి వుండాలని అనిపిస్తుంది. బిడ్డ తల్లి పాలకోసము ఎలా ఆశతో చూస్తుందో ,అలాగే శరణాగతి చేయు వారు, భగవంతుడి శ్రీపాదముల తేనేను ఆస్వాదించుటకు ఆత్రుతతో వుంటారు.  ఆ ఆత్రుతలో తాను గతములో పట్టుకున్న లౌకిక విషయములను వదిలి వేస్తాడు. అవి కూడ వీరిని వదిలి వేస్తాయి అని ఈ పాటలో భావము. చెట్ట మీద పండిన పండు తానే ఎలా పడి పోతుందే, అలాగే భగవంతుని శ్రీపాదములకు చేసే శరణాగతి లౌకిక బంధనాలు తామే వదిలివేసే విధముగా కృప చేస్తుంది.

కావున , శరీరముతో జీవించుటను చెఱగా  గ్రహించి ,దాని నుండి విడివడుటకు భగవంతుని శ్రీపాదములను అనుభవించు కోరిక గలవారు అమ్మవారి కృపతో లౌకిక జీవనముపై గల  కోరికలను పూర్తిగా వదిలి వేసి పురుషకారముతో, భగవంతుని శ్రీపాదములను శారణాగతి చేస్తే  ఆయన వేంటనె  మోక్షమును ప్రసాదిస్తాడు అని ఈ పాటలో చెపుతున్నారు.

ఇంటి పేరు అనగా జనన మరణ చక్రమును వీడి భగవంతుని వద్దకు చేరడము. అటు వైపున ఉండే లౌకిక విషయముల కడు కష్టములు అనే సముద్రమును దాటి ఇటు వైపున ఉండే  శ్రీ  చరణములు చేరుట ” అక్కరై ఎన్నుం అనర్త కడలుళ్ అళుంది ఇక్కరై యేరి ఇళైత్తిరుందేన్ ” (అద్దరి అనే అనర్దమైన సముద్రములో మునిగి ఇద్దరి చేరి చిక్కిపోఅయాను) (  పెరియాళ్వార్ తిరుమొళి-5-3-7) అన్నారు  పెరియాళ్వార్లు.

ఇక్కడ ఒక వేదాంత చర్చ చేయబడింది. శరణాగతియే మోక్షమునిస్తుందని అంటే, భగవంతుడు మోక్షమునిస్తాడని చెప్పటానిని ఖండిస్తుంది కదా? పైగా  శరణాగతి అనే విషయమే తెలియకుండా చేసే చర్యలకు మోక్షమునిచ్చే శక్తి వుందని చెప్పటము వాస్తవానికి వ్యతిరేకము కాదా? అనే ప్రశ్నలు ఉదయిస్తాయి.

వీటికి సమాదానాలేమిటో చూద్దము:

భక్తుడు చేసే శరణాగతియో, భక్తియో, తపస్సో, నోములో, ఏవైనా సరే భక్తుడిని మోక్షము పొందుటకు అర్హుడిని  చేస్తుంది ,అంతే కాని  మోక్షముని వ్వదు.   శరణాగతికి కరిగి భగవంతుడే  మోక్షమునిస్తాడు. దీనిని,  ” అధికారి విశేషణము”అని శాస్త్రము చెపుతుంది. దీనికి ఉదాహరణ – మెరక ప్రాంతమును తవ్వి లోతు చేసి కట్ట వేస్తారు. వాన పడినప్పుడు నీళ్ళు నిండుతాయి. ఏరు ఏర్పడుతుంది. ఏరు కట్టటము  వాన పడుటకు కారణము కాదు. కాని, వాన పడేటప్పుడు ఏరు వుంటేనే నీరు నిండుతుంది.  అలాగే ఆత్మలు చేసే శరణాగతి మొదలైన వేవీ భగవంతుడు కృప చేయుటకు కారణము కాదు. భగవంతుడి కృప ఏ కారణము వలన ఏర్పడదు. సహజ సిద్దమైనది. అలాంటి సహజ సిద్దమైన కరుణ ఏర్పడునప్పుడు దానిని పొందుటకు ఆత్మలు అర్హత కలిగి వుండాలి. ఆ అర్హత ” శరణాగతి ” అనీ ” భక్తి” అనీ నోము అనీ పుణ్యములనీ చెప్పబడుతున్నాయి. ఇలా అర్హతలుండడమే కారణములుగా చెప్పలేము.” వనత్తిడరై ఏరియాం వణ్ణం ఇయఱ్ఱుం ఇతువల్లాల్ మారి యార్ పొయిగిర్పార్?మఱ్ఱు ఎన్ఱు ” ( అడవిలో ఏరు ఏర్పడడానికి కారణము ఎవరు?)అని భూదత్తళ్వార్లు చెప్పారు. ” ఇవి శరణాగతి చేయుటకు అర్హతను కల్పిస్తాయి. భగవంతుడు స్వయముగా మోక్షమునిస్తాడు. అన్న యదార్దములు ఇక్కడ తెలుస్తున్నాయి.  మాంసమయమైన శరీరములో జీవించుట చెఱ వాసము లాగా భావించి  విడుదల పొందుటకు మనసు పరితపించాలి. లక్ష్మీనారాయణుని శ్రీపాదములను చేరుటే శరణాగతి అవుతుంది. అది పండిన పండు కాడ నుండి విడివడినట్లు సకల బంధములను వదిలి వేయుట అవుతుంది.

మోక్షమును పొందుటకు శరీరము విరోధి అవుతుంది. ఆ  విరోధిని వదిలించుకోవటానికి భగవంతుడి శ్రీపాదముల వద్ద చేసే శరణాగతియే సాధనము అవుతుంది. దీకి వివరణగా రామాయణములో భరతుడు,విభీషణుడు శ్రీరాముడి శ్రీపాదములకు  శరణాగతి చేసిన విధమును చూడవచ్చు.  భరతుడు, తన తల్లి వలన కష్టముల పాలయ్యాడు. విభీషణుడు తన అన్న వలన కష్టముల పాలయ్యాడు. ఇద్దరూ తమ కష్టటములను తాళలేని వారే.

” తొళుదు ఉయర్ కైయినన్, తువండ మేనియన్,

అళుదు అళి కణ్ణినన్, ‘అవలం ఈదూ ఎన

ఎళుదియ పడివం ఒత్తు ఎయిదువాన్

‘భరతనుం తొళుతు తోన్నినాణ్ మలరడి వందు వీళ్దనన్”

( కంబ రామాయణం- అయో-49 తిరువడి సూట్టు పడలం) ( జోడించిన చేతులు, వేలాడిపోయిన శరీరము, దుఃఖము వలన ఎర్రబారిన కన్నులు, అశక్తుడినని వాపోతూ పాదముల మీద వచ్చి వాలాడు భరతుడు)

ఇది భరతుడి శరణాగతి. ” అధికారి విశేషణము” .ఇదే భగవంతుడు కృప చేయుటకు  అర్హత అవితుంది.

” కరంగళ్ మీచ్చుమందు సెల్లుం కదిర్ మణి ముడియన్, కల్లుం

మరంగళుం ఉరుగ నోక్కుం కాదలన్,కరుణై వళ్ళల్

ఇరంగినన్ నోక్కుం తోలుం ,ఇరునిలంత్తు ఇరైంజుగిన్రన్

వరంగళిన్ వారి అన్నతాళ్ ఇణై వందు వీళ్దాన్ ”

( కంబ రామాయణం-యుధ్ధ-విభీషణుడి  శరణాగతి-137)

పై రెంటిలోను ఆత్మ శరీరమనే చెఱ నుండి విడివడుట వలన భగవంతుడి శ్రీపాదములందు శరణాగతి చేయుటకు అర్హమైనవి. భరతుడికి కైక వలన వచ్చిన కష్టము, విభీషణుడికి అన్న వలన వచ్చిన కష్టము , ఆత్మకు శరీరము వలన వచ్చిన కష్టము , ఎటువంటి కష్టమైనా అది తీరుటకు భగవంతుడి శ్రీపాదములందు శరణాగతి చేయుటే ఉపాయము కాగలదు. అలాగే ఈ ఆత్మ శరీరమనే చెఱ నుండి విడివడుటానికి ఆర్తితో  భగవంతుడి శ్రీపాదములందు శరణాగతి చేసాడు.

” ఈ ప్రాణములను స్వీకరించవా? ” అని కరిగి పోయాడు,ఆగాడు- కృష్ణుని కన్నులనే పుండరీకములు కృపను వర్షించగా – వాడు ప్రంపంచమంతా నిండి పొంగి పోయాడు.

” అయావుయిర్త్తు, అళుకణీర్ అరువి మార్పిది

ఉయర్వుర ,తిరువుళ్ళం ఉరుగ, పుల్లినాన్

నియాయం అత్తనైక్కుం ఓర్ నిలై ఆయినన్

తయా ముదల్ అఱ్త్తినై త్తళి ఇయతు ఎన్నవే ”

( కంబ రామాయణం- అయో-55 తిరువడి సూట్టు పడలం)

ఇది భరతుడి యందు రాముడు  చూపిన దయ

”  గునోడు ఐవర్ ఆనోం మున్బుపిన్ కున్రు సూళ్వాన్

మగనోడు అరువర్ ఆనోం, ఎం ముళై అంబు వంద

అగన్ అమర్ కాదల్ ఐయ! నిన్నోడుం ఎళువర్ ఆనోం

పుగల్ అరుంగానం తంతు పుదల్వరాల్ పొలిందాన్-నుందై”

( కంబ రామాయణం- యుధ్ధ-143విభీషణ  పడలం)

తిరువడి ముడియిన్ సూడి ,సెంకతిర్ ఉచ్చి సేర్ న్ద

అరువరై ఎన్న, నిన్ర అరక్కర్ తం అరసై నోక్కి

ఇరువరుం ఉవకై కూరందార్, యావరుం ఇంబం ఉత్తార్,

పొరు అరుం అమరర్ వాళ్తి, పూమళై పొళివదానార్”

( కంబ రామాయణం- యుధ్ధ-145విభీషణ  శరణాగతి)

తేడువోర్ తేడ నిన్రసేవడి , తానుం తేడి

నాడువాన్ అన్రు కండ నాన్ముగన్ కళీ ఇయ నల్ నీర్

ఆడువార్ పావం ఐందుం   నీంగి, మేల్ అమరర్ ఆవార్,

సూడువార్ ఎయితుం తన్మై సొల్వార్ యావర్? సొల్లీర్”

( కంబ రామాయణం- యుధ్ధ-150 విభీషణ  శరణాగతి)

ఇలా ఆర్తితో శరణాగతి చేయు ఆత్మలకు భగవంతుడు తాను దిగివచ్చి కృప చేస్తాడు, అని సారము. దీనిని ” కరుణ ,ఉపాయము, తీయని ఉపేయము ” అని ఆచార్యులు చెప్పారు.

పైన చెప్పిన భరత, విభీషణ శరణాగతులలో , విభీషణ శరణాగతి ఫలించినదిగాను, భరత  శరణాగతి ఫలించనదిగాను తెలుస్తున్నది. “భరతుడికి మంచే చెడుగా పరిణమించినది.” అన్న మాట చూడవచ్చు.(ఈ విషయం ఇంకొక చర్చగా ఉంది. ఎందులకు భరతుని శరణాగతి ఫలించలేదు కాని విభీషణ శరణాగతి ఫలించినది అని. శ్రీ రాముడు భరతుని శరణాగతి కు అనుగ్రహము చేయుట ఆ సమయము తగదని భావించారు. శ్రీ రామునుకి ఒక విస్తారమైన ప్రణాళిక ఉండింది..14  వనవాసము చేయుట, ఋషులను రాక్షసుల బారినుండి కాపాడుట, విభిషనుని తన గోష్ఠి లో చేర్చుకొనుట, రావణ సంహారం మొదలగునవి.  మన శరణాగతిని  అనుగ్రహించు సమయమును కేవలం భగవంతుడే స్వాతంత్రడై నిరణయము చేస్తారు. భరతుని విషయములో ఏరి త్రోవ్వి పెట్టినను, వాన కురువటకు అది తగు సమయం కాదు.  ) అందు వలన శరణాగతి మొదలైన వన్ని అధికారి విశేషణములుగా చెప్పబడీనవే కాని ఉపాయములుగా చెప్పబడ లేదు.  శరణాగతి మొక్షమునిస్తుందనటము కాల విలంబనము లేక మొక్షమునిస్తుందన్న అర్థములోనే తప్ప దానికి మొక్షమునిచ్చే శక్తి వుందని కాదు అర్థము. ఈ విధముగా  శరణాగతి శాస్త్రమును ఈ పాటలో మామునులు వివరించారు.

అడియేన్  చూడామణి రామానుజ దాసి

మూలము:  http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2014/11/gyana-saram-1-una-udal/

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.10 – kaNdu kEttu

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram, out of great love, AzhwAr clearly explains “what was given up and what was pursued”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, emperumAn asks “How did I eliminate the other benefits for you and bestow you the ultimate benefit?”, AzhwAr replies “I am blessed to give up aiSvarya (worldly pleasures) and kaivalya (eternal self-enjoyment), determined you who are Sriya:pathi (lord of SrI mahAlakshmi) as the goal and attained you too”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaNdu kEttuRRu mOndhu uNduzhalum aingaruvi
kaNda inbam therivariya aLavillAch chiRRinbam
oNdodiyAL  thirumagaLum nIyumE nilA niRpak
kaNda sadhir kaNdozhindhEn adaindhEn un thiruvadiyE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kaNdu – seeing (the quality of form)
kEttu – hearing (the quality of sound)
uRRu – contacting (the quality of touch)
mOndhu – smelling (the quality of fragrance)
uNdu – eating (the quality of taste)
uzhalum – agitate (not being satisfied with what was acquired and will make one long for more of the same kind)
aim karuvi – through the five senses
kaNda – enjoyed by analysing individually
inbam – the joy of worldly pleasure
therivu – to be comprehended by these senses and enjoy
ariya – difficult
aLavillA – incomprehensible (in comparison to worldly pleasures in terms of being eternal etc)
chiRu inbam – the joy of self-enjoyment which is very insignificant when compared to the joy of experiencing bhagavAn
oN thodiyAL – one who is having distinguished curved forearms
thirumagaLum – the best among women, who is known as SrI due to being the collection of all wealth
nIyumE – you only (who is the best among men)
nilA niRpa – remaining together (to manifest the wealth and the true nature)
kaNda – determined
sadhir – the best means
kaNdu – seeing it in front of me
ozhindhEn – gave up (worldly pleasure and self-enjoyment)
un thiruvadi – (to have all entities present in you, being Sriya:pathi and the ultimate goal) your divine feet
adaindhEn – attained (in the form of visual experience)

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

After seeing in front of me [the three different goals namely] a) the joy of worldly pleasure enjoyed by analysing individually through the five senses of seeing,  hearing, contacting, smelling  and eating and feeling agitated by these b) the joy of self-enjoyment which is incomprehensible, which is difficult to be comprehended by these senses and enjoy and which is very insignificant when compared to joy of experiencing bhagavAn and c) the togetherness of you and the one who is having distinguished forearms with ornaments like bangles, the best among women, who is known as SrI due to being the collection of all wealth, and determined the best means, gave up worldly pleasure and self-enjoyment and attained your divine feet.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaNdu … – Eye which is a tool to see, ear which is a tool to hear, skin which is a tool to feel touch, nose which is a tool to smell and tongue which is a tool to taste. The senses facilitate one to spend his/her life by just seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling and touching [worldly pleasures].
  • aim karuvi kaNda inbam – The worldly pleasure which is enjoyed by senses which are limited in capability like a measuring cup. The gyAnam (knowledge, consciousness) which is an eternal quality of AthmA, is contracted due to being bound by karma [puNya, pApa], comes out through the mind, and absorbs the pleasure/pain through external sense organs.
  • therivariya aLavillAch chiRRinbam – While compared to worldly pleasure, the AthmAnubhavam (kaivalyam, self-enjoyment) is difficult to attain, and when compared to bhagavath anubhavam (experiencing bhagavAn) it is worthless; since AthmAnubhavam is enjoyment based on the atomic AthmA, the enjoyment is also comprehensible.
  • ozhindhEn – gave up these.
  • siRRinbam – It is the opposite of “anthamil pErinbam” (endless great joy).
  • oN thodiyAL … – When periya pirAttiyAr and you are together, the whole of nithya vibhUthi became subdued in your affection – I have seen this divine togetherness. thodi – bangle worn in forearm. The greatness for those bangles is, not to ever slip from her hands. Since she is nithyAnapayini (always inseparable [from emperumAn]), there is no reason for those bangles to slip once and be worn again. She is said in thiruchchandha viruththam 57 “sangu thangu munkai nangai” (The perfect lady who has beautiful bangles in her forearm).
  • thirumagaLum nIyumE – You who are desired by such pirAtti as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 “iRaiyum agalagillEn“.
  • nIyumE nilA niRpa – In both of your abhimAnam (affection/care), the whole thripAdh vibhUthi (3 parts – spiritual realm – paramapadham) will be present in a subdued manner. While it is said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.8.35 “nAnyOr vidhyathE param” (Except for SrIman nArAyaNan and SrI mahAlakshmI, there is no one else independently existing), everywhere people consider themselves to be the lords in this material realm.
  • nilA niRpak kaNda sadhir – The proper situation of being under the shelter of you both, which is arranged by you; as said in Siva [linga] purANam “vaikuNtE thu parE lOkE SriyAsArdham jagath pathE” (In the divine world of vaikuNtam, vishNu is present with SrI mahAkshmi, being served by nithyasUris), the arrangement you have done. Have seen that.
  • un thiruvadiyE adaindhEn – I approached those divine feet thinking “I should be present along with those nithyasUris and serve your divine feet”. This is what I am holding on to; whatever I have explained previously, have been given by me.

By saying “ondodiyAL thirumagaLum nIyumE“, does it explain the togetherness in nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) [being served with many devotees]? As AzhwAr himself has said in thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.10adiyArgaL kuzhAngaLai udan kUduvadhu enRu kolO” (When will I be amidst the nithyasUris?), and there are other pramANams such as in Siva [linga] purANam “vaikuNtE thu bhakthai: bhAgavathais saha:” (be along with bhakthas and bhAgavathas). Also, as he said in “niRpanavum thirivanavum nIyE maRRoru poruLuminRi” (all immovable and movable objects are your manifestation only) and then said “kodu ulagam kAttEl” (don’t show me this cruel world) [where AzhwAr is saying there are innumerable entities in this material realm but all are pervaded and controlled by bhagavAn]; similarly when it is said “only pirAtti and perumAL”, it would imply the [spiritual] realm which is fully under the full care of that divine couple. But can emperumAn accept such servitude from AzhwAr in this material realm itself? No, it will be in paramapadham with emperumAn’s distinguished form, as lakshmaNa prayed to SrI rAma in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.25 “bhavAms thu saha vaidhEhyA” (I want to serve you along with sIthAp pirAtti) and SrI rAma accepted lakshmaNa’s service as requested by him in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 15.7 “kriyathAmithi mAm vadha” (lakshmaNa to SrI rAma – order me in what should be done) [In case of SrI rAma, sIthA and lakshmaNa, they were all present together and so lakshmaNa could serve there as he desired. Here, AzhwAr specifically prays to be freed from this world and engage in kainkaryam in paramapadham, so emperumAn gives him kainkaryam in paramapadham as AzhwAr desired].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 101

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Full Series

<< previous (pOndhadhu ennenjennum pon vaNdu)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As he set his mind in this way on the enjoyability  of emperumAnAr, he felt that it is a blemish for him to have talked about the purifying quality of emperumAnAr (instead of about enjoyability of him and his qualities),  and says – my talking about the purifying quality of yours is considered a blemish by those who are thinking about (only) the enjoyability of you, is what the righteous ones would say.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – He talked about how his mind that is like ‘aru vinaiyEn van nenju’, had involved in the enjoyability of emperumAnAr, and he thought about how in many places in pAsurams previous to this he had talked about the purifying quality like in ‘theedhil irAmAnusan [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 42]’, ‘thUyavan’ [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 42], ‘engaL irAmAnusan [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 32]’, etc., there is a huge difference between our considering this enjoyability (for experience; nirhEthukam) and that purifying quality (for surrendering; could be sahEthukam), and for this matter that is so like this it would end up as a blemish; we had talked about it earlier by mistake, may be due to that emperumAnAr’s love has reduced on me – thinking in this way amudhanAr‘s mind felt hurt, and in this pAsuram – having the mind that is said as ‘bandhAaya vishaya sanghi’ (if there is interest in other matters, it would tie us further), and due to fully performed bad karmas I was being born in classes of birth and was roaming here; earlier I told in many pAsurams about the purifying quality of yours as ‘Oh emperumAnAr who graced me by accepting me and removed those sadness that are the series of births’ – my doing this would be a blemish is what those who melt thinking about you would feel, is what the intellects would always say – amudhanAr is saying so by looking at emperumAnAr.

mayakkum iru vinai valliyil pUNdu madhi mayangith
thuyakkum piRaviyil thonRiya ennai thuyar agaRRi
uyakkoNdu nalgum irAmAnusA enRadhunnai unni
nayakkumavarkku idhu izhukku enbar nallavar enRu naindhE   –  101

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

pUNdu – tied
valliyil – by affection
vinai – due to karmas
mayakkum – which create destruction of knowledge
iru – (such karmas) of two categories in the form of good and bad deeds,
due to which
madhi mayangi – knowledge gets muddled
thuyakkum – and creates confusion in mind,
piRaviyil – in such a birth, I
thOnRiya – came and born;
agaRRi – (emperumAnAr) removed
thuyar – the sorrows that are the result of karmas
uya – and saved
koNdu – by accepting
ennai – me;
nalgum irAmAnusA – Oh (emperumAnAr) who showed such love towards me,
idhu – this my talking about your quality of purifying (which was done in a few earlier pAsurams) (instead of considering mainly the enjoyability of emperumAnAr), would be considered as
izhukku – a blemish
nayakkumavarkku – by those having the liking for you
unni – and who think about
unnai – you
naindhu – and become weak (due to love)
enRum – at all times,
is what
nallavar – the righteous ones
enbar – would say about this.

nallavar – also about – those loving you.

If recited as ‘iru vinay valliyaip pUNdu’ – the rope that is karma of two types is voluntarily tied (by me),  and am like having a (metal) pot stuck in the head up to the neck, which cannot be removed, and thus I got into it myself;  (and instead of seeking help from someone (AchAryan), as I tried to remove it, it became even tighter).

mayakku – make the mind besotten.
thuyakku – make mind confused/mistake one for another
nayakku – wishing for something

Starting from ‘mayakkum iru vinai’ through ‘uyak koNdu nalgum irAmAnusA’ is – for those having nature of liking you thinking about you, it (my doing this) would be a blemish/lowly, is what the righteous ones would say;  in this, it can also be said that due to inability to bear the experience, they would be weak at all times.

vyAkyAnam

mayakkum iru vinai valliyil pUNdu – being opposed to true knowledge about thathva (existence), hitha (means), and purushArththam (goal), and creates interest in lowly matters, like a golden handcuff and an iron handcuff, being tied by the rope that is karma of two types that are good and bad deeds;  like having a (metal) pot stuck in the head up to the neck, this karma is enclosing this AthmA; mayakku – make mind get besotted;

When reciting as ‘iru vinay valliyaip pUNdu’, by own effort tying with rope that is of two types of karmas;

madhi mayakkith thuyakkum piRaviyil thOnRiya ennai – As said in ‘agyAnEnAvrutham gyAnam thEnamuhyanthi janthava: [SrI bhagavath gIthA], that is, due to that, all of mind becomes besot, and creates confusion and doubt – such is the series of birth in different forms, and was involved in such cycle, with the whole world as the witness; thuyakku – confusion of mind. that is, doubt. mayangu – get besotted/agitated;

thuyar agaRRi uyyak koNdu nalgum – As said in ‘garba janmAdhyavasthAsu dhu:kkam athyantha dhussaham’ (from womb, as infant, etc., there is corresponding sadness/difficulty), the sadness that is of being in the womb and being born, which are sadness that sends shivers just to hear it – was removed without trace, and also making me understand step-by-step the difference between AthmA and non-AthmA (that is, removing the dhEhAthmAbhimAnam), and to be able  to discern what is to be taken up and what is to be dropped, and to be able to discern association between own and others (emperumAn, or, other jIvAthmas), took me up so that I am saved, and considered me very specially dear;

My saying ‘irAmAnusA’ is as ‘oh emperumAr!considering you as of most purifying nature (instead of considering only your enjoyability); may saying this would–

unnai unni nayakkumavarkku – As said in ‘gururEva param brahma, gururEva parandhanam, gururEva para:kAma: gururEva parAyaNam – dhyayEjjapEnnamEth bhakthyA bhajEth abhyarchayEth mudhA’ (your AchAryan only is the brahmam, AchAryan is the wealth, AchAryan is the one to be desired, ultimate place to reach is that of AchAryan, meditate on him, recite about him, prostrate under his feet, do bhajan out of devotion,  and worship him happily as well),

upAyOpEya bhAvEna thamEva SaraNam vrajEth’ (Considering AchAryan as the means and destiny take him up as your only shelter),

‘yasya dhEvE parA bhakthiryathA dhEvE thathA gurau’ (Like how you are having devotion towards emperumAn, show that level of devotion towards your AchAryan),

by all three faculties (mind, speech, body), they have got full faith in you, and think about you, and having a strong liking towards you – for them;   nayakkum – liking;

idhu izhukku – Like saying ‘nAl thOL amudhE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.10]’, ArAvamudhE [thiruvAimozhi – 5.8.1]’, while I had to be like ‘irAmAnusan enakku AramudhE [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 19]’,  ‘adiyERku inRu thiththikkum [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 25]. thus enjoying till the time AthmA exists, the infinite wonderful nectar, and be loving of you, I did not do that – instead, I told only about your ability to remove from worldly realm – this is a blemish (is what they would say);

nallavar enRum naindhE – As said in ‘vAchA yatheendhra manasA vapushA cha yushmath pAdhAravindha yukaLam bhajathAm gurUNAm – kUrAdhinAtha kurukESa mukhAdhya pumsAm [yathirAja vimSathi – 3]’, those like AzhvAn, piLLAn who experience your enjoyability at all times and melt like water;

thirukkurugaip pirAn piLLAn

enbar – they would say.

OR,

it can be read as ‘unnai unni naindhu enRum nayakkumavarkku idhu izhukku enbar nallavar’.  Then – for those who at all times think about you and become melted and weak my act would be felt as a disgrace, is what the righteous ones would say.

nallavar – those who are associated to you.

Thinking about your enjoyability, as said in ‘mAthA pithA yuvathayas thanayA vibhUthi: sarvam yadhEva niyamEna madhanvayAnAm [sthOthra rathnam – 5]’ (mother, father, women, children, are all nammAzhvAr for me), and,

athra parathra chApi nithyam yadhIya charaNau SaraNam madheeyam [sthOthra rathnam – 2]’ (here as well as in SrIvaikuNtam, I wish to serve AchAryan),

for those who think of you as all types of relationships;

For a younger brother who does not follow in the path of elder brother, it would end up being a blemish to the elder – like so, I told this while following those noble ones, so, it would end up being a disgrace to them – is the conclusion.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

Like how someone tries to arrange something good for himself (without leaving it to AchAryan), one is tying himself in the rope that is karma, and not able to remove it himself.

uyakkoNdu nalgum – voluntarily took me up – only reason is his love.

unnai unni nayakkumavarkku … enRum naindhu like embAr’s ‘paRpamenaththigazh’, they think about you and become weak due to love;

enRum naindhu – since the enjoyability is there every moment, they are always in that state (and are not having time to think about his qualities of purifying).

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – २९

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आर्ति प्रबंधं

<< पासुर २८

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उपक्षेप

परमपद के पथ में आनेवाली बाधाओँ से रक्षण जिन्की आशीर्वाद से साध्य है उन श्री रामानुज के जयों के श्रेय, मणवाळ मामुनि इस पासुरम में गाते हैं। वेदों को तिरस्कार करने वाले तथा वेदों की अर्थों को अनर्थ प्रकट करने वालों की पराजय श्री रामानुज अपने श्रीभाष्य जैसे ग्रंथों से करते हैं। श्री रामानुज के जयों की प्रशंसा कर उन्की मँगळं भी गाते हैं।   

पासुरम २९

चारुवाग मदनीरु सैदु समण छेडीक्कनल कोळूतिये
साक्कियकडलै वट्रवित्तु मिगुसांकिय किरि मुरित्तिड
मारु सेयदिडु कणाद वादियगळ वाय तगर्थु अरमिगुत्तु मेल
वंद पासुपदर सिंदियोडुम वगै वादु सैद ऐतिरासनार
कूरुम माकुरु मदत्तोडु कुमारिलन मदम अवट्रिन मेल
कोडिय तर्क चरम विट्टपिन कुरुगिय मायावादियरै वेन्रीड
मीरि वादिल वरु पार्करन मदविलक्कडि कोडियेरिंदु पोय
मिक्क यादव मदतै मायत्त पेरुवीरर नाळूम मिग वाळिये !!!

शब्दार्थ

चारुवाग मदनीरु सैदु – “प्रत्यक्षमेकं चार्वाक:” अर्थात चार्वाक सिध्दांत को मानने वाले दृश्य विषयों को ही मानेँगे। इस “चारुवाग” धर्म को श्री रामानुज ने भस्म किया।
समण छेडीक्कनल कोळूतिये – “समण” याने जैन धर्म नामक अपतृण को जलाया
साक्कियकडलै वट्रवित्तु – “साक्कियम” (बौद्ध) धर्म नामक सागर को अपने ग्रंथों के प्रभाव से सुखाया
मिगुसांकिय किरि मुरित्तिड – श्री रामानुज “सांख्य” धर्म को नाश किये ( अधिकतर उपस्थिति के कारण यह पहाड़ कहलाया गया है )
तगर्थु – अपने वाद से नाश किये
वाय- प्रस्तुत ,वाद
मारु सेयदिडु कणाद वादियगळ – “काणाद वादिगळ” नामक गण के तरफ से प्रति वाद के रूप में
अरमिगुत्तु मेल वंद – धर्म सुसंथापित किए , और लगातार आने वाले (हमलों )
पासुपदर सिंदियोडुम वगै – अपने जीवन रक्षण की हेतु अपने कुटुंब के संग दौड़ने वाले रूद्र के जैसे उन्के भक्त “शिवसमयिगळ” भी भगाये गए
वादु सैद ऐतिरासनार – ऐतिरासन के वाद से
कोडिय तर्क चरम विट्टपिन अवट्रिन मेल – (श्री रामानुज)  “तर्क”( सामान्य ज्ञान जैसे तरीखों से वाद करना) के तीरों से हमला कर और  नाश किए
कूरुम – अज्ञानी वाद
मा – अनेकों
कुरु मदत्तोडु – “प्रभाकर मथ” नामक सिद्धांत
कुमारिलन मदम – और “भट्ट मथ” नामक सिद्धांत
कुरुगिय मायावादियरै वेन्रीड – “मायावाद” सिद्धांत के लोगों के स्थान में जा उन्के वादों को जय किये।
पार्करन मदविलक्कडि कोडियेरिंदु पोय  – “भास्कर” सिद्धांत के लोगो के वादों को हिलाकर उखड़े, और उन्को फ़ेंक कर आगे बड़े।
मीरी वादिल वरुम – यही “भास्कर” सिद्धांत के जन अत्यंत घमंड के सात श्री रामानुज से वाद करने आए।
मिक्क यादव मदतै मायत्त – (भास्कर सिद्धांत को पराजित कर, श्री रामानुज) “यादवप्रकाश”सिद्धांत, जिसके अधिक अनुयायी थे ,उसको नाश किए।
नाळूम मिग वाळिये  – जय हो !
पेरुवीरर – अद्वितीय साहसनीय और विरोधियों को पराजित करने वाले एम्पेरुमानार

सरल अनुवाद

इस पासुरम में मणवाळ मामुनि , श्री रामानुज के विजयों की उत्सव मनाते हैं।  उस समय प्रचलित और प्रसिद्द सिद्धांतों की मामुनि सूची देते हैं। “चारुवाक”, “समणम” , “साख्यं”, “सांख्यं”, “काणावादि”, “पाशुपत”, “प्रभाकर”, “भाट्ट”, “मायावाद” और “यादव” आदि धर्मों को पराजित करने वाले श्री रामानुज को मणवाळ मामुनि प्रशंसा करते हैं। और प्रतिदिन, श्री रामानुज को अनेकों विजयों प्राप्त होने  केलिए मणवाळ मामुनि मंगळम गाते हैं।     

स्पष्टीकरण

चारुवाक धर्म की आधारिक तत्व है “प्रत्यक्षमेव चार्वाक:” अर्थात आँखों से दिखने वाले विषयों को ही माननेवाले। यह वाद श्री रामानुज के वाक् चातुर्य के किरणों से भस्म हो गया। “समणम” (जैन) नामक धर्म पर आग लगाए।  “साख्य” धर्म के सागर को अपने वादों से सुखायें। “सांख्य” नामक धर्म अधिकतर फैला हुआ था।  इसी कारण वह पहाड़ समानित की जाता था।  किंतु श्री रामानुज अपने वज्रायुद के समान वादों से नाश किये। “काणाद वादिगळ” नामक धर्म के लोग प्रतिवाद के लिए प्रसिद्द थे। इन्को अपने प्रतिवाद से हराये।  

“पाशुपतर” नामक एक गण था। इस गण के जन श्री रामानुज से वाद कर उन्हें पराजित करना चाहे।  किंतु श्री रामानुज के वाद के कारण ये भागे।  बाणासुर से श्री कृष्ण के युद्ध के समय ऐसे ही रूद्र और उन्के परिवार भागे।”प्रभाकर “ और “ भाट्ट” धर्मों के वादों के सामने श्री रामानुज अपने शक्तिमान वादों को बाणों की तरह प्रयोग किये।   इसके पश्चात श्री रामानुज “ मायावाद” धर्म के लोगों के स्थल तक गए। “वादिल वेनरान नममिरामानुसन” (ईरामानुस नूट्रन्दादि ५८) के अनुसार इन मायावादियों को श्री रामानुज अपने वादों से पराजित किये। “भास्कर” धर्म के लोग श्री रामानुज से वाद करने आये। श्री रामानुज पराजित ही नहीं किये ,बल्के यह निश्चित किये कि उस पथ में कभी कोई न जाए। “यादव” धर्म के अनेकों अनुयायी थे जो श्री रामानुज के  पराजय को ही एकमात्र लक्ष्य समझकर आये। पर उस धर्म कि भी, कोई भी  निशानी के बिना श्री रामानुज नाश किये।   

मणवाळ मामुनि चाहते हैं कि श्री रामानुज के ये वीर साहस( अन्य धर्मों की नाश ) प्रतिदिन प्रचलित रहें।  

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासी

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.9 – kUttudhi

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram, emperumAn mercifully manifests his divine presence in thirunAdu (paramapadham) to AzhwAr to eliminate all of AzhwAr’s grief; AzhwAr, having seen it and having mercifully given up his attachment for all other matters says “you have presented your divine feet which are difficult to attain; I have enjoyed that” and feels satisfied.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kUttudhi nin kurai kazhalgaL imaiyOrum thozhA vagai seydhu
Attudhi nI aravaNaiyAy adiyEnum adhu aRivan
vEtkai ellAm viduththennai un thiruvadiyE sumandhuzhalak
kUttariya thiruvadikkaL kUttinai nAn kaNdEnE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nI – you (who is omnipotent)

(those who are desired by you to be at your divine feet, even though they may be unqualified)
kurai – perfectly enjoyable
nin kazhalgaL – at your divine feet
kUttudhi – please accept me

(if one tried to see, by one’s own effort)
imaiyOrum – (greatly knowledgeable) dhEvas
thozhA vagai – to not see and enjoy you
seydhu – doing
Attudhi – agitate them;
aravu – thiruvananthAzhwAn (the leader among devotees)
aNaiyAy – Oh one who is having as bed!
adhu – your nature of being easy to be attained and difficult to be attained with respect to devotees and others respectively.
adiyEnum – I too who am a servitor
aRivan – knows;

(How so?)
vEtkai ellAm – affection in worldly matters
viduththu – eliminating with the trace
ennai – me who have great desire towards you and cannot live without you
thiru – perfectly enjoyable
un adi – your divine feet
sumandhu – holding them on my head
uzhala – to follow you as said in “yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi” (wherever the master goes)
kUtta – to reach (even for the most knowledgeable)
ariya – difficult
thiruvadikkaL – at the divine feet
kUttinai – you accepted.
nAn kaNdEn – I saw (it in front of me) and enjoyed
E – certainly

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

You please accept me at your perfectly enjoyable divine feet. If one tried to see, by one’s own effort, you make sure that even dhEvas do not see and enjoy you and agitate them; oh one who is having thiruvananthAzhwAn as bed! I too who am a servitor, know your nature of being easy to be attained and difficult to be attained with respect to devotees and others respectively.  Eliminating my affection in worldly matters with all traces, you made me, who have great desire towards you and cannot live without you, hold your perfectly enjoyable divine feet on my head and follow you as said in “yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi” and accepted me at the divine feet which are difficult to reach; I certainly saw (it in front of me) and enjoyed this.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kUttudhi nin kurai kazhalgaL – Even if unqualified, you accept those who are dear to you, at your divine feet. kurai – greatness or the sound of the ornament.
  • imaiyOr … – Even brahmA et al, if you don’t consider them to be acceptable, you will agitate them so that they don’t reach you.
  • aravaNaiyAy – This is an example for “kUttudhi” [those who are with him irrespective of their knowledge – since AdhiSEsha is in a reptile form, he is considered as less intelligent in layman terms].
  • adiyEnum adhu aRivan – I know your nature which is well revealed in scriptures of this world (ithihAsams and purANams).

How did you know [Did you know through SAsthram]?

  • vEtkai ellAm viduththu – Before, whatever that was not related to you, did I not desire for all of them? Is there anything that I have not desired in your [material] world? Did you not remove my attachments as said in thiruviruththam 95 “yAdhAnum paRRi nIngum viradhaththai nalvIdu seydhu” (my attitude of leaving you citing any reason, was reformed by you)?
  • un thiruvadiyE sumandhu uzhala – To have all the attachments I had in worldly matters (before), at you (now), holding on to your divine feet only and having that only as my routine.
  • kUttariya … – You accepted me at your divine feet which are difficult to attain by self-effort of even great personalities. I am not saying these based on hearsay, but based on personal experience [nAn kaNdEn].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org