Daily Archives: April 12, 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.2 – sAmARum kedumARum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In second pAsuram, AzhwAr becomes sorrowful speaking about sufferings such as death etc of chEthanas [sentient beings] and says “if you are not removing their sufferings, at least you should accept me quickly at your divine feet, so that I need not think about that”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “I don’t know when the worldly suffering will end. So you, my natural lord, should rush to accept me”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr collectively said “eNNArAth thuyar” (boundless sufferings); becoming sorrowful on highlighting a few of them, he says “if you are not removing their sorrows, you should at least accept me at your divine feet”.


sAmARum kedumARum thamar uRRAr thalaith thalaip peydhu
EmARik kidandhalaRRum ivai enna ulagiyaRkai?
AmARonRaRiyEn nAn aravaNaiyAy ammAnE!
kUmARE virai kaNdAy adiyEnaik kuRik koNdE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sAmARum – to die (while setting out to live long)
kedumARum – to lose (the wealth, while setting out to increase it)

(as a result)
thamar – the paternal relatives
uRRAr – other relatives
thalaith thalaip peydhu – all of them showing their attachment
EmARi – without any break
kidandhu – staying
alaRRum – crying
ivai enna ulagiyaRkai – what is the nature of these worldly activities?
nAn – I
Am ARu – to finish these [sufferings] within my ability
onRu – any means
aRiyEn – I don’t know
aravaNaiyAy – one who engages anantha, your servitor, in your service
ammAnE – Oh lord who has similar relationship with everyone!
adiyEnai – me, who is a servitor
kuRikkoNdu – considering me (to be not deserving to go through sufferings)
kUmARu – call me
virai kaNdAy – rush to do so.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

What is the nature of these worldly activities where seeing the death and loss of wealth of one, his paternal relatives and other relatives showing their attachment, staying without any break and crying? I don’t know any means to finish these [sufferings] within my ability. Oh one who engages anantha, your servitor, in your service! Oh lord who has similar relationship with everyone! considering me, who is a servitor, rush to call me [towards you].

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • sAmARum kedumARum – to die and face loss of wealth; [focussing on the “ARu”, the process/method] are there any more details in these?  while one is considering oneself to live long happily, and planning to destroy those who co-exist with him [for his own joy], he will be consumed by death without even realising; while acquiring a little bit of wealth, he will start thinking “I have no more worries”, he will lose that and cry out with sorrow. There are other reasons for their [AzhwArs’] anguish; AzhwAr thinks that not attaining bhagavAn is death as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.7ninnalAl ilEn kAN” (I have no existence without you), thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “pala nI kAttip paduppAyO” (will you push me showing various other pleasures) and thiruvAimozhi 6.9.8 “innam keduppAyO” (will you push me down further?), and he considers seeing other worldly pleasures as disastrous. What else did AzhwArs consider as death and loss? They are of such nature that they say as in mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 95 “ennoruvar thIkkadhikkaN sellum thiRam” (How can one follow evil paths when serving emperumAn is so easy?). They consider death and disaster as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.22 “kurushva” (lakhsmaNa to SrI rAma – You should make me follow you [otherwise I will not be able to live]) and SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.18 “yasthvayA sahasa svarga:” (sIthA to SrI rAma – Being together with you is heaven, and getting separated from you is hell).
  • kedumARum – when wealth is lost; since one considers wealth as the refuge. [in comparison to loss of wealth, even death will look better – an example is explained here] When some soldiers were set out to cut off the hands and legs of a traitor, some others see that and question the soldiers. The soldiers said to those on-lookers if anyone of you pays the fine, we will leave him and some one in the crowd said “you are kind enough not to kill him, you are quite compassionate” and left the place [not wanting to pay any money].
  • thamar uRRAr – For AzhwAr, the relatives are as said in thiruvAimozhi 8.10.9 “thamargaL thamargaL thamargaL” (devotees of devotees of devotees of emperumAn). Instead of considering such devotees [as relatives], worldly people will consider bodily relatives and other relatives acquired through marriage etc and be free from worries.
  • thalaith thalaip peydhu – showing too much attachment.
  • EmARik kidandhu alaRRum – “E” means longing, “mARugai” – not having; that is, calling out without any longing; alternatively – EmARRam can be explained as a single word – that is sorrow, implying “calling out with sorrow”. piLLai amudhanAr explains this as – “E” means clarity, “EmARugai” means losing clarity. It is said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 2.7.8 “EmARRam ennaith thavirththAy” (You eliminated my lack of clarity).
  • ivai enna ulagiyaRkai – How sad is this worldly existence? AzhwAr says “Oh my lord! nature of this worldly existence is such that – dying while longing to live; losing the wealth while acquiring it and happily thinking to live with that; while considering bodily relatives as everything, when something happens to self, crying out”.

emperumAn asks “Why do you care about others? I have made you call out for me only! your calling out has already been seen in ‘seelamillAch chiRiyan‘ “.

  • AmARu onRu aRiyEn nAn – Are they calling out because of not having relationship with you? Isn’t it because of their existence in this material realm and have you freed me from this material realm? Is it due to me having a body in this realm, I do not know what I am calling out for? Alternative explanation – I don’t know the means to eliminate the sufferings of these samsAris (materialistic people). Third explanation – i don’t know the means to give what you have given to me [i.e., blessing of pristine knowledge/devotion].
  • aravaNaiyAy ammAnE – Oh emperumAn who has motherly relationship with all these samsAris, who has reclined on thiruvananthAzhwAn in milky ocean, for their protection and who considers their well-being as your benefit! He has true/motherly relationship with all of them. His protection of all of these beings will occur irrespective of his truthfulness [in SrI rAmAvathAram] or deception [in krishNAvathAram].
  • kUmARE virai – You, who are easily approachable in being present in thiruppARkadal (milky ocean) to hear their complaints, should quickly call me and accept me at your divine feet.

emperumAn asks “Why should I rush to do so?”,

  • kaNdAy – After seeing me [my state], can you still remain relaxed? He shows his form [which was weakened/consumed by separation from emperumAn] to emperumAn for his seeing as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 6.16 “Ehi paSya SarIrANi” (rishis of dhaNdakAraNya to SrI rAma – See our bodies which were tortured by the demons).

emperumAn says “But would you not feel anguished when separated from your body and relatives who have followed you since time immemorial?”.

  • adiyEnaik kuRikkoNdE – You should consider my nature [of being blessed by you with pristine knowledge/devotion] which cannot cope with the activities of this material realm. Also explained as – after having realised my relationship with your divine feet, like yourself, I too am concerned about the sufferings of others – you should mercifully consider that. When AzhwAr says “kUmARE virai kaNdAy” (Please accept me quickly at your divine feet), how does that highlight the fact that AzhwAr cannot tolerate suffering of others? From his saying “ivai enna ulagiyaRkai” (How sad is the situation here) and requesting emperumAn to accept him in paramapadham, it is understood that he cannot tolerate seeing others suffering.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 98

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As he spoke about such help of emperumAnAr (showing him kUraththAzhvAn’s divine feet),  his mind thought – it is due to looking at karmas that eeSvaran who is having absolute relationship had left (me) circling through heaven, hell, and womb; so due to the relationship with prakruthi, bad taste would rise and might lead into bad ways – so, would this goodness continue till the end (of attaining true goal)? – thinking so, his mind felt weak; amudhanAr says (to his mind) – when surrendered to emperumAnAr, he won’t let us down, so you do not have to worry about attaining the goal.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

As amudhanAr thought about how emperumAnAr set him on the noble path (of being devoted to the divine feet of kUraththAzhvAn) and became happy, his divine mind said – even though you say like this, since sarvESvaran who controls everything has vowed to give fruits based on respective eternal karmas, it is due to looking at our karmas only that He had let us roam without any break, in heaven, hell, and womb; since we still have association with prakruthi which can generate such karmas, it is possible to be involved in bad ways due to growth of bad old taste and become target of punishment; only if this goodness continues till the time of attaining goal should you be able to stay worry free like this? – and so his mind was weak; amudhanAr replies (to his mind) – since emperumAnAr would not let down those who have surrendered to him, hereafter you do not have to worry about attaining the true goal.

idumE iniya suvarggaththil innam naragil ittuch
chudumE avaRRaith thodar tharu thollai suzhal piRappil
nadumE ini nam irAmAnusan nammai nam vasaththE
vidumE charaNam enRAl manamE naiyal mEvuthaRkE              –  98


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr
nam – who incarnated to lift us up,
charaNam enRAl – if we just said just one sentence that you are the shelter (charaNam),
idumE – would he keep us
suvarggaththil – in heaven,
which for those who are in the material realm, due to the enjoyment of sound, taste, etc., would seem sweet;
innam – even after surrendering to his divine feet
sudumE – would he burn us
ittu – by keeping
naragil – in hell;
Since karma that is spent in such heaven and hell is the reason for birth,
nadumE – would he set us up
piRappil – in birth
thollai – which is eternal
suzhal – and make us go in such cycles,
thodar tharu – which follow
avaRRai – heaven and hell;
ini – during the remaining time of future
nammai vidumE – would he let us be
nam vasaththE – as per our interest;
(he would not);
manamE – Oh mind,
naiyal – do not become weak
mEvudhaRku – about attaining the goal.

mEvu – match/fit; that is, attaining;

Like how saying “don’t cry for food” (in thamizh colloquy), it means ‘don’t worry about getting the food, you are sure to get it’,  ‘naiyal mEvudhaRku’ implies the same regarding getting the goal;

nadumE –> establishing/setting us in a place;

SrIvaikuNtam (paramapadham)


manamEOh mind which is fearful in this way!

em irAmAnusanAs said in ‘sAkshAn nArAyaNO dhEva: kruthvAmarthyamayeem thanUm | magnAn udhdharathE lOkAn kAruNyAch chAsthra pANinA’ (~ like nArAyaNan himself, he (AchAryan) took up a human body, to uplift those who are immersed born in this world, using the SAsthram in his hands, by his kindness), and,

pApadhvAnthakshayAyacha | SrImAn Avira bhUthbhUmau rAmAnuja dhivAkara:’ (for the effects of our evil deeds to be destroyed, the one having the wealth of SrIvaishNavam appeared in this world, that is the sun SrI rAmAnujar),

eliminating the three karmas, that are ‘munnai vinai, pinnai vinai, Araththam [prArabdham] [Arththi prabandham – 34]’ (deeds of the past, future, and what is being effected now),

and vowing to lift us up from the mud slush of material world, he came and incarnated in this ‘kodu ulagam [thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.7]’ (~ cruel world); such emperumAnAr;

charaNam enRAlAs said in ‘rAmAnujasya charaNau SaraNam prapadhyE’, and, ‘SaraNamEmi rAmAnujam’, and, ‘irAmAnusan charaNE gathi [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 13], and ‘mUlE nivESyamahathAm nigamadhrumANAm mushNan pradhArka bhayam thrudhanaika dhaNda: – rangESa bhaktha jana mAnasa rAja hamsO rAmAnujaS SaraNamasthu munissvayathna:’ (~vEdha vEdhantham is a tree that is grown big and with many branches; mAyAvAdhis could not handle it and so did not give proper meanings to it, whereas emperumAnAr who holds thridhaNdam provided proper meanings; devotees of rangESan, that is, AzhvArs, in whose lotus mind  ramAnuja is the rAja hamsam living around such lotus; we hold on to the divine feet of that rAmAnuja muni), and,

rAmAnujAya munayE nama ukthi mAthram kAmAthurO(S)pi kumathi: kalayan nabheekShNam – yAmAmananthi yaminAm bhagavaj janAnAm thAmEva vindhathi gathim thamsa: parasthAth [rAmAnujAshtakam] (Even if one is of bad mind and afflicted by other desires, if he often utters just the word ‘rAmAnujAya nama:’, then he would reach the mOksham which the yOgis who recite His names would reach),

if we just do the saying of one sentence ‘dhevareerE charaNam’ (~only you are my shelter);

iniya suvarggaththhilfor those who are under the attraction of material world due to the matters of sound, taste, etc., it would look completely enjoyable – such heaven;

inimai -> sweetness/enjoyability.

Heaven is -> As said in ‘thraividhyAmAm sOmapA: bhUthapApA: yagyairishtvA svarggathim prArththayanthE – thE puNyamASAdhya surEndhra lOkam aSnanthi dhivyAn dhivi dhEva bhOgAn – thE tham bhukthvA svargga lOkam viSAlam kSheeNE puNyE marthya lOkam viSanthi’ (doing yAgam, yagyam to go to heaven, saving all the puNyams for it, reaches heaven, and enjoys enjoyments beyond human level in the most sprawling heaven, spends good karmas, and after exhausting it, returns to birth),

a place that is perishable one day,  and obtained based on efforts (sOpadhika), that is of such nature, in such a heaven –

idumE – will emperumAnAr put and keep us there?  (No he would not).

As said in ‘thandhu:kEna sambhinnam’ (sadness is broken away), etc., even though compared to this material world that heaven is more distinguished, it is similar to hell, and is most adverse only, for mumukshus (those who wish to get liberated (from the cycle of birth etc));

It is as said in ‘dhEvEndhrathvAdhikam padham EthEvai nirayAsthAtha sthAnasya paramAthmana:kshEthrANi mithrANi dhanAni nAtha puthrAScha dhArA: paSavO gruhANi | thvath pAdha padhma pravaNAth vruththEr bhavanthi sarvE prathikUla rUpA:’, (~ the post of dhEvEndhran, etc., land, friends, wealth, husband, sons, wife, cows, etc., houses, etc., would be felt as different forms of hurdles, when one’s devotion increases towards your divine feet);

nammAzhvAr too divined ‘pala nee kAttip paduppAyO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.9]’ (Are you trying to finish me by showing to my eyes lowly pleasures?), and,

pOra vaiththAy puramE [thiruvAimozhi – 5.1.5] (You kept me away into matters other than You), and,

neRi kAtti neekudhiyO [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 6]’ (Are You trying to show me other paths/means to keep me away from You?), and,

aRpa sArangaL avai suvaiththu aganRozhindhEn [thiruvAimozhi – 3.2.6]’ (I had stayed away from You and toiled as I enjoyed lowly pleasures),

kUvik koLLum kAlam innam kuRugAdhO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.9]’ (Would the duration of getting me (to Your divine feet) not shorten?),

thus they consider the pleasure of material realm as adverse and as detrimental to the nature of AthmA;

innum narakil ittuch chudumEAs said inupAya upEya bhAvEna thathvatha: sarva dhESikai: .. sUniSchidhAngri padhmAya’ (~It is the AchAryan who is the means and destiny), after  becoming dedicated only to him by considering his divine feet only as the means and destiny, would he put us in suffering in raurava and such hells which are fearful just upon hearing about them and which are very unbearable?  (no, he would not);

As said inkruchrENa dhEhAn nishkrAnthim yAmya kinkara dharSanam ||‘ (~ as he comes out (of the body) he sees the servants of yama), ‘yAthanA dhEha sambandham yAmya pAsaischa karshaNam | ’ (~pulled by the servant of yama inflicting pain), ‘ugra mArga kadhakklESam yamasya purathassthithim ||’ (~suffers going through terrible route to the abode of yama), ‘thanniyOgavacha yAthayAthanASchacha sahasracha: |’ (~ takes the form of thousands of painful bodies), ‘SruthvA smruthAvAcha dhUyEham thath pravESa bhayAkulaha: ||’ (~ I hear about all the aforementioned dangers, and am very afraid to enter into this),

and in ‘kadum solAr kadiyAr kAlanAr thamarAl paduvadhOr kodumiRaikku anji [periya thirumozhi – 1.6.5]’ (~fearing the hardship by rude servants of yaman who would use harsh words),

and in ‘eNNiRandha thunbam tharu nirayam pala [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 30]’,

in such hells; would he be neutral to our going to such hells and suffer?  (no he would not);

avaRRaith thodar tharu thollaich chuzhal piRappil nadumE As said in ‘karma brahmOdhbhavam vidhdhi [SrI bhagavath gIthA – 3.15]’ (know that body (brahma) gives forth action), for the gaining of good and bad karmas which are reason for those heaven and hell, the body is the source for it, as indicated by the word ‘brahma’, it is based on this that this cycle continues, and,

as said in ’chakrasthE bhrAmyamANE svakarmabhi: (~ due to his karma he keeps taking birth) and,

mARi mARip pala piRappum piRandhu [thiruvAimozhi – 2.6.8]’ (in many births (such as dhEva (celestial), thiryak (animal), manushya (human), sthAvara (plant) forms), while being born again and again (in same form of birth too)),

would he set us up in the series of births and go in cycles like in a wheel? (no he would not).

That is, would he let us do acts and be  involved in that?

nadumE would he establish us/set us up ?

ini nammai nam vasaththE vidumE To the divine feet of emperumAnAr, being ‘nizhalum adi thARum [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 31]’ (amicable like shadow and lines of divine feet), that is, us who have become completely subservient, would he make us independent-minded in the remaining time of future, and let us be according to our taste (in other matters) and become svaira sanchAri (going in the ways of our own reckoning)?  (no he would not).

That is, for us who have surrendered to the divine feet of emperumAnAr, and having the distinction of being ‘thanakkEyAga enaik koLLum [thiruvAimozhi 2.9.4]’ (this act of enslaving me exclusively for him), he would divine such that none of the unwanted things would touch us – is the point.

It is as said in ‘thriNeekrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: rAmAnuja padhAmbOja samASrayaNa Salina:’ (those who surrender to emperumAnAr think of other things as to be neglected), and,

mathana kathanai: naklishyanthE yathISvara samSrayA: [yathirAja sapthathi](those who have reached emperumAnAr would not worry about good and bad things)

mEvudhaRku about the destiny which is prayed for by us as said in ‘adiyArgal kuzhAngaLai – udan kUduvadhu enRu kolO [thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.10]’ (~Oh when would I be able to join the groups of devotees (in SrIvaikuNtam)?), and

rAmAnujArya vaSaka: parivarthisheeya [sundhara bAhu sthavam] (we want to be under a corner of the shadow of divine feet of emperumAnAr )

naiyal – do not be doubtful/weak;

mEvu – match/fit; that is, attaining;

Like how saying “don’t cry for food” (in thamizh colloquy), it means ‘don’t worry about getting the food, you are sure to get it’, ‘naiyal mEvudhaRku’ implies the same regarding getting the goal;

Considering the words of SAsthram, ‘nAbhuktham ksheeyathE karma kalpakOti Sathairapi, avaSyam anubhOkthavyam krutham karma SubhASubham’ (~for how much ever crores of years you experience the fruits of your karmas, they would not diminish; and its effects have to be definitely experienced in the form of good and bad),

sarvESvaran is of the nature of instigating us into worldly affairs; would emperumAnAr, who also gives full importance to SAsthram, ignore us – was the fear of amudhanAr’s mind. Addressing his own mind, amudhanAr says  – even after surrendering to emperumAnAr and being in charama parva nishtai (devoted to AchAryan only), he would not make us be affected by the heat of material world till the time of getting the destiny, unlike it would happen for upAsakar (those in bhakthi yOgam, etc.)

manamE naiyal mEvudhaRkE – he is saying so by treating mind like a sentient; his advise is such that it could reform even a non-sentient, you see!

It is said too, nakalu bhAgavathAyam avishayam gachchanthi’ (if they are devotees then they are not under consideration by yaman), and,

parihara madhusUdhana prapannAn prabhuraham anya nruNAm na vaishNavANAm’ (~do not go near the residence of emperumAn’s devotees; I am not the lord for them; they are my lord), and,

thyaja bata dhUra tharENa thAn apApAn’ (leave those devotees; they are not of any sins),.

thirumazhisaip pirAn divined this meaning too in the matter of prathama parvam (emperumAn), in ‘eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE [thiruchchandha viruththam – 115]’ (Oh poor mind! why are you (unnecessarily) immersed in the sea of sadness (when emperumAn is well set inside us)? ).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

iniya suvarggaththil Since it would appear to be good, it is said as ‘iniya’ suvarggam.

Since emperumAnAr has incarnated to lift us up, would he let us be tied to worldly affairs?

nammai nam vasaththE vidumE We who spoiled ourselves by doing what we wanted. Will he let us continue in that path in the future, even after surrendering to him? (he would not).

This shows the differences between emperumAn and emperumAnAr.

emperumAn conducts us based on karmas; emperumAnAr conducts us based on krupai (kindness).

Since He is a svathanthran (independent), we might fear that He might let us continue in our independent ways and be stuck in the cycles of birth, etc.  But since emperumAnAr is not a svathanthrar, but is subservient to Him and his AchAryan (parathanthrar), he would not let us be independent-minded.  A parathanthrar would not give svathanthram, isn’t it?

This is shown also in SrIvachana bhUshaNam – ‘svathanthranai upAyamAgap paRRina pOdhirE ipprasankam thAn uLLadhu’ (when surrendered to the independent emperumAn as the means, these alternating thoughts of doubt and comfort of getting mOksham would arise), and maNavALa mAmunigaL’s vyAkyanam saying “this doubt does not occur when we have surrendered to AchAryan as the means, as he is in the form of parathanthram, and since he is only focused on getting us mOksham, and so we can always be without any fear is the thought”.

Here, for those in charama parvam (devoted to AchAryan), true destiny is AchAryan’s divine feet, and it is assured that we would get that.

AzhvAr prayed ‘kodu ulagam kAttEl’ (don’t show/keep me in this cruel world), and emperumAnAr incarnated to satisfy that for us.

Thus he assured his mind that we are sure to get the true destiny.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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