Monthly Archives: January 2017

sthOthra rathnam – 41

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vishnu-on-garuda

Introduction

In this SlOkam – ALavandhAr enjoys emperumAn‘s togetherness with periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAn), who has the activities of being the dhvaja (flag) and everything, and who is always dear to emperumAn like a fragrant fruit.

dhAsas sakhA vAhanamAsanam dhvajO
yasthE vithAnam vyajanam thrayImaya: |
upasthitham thEna purO garuthmathA
thvadhanghrisammardhagiNAngaSObhinA ||

Word by word meaning

thrayImaya: – having vEdhams as limbs
ya: – that garudAzhwAn
thE – for you
dhAsa: – servitor
sakhA – friend
vAhanam – vehicle
Asanam – throne
dhvaja: – flag
vithAnam – canopy (which protects from shine)
vyajanam – who is the chAmara (fan made of hairs from yak tail)
thvath anghri sammardha giNa anga SObhinA – shining due to being identified by the scars caused by pressing of your divine feet
thEna garuthmathA – by such garudAzhwAn
pura: upasthitham – worshipped in your divine presence

Simple Translation

That garudAzhwAn who is having vEdhams as limbs, who is the servitor, friend, vehicle, throne, flag, canopy and chAmara for you, who is shining due to being identified by the scars caused by pressing of your divine feet; you are worshipped by such garudAzhwAn in your divine presence …

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • dhAsa: – All his activities will bring about glories to ISvara.
  • sakhA – having the greatness of being a companion for emperumAn while he manages the universe [such as being his vehicle while descending to protect gajEndhrAzhwAn, the elephant].
  • vAhanam – one who brings ISvara to his devotees when they are in trouble, for their protection.
  • Asanam – when emperumAn is at leisure, to match his greatness, garudAzhwAn assumes the form of the lion-throne for him.
  • dhvaja: – Being the flag, which is visible from distance and pleases ISvara‘s devotees on informing his arrival to them. It also implies that garudAzhwAn is the reason for ISvara’s protection.
  • ya: – His famous and well-known nature is explained as in thiruvAimozhi 9.2.6 “pon malaiyin mImisaik kArmugil pOl” (Like a dark cloud [emperumAn] on a golden mountain [garuda]) and thiruvAimozhi 3.8.1puLLUr kodiyAn” (one who rides the garuda and has garuda as the flag).
  • vithAnam – As said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 14.3 “vinathai siRuvan siRagennum mElAppin kIzh varuvAn” (one who stays under the wings of the son of vinathA), garuda being the shade-provider. Sage parASara says in SrIvishNu purANam 5.12.4 “garudancha dhadharSOchchairanthardhAnagatham dhvija | kruthachchAyam harEr mUrdhni pakshAbhyAm pakshipungavam ||” (Oh sage! One [garuda] who is giving shade with his wings on top of hari, the leader of birds and one he is invisible is seen by that indhra in the sky).
  • vyajanam – While carrying emperumAn, garuda fans emperumAn with his wings which resemble chAmara.
  • thrayI maya: – As said in thaiththirIya yajussamhithA kANdam 4 1.42 “suparNOsi garuthmAn | thrivruth thE Sira: | gAyathram chakshu: | …” (you are having beautiful wings and named garuthmAn; thrivruth is your head; gAyathram is your eye …), he is having vEdhams as his limbs. “avayavArthE mayat” [Here mayat prathyaya (suffix of maya), is used as “limbs”. maya may be used in different context in different cases]. ISvara is vEdha prathipAdhyan (one who is revealed by vEdham); garudAzhwAn is vEdhaSarIra (one who has vEdham as his body).
  • thEna garuthmathA pura: upasthitham – Like a mirror in front of sarvESvara and like a lemon fruit which has nice fragrance, garudAzhwAn is always in the presence of emperumAn.
  • thvadhanghri sammardha giNAnga SObhinA – When garudAzhwAn carries emperumAn, the scars caused by emperumAn’s divine feet pressing on him, is enjoyable for him – due to that he is shining radiantly. Like SrIkausthubha jewel is an identity for ISvara (his supremacy), for garudAzhwAn, these scars identify his servitude towards ISvara.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.3.7 – kurai kazhalgaL

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

vamana-mAnuri

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In seventh pAsuram – AzhwAr becomes astonished thinking “Though I don’t have the friendship or activities matching such friendship, my existence is the cause for your life! How great is your praNayithva (love towards me)!”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “Though I did not do anything for you, the nature of your divine form enslaves me and makes me exist exclusively for you; it has accepted my soul”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kurai kazhalgaL nItti maN koNda kOla vAmanA!
kurai kazhal kai kUppuvArgaL kUda ninRa mAyanE!
virai koL pUvum nIrum koNdu EththamAttEnElum un
urai koL sOdhith thiruvuruvam ennadhAvi mEladhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kurai – having brave ornaments (which were added for his activities which make others exist exclusively for him)
kazhalgaL – divine feet
nItti – lifted
maN – universe
koNda – measured and accepted
kOlam – having beauty
vAmanA – being vAmana
kurai kazhal – towards those divine feet
kai kUppuvArgaL – those who perform anjali
kUda – to attain (only him)
ninRa – stood (as upAyam (means) and upEyam (goal))
mAyanE – Oh amazing lord!
virai koL – abundantly fragrant
pUvum – flower
nIrum – and water
koNdu – having
Eththa mAttEnElum – even if I am incapable of praising you (to worship you)
urai – through words of vEdhAntha
koL – unlimited
sOdhi – having thEjas (radiance)
un – your
thiru uruvam – divine form
ennadhu Avi mEladhu – intent on my AthmA

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh amazing lord who lifted your divine feet with brave ornaments and measured and accepted the universe as vAmana and stood for those who perform anjali towards those divine feet to attain (you)! Even if I am incapable of praising you (to worship you) with abundantly fragrant flower and water, your divine form which is having unlimited thEjas through the words of vEdhAntha, became intent on my AthmA.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kurai kazhalgaL nItti – As said in thirunedunthANdagam 5 “maN muzhudhum agappaduththa ninRa” (stood capturing all the worlds), lifting his divine feet to have the full vastness of the world under his divine feet. kurai indicates parappu (vastness) and Osai (sound).
  • maN koNda kOla vAmanA – Even after emperumAn completing the measurement [and had become thrivikrama], AzhwAr‘s divine heart is attached to the vAmana form. AzhwAr feels that emperumAn assumed the form of vAmana to please him and not to redeem indhra’s lost kingdom.

Previously, the attainable goal is explained. Further, the nature of such goal, i.e., being easily attainable simply by an anjali (joined palms) is explained.

  • kurai kazhal kai kUppavArgaL – You stood to be united with those who performed anjali towards your divine feet. Alternative explanation – oh amazing person who is united with those who performed anjali having their feet held together [without going anywhere else]! The divine feet are attained [easily] by anjali [upAyam/means] and the target of that anjali [upEyam/goal]. Like indhra is attached to his rAjyam (kingdom), AzhwAr is attached to the beautiful divine feet [kurai indicates beauty]. The divine feet which were the means for indhra [to redeem his kingdom], are the goal for AzhwAr.
  • mAyanE – How amazing! you are attainable by a simple anjali! – says AzhwAr.
  • virai … – When you are attainable simply by an anjali, it is naturally fitting for the chEthana (sentient entity) to serve you with pushpa (flowers) etc; even if I did not get do that. Even if I did not engage in natural service towards you with fragrant flowers and water as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 130.6 “sinchanthu vasudhAm kruthsnAmhimaSithEnavAriNA” (Let the earth be covered with cool water; then, let them throw rice flakes and flowers).
  • un urai koL sOdhith thiru uruvam – “urai koLLugai” means continuously reciting it; the residents of ayOdhyA were like that as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 131.7 “rAmOrAmOrAma ithi prajAnAmabhavankathA: | rAma bhUtham jagathabhUth rAmE rAjyam praSAsathi ||” (When chakravarthi thirumagan (SrI rAma, son of dhaSaratha chakravarthi) was ruling the kingdom, every one was constantly reciting “rAma rAma rAma”; everything in the world was seen as SrI rAma only). Alternatively – the divine form which is beyond words; another meaning – divine form which has no match or words to explain. It is said as in thiruvAimozhi 3.1.2sutturaiththa nan pon un thirumEni oLi ovvAdhu” (best molten gold will not match your divine form’s radiance).
  • ennadhu Avi mEladhE – Such distinguished divine form of yours is all over my existence. The divine form that is enjoyed by nithyasUris is now sustained by my existence! As said in “kaliyar sORRin mEl manam” (hungry person’s mind is all over food). AzhwAr‘s nature is as said in thaiththirIya upanishath bhrugu valli “aham annam aham annam aham annam” (I am the food [for bhagavAn] – repeated three times for emphasis).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 4.3.6 – kAla chakkaraththodu

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

lord-maha-vishnu

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In sixth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “Oh emperumAn who has such love towards me! even if you don’t unite with me, your existence itself is my sustenance etc”. Why is AzhwAr now talking about his own love towards emperumAn [as this decad is about emperumAn’s love towards AzhwAr]? It is to indicate that the great love of emperumAn towards AzhwAr, caught on to AzhwAr and made AzhwAr also reciprocate such love towards emperumAn.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Sixth pAsuram. AzhwAr says “even if you, who has such love towards me, do not come to me, your existence only is my sustenance etc”. AzhwAr says “Though I did not help you, just as my existence is your sustenance etc, even if you don’t come, your existence is my sustenance etc”. While, AzhwAr is talking about emperumAn‘s love, why did he mention about his own love here? When two people unite and enjoy, the joy which is derived is common for both; in this, previously AzhwAr spoke about emperumAn’s love; now, he is saying that emperumAn’s overflowing love made him to manifest such love towards emperumAn as well.

pAsuram

kAla chakkaraththodu veN sangam kai EndhinAy
gyAlamuRRum uNdumizhndha nArAyaNanE enRenRu
Olamittu nAn azhaiththAl onRum vArAyAgilum
kOlamAm en sennikku un kamalam anna kurai kazhalE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kAlan – having the nature of becoming kAla (the destroyer) (to destroy the enemies)
chakkaraththodu – with thiruvAzhi (divine chakra, disc)
veL sangu – SrI pAnchajanya conch which has (contrasting) white colour
am – beautiful (adding grace to them)
kai – in the divine hand
EndhinAy – one who held

(while having the tools for protection in this manner)
gyAlam – for the world (which is protected)

(when faced with danger, to avoid it being consumed by the deluge)
muRRum – without a trace
uNdu – placing it in his stomach and protecting it
umizhndha – (after the deluge) spitting it out to let it see the outside
nArAyaNanE – Oh nArAyaNa (who has natural relationship)!
enRu enRu – saying these aspects repeatedly
Olamittu – crying out
nAn – I (who is not worthy of your arrival)
azhaiththAl – even if I called
onRum – without any indication (of your arrival, as said in periya thiruvanthAdhi 8 “arugum suvadum therivuNarOm” (we don’t have the ability to approach you or know the means to approach you))
vArAy Agilum – even if you don’t arrive
en sennikku – for my head (for me who cannot sustain without you)
un – your (the master)
kamalam anna – infinitely enjoyable like a lotus flower
kurai – making sounds of bravery (which highlight the protection for your devotees)
kazhal – divine feet
kOlam Am – shining radiantly as decoration.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Even if I said “Oh nArAyaNa who is holding in the beautiful divine hands, the thiruvAzhi which is having the nature of becoming kAla (the destroyer) and SrI pAnchajanya conch which has (contrasting) white colour, and who places the world in your stomach, protecting it and then spitting it out to let it see the outside!” repeatedly, cried out and I called you, and if you don’t arrive or don’t show any indication of your arrival, your infinitely enjoyable lotus flower like divine feet which make sounds of bravery are the shining radiant decoration for my head.

AzhwAr indicates “Love at your divine feet is that which sustains me”.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kAla chakkaram … – This is how AzhwAr calls out. Oh one who gently holds [like holding a flower] the divine chakra which is an enemy for the opponents and white Sanka which is a contrast for your dark complexion, in your beautiful hand, which should be checked for evil-eyes even when there is nothing on them [what to speak, when the conch and disc are present in them?]! Like pristine whiteness is the identity for pAnchajanya, destroying the enemies is the identity for thiruvAzhi (sudharSana chakra).
  • gyAla muRRum … – When he is decorated with these weapons as ornaments, instead of remaining indifferent when his vibhUthi (belongings) is suffering, he would help when needed. During total deluge, he would place the world in his stomach and protect it, and when the deluge is over, he would let it out – in this manner he will completely protect all.
  • nArAyaNanE – Protecting fully in this manner, and the protected ones not having to feel “He protected me, how am I going to payback?”, he is naturally related. One does not feel “My mother cared for me when I was in her stomach, what can I do for her in return?” – that is due to natural relationship; emperumAn is also similar to mother as said in periya thirumozhi 11.6.6 “thAy irukkum vaNNam ummaith than vayiRRiruththi uyyak koNdavan” (Like a mother, he kept you [all] in his stomach and protected you).
  • enRu enRu – Speaking about the combination of the divine hand and the AzhwArs (weapons, Sanka and chakra, who are indicated as SangaththAzhwAr and chakkaraththAzhwAr), his protection as required at specific times, the natural relationship even if such beauty and helping tendency was there. By repetition, AzhwAr‘s individual engagement in each aspect is highlighted.
  • Olamittu nAn azhaiththAl – When I who is powerless, call out for you. When I call out in high pitch so that you hear my cry and are shaken so much that you have to come, even when you are in paramapadham.
  • OnRum vArAy Agilum – As said in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam “… kuSasthalE nivasathi sa cha prAtharihaishyathi” (Oh vidhura! krishNa who came from upaplAvya, is now staying in kuSasthalam. In the morning, he will arrive here), even if there is no scope for “he had left from his abode and have arrived here”. “nAmagrAhancha nAthasya SIthala: kAhaLadhvani:” (The trumpet sound which resembles the name of krishNa, will have a cooling effect).
  • kOlamAm en sennikku – For my head which considers as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 98.8 “yAvanna SaraNau bhrAthu: pArthivavyanjanAnvithau | SirasA dhArayishyAmi  na mE SAnthirbhavishyathi ||” (Until I behold the divine feet of my brother SrI rAma who has all qualities of being a king, I will not have peace), [your divine feet as] decoration.
  • un kamalam anna – As people would desire to wear fresh flowers [AzhwAr is desiring the lotus like divine feet of emperumAn].
  • kurai kazhalE – kurai can mean vastness, which indicates enjoyable nature of the divine feet; it can also mean the sound of ornaments [decorating the feet]. Why is AzhwAr saying “vArAyAgilum kOlamAm” (even if you don’t come, your divine feet are my decoration)? AzhwAr says “You should not avoid coming here. But if that happened [you did not arrive], this is my thinking”. AzhwAr is saying “you have pushed me to such a state [of deep attachment towards you]”. Naturally, AzhwAr would say “ninnalAl ilEn kAN” (I won’t exist without you).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 67

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Full Series

<< previous (gyAnam kanindha nalam koNDu)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In previous pAsurams amudhanAr divined about greatness of knowledge propagated by emperumAnAr, and his greatness of giving mOksham. In this pAsuram – if emperumAnAr had not protected us by commanding with his teachings that the faculties/senses of the body which are for surrendering to emperumAn should not transgress – then who could have been the protector of this AthmA – so thinks amudhanAr to himself and is joyful.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous two pAsurams, amudhanAr divined about greatness of knowledge propagated by emperumAnAr, and his greatness of giving mOksham,

and in this pAsuram – when you were without distinction from non-sentient (during the time of annihilated state of worlds), where you were unable to enjoy anything or get mOksham, He made you to be eligible to reach the destiny, after the time of annihilation you were given hands, legs, etc.; so do not transgress from the intended use of those senses, surrender to sarvESvaran, and get the destiny –

if emperumAnAr had not protected us by this advice looking at the samsAri (people involved in worldly matters) who are being servants of their bodily senses, then who could have been the protector of the sentient  – saying so, amudhanAr becomes happy thinking about the greatest help of emperumAnAr.

charaNam adaindha dharumanukkA paNdu nURRuvarai
maraNam adaiviththa mAyavan thannai vaNaga vaiththa
karaNam ivai umakku anRu enRu irAmAnusan uyirgatku
araN angu amaiththilanEl  araN Ar maRRu iv AruyirkkE     –    67

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

charaNam adaindha – he who did not say ‘na namEyam’ (rAvaNan saying even his dead body won’t fall on perumAL’s feet), using the faculties of the body that He Himself gave, but surrendered to Him,
dharumanukkA – for such dharmaputhran (yudhishtiran),
paNdu – during the time long ago,

those who troubled His devotees, and saying ‘would not worship Him’,
nURRuvarai – that is, dhuryOdhanan, all the hundred (kauravas)
maraNam adaiviththa – (krishNan)  made them get death
mAyavan – such sarvESvaran who possesses astonishing powers;

(emperumAnAr,)
angu – during the time (of AthmAs) transgressing using the senses of the body
umakku anRu – (advised) that these are not for serving yourselves,
thannai vaNanga vaiththa – (He) gave, as equipment for surrendering to Him,
karaNam ivai – these senses of the body;
enRu – in this way using positive and negative aspects of it, emperumAnAr showed clearly the use of senses as not for using them other than for emperumAn;
iraAmAnusan – (if) emperumAnAr,
amaiththilanEl – had not created
araN – protection
uyirgatku – for the AthmAs, (by so advising)
araN Ar –  who would be the protector
iv Aruyirkku – for this AthmA.

Implied that there is no one else.

Can also read together as ‘mAyavan thannai vaNanga vaiththa’ ((senses are kept for) worshiping emperumAn).

vyAkyAnam

charaNam adaindha dharumanukkA – unlike rAvaNan who did not agree even when periya pirAttiyAr who is said as ‘rAgavathvE abhavath seethA’ (periya pirAttiyAr who incarnates along with emperumAn each time, incarnated as seethA with rAghavan), herself, had, directly, one-on-one, advised him ‘vidhithas sahi dharmagya: SaraNAgatha vathsala: thEna maithree bhavathuthE yadhi jeevithumichchaSi’ (It is well known that rAman knows dharmam (kindness) very well; (He is the) protector of those who surrender to him; go and identify yourself as his friend and hold his hands – if you wish to continue living), and unlike saying ‘na namEyam’,

dharmaputhran and other pANdavas surrendered krishNAn as said in ‘dhraupadhyA sahidhas sarvE namaSchakrur janArdhdhanam’, (along with dhraupadhI they prostrated before kaNNan emperumAn) and, ‘krishNaSrya: krishNa bAlA: krishNA nAthAScha pANdavA:’ (pANdavas who surrendered to krishNan, considered krishNan only as their strength, krishNan only as their lord);

for them –

paNdu nURRuvarai since dhvApara yugam was much earlier to him, amudhanAr is saying paNdu’old times.

During such old time, in mAhAbhAratham, those who were referred to by count as ‘the hundred’, the kaurvavas starting from dhuryOdhanan. All of them –

maraNam adaiviththa – as said in ‘mayaivaidhE nihathA: pUrvamEva nimiththa mAthram bhavasavyasAchin [SrI bhagavath gIthA](They were killed by me only; you can be just a weapon (I have already killed their strength)),  ‘kAlOsmi lOka kshaya kruth pravruththa: [SrI bhagavath gIthA](krishNan saying during giving viSvarUpa dharSanam to arjunan) I am Time, I kill everyone in this world),

krishNan got them death; that is, got the kauravas killed;

mAyavan – making day as night, dropping the vow of “won’t touch weapon”  and taking weapon, stopping arjunan who wanted to avoid war, advised him in many ways , and made him say ‘karishyE vachanam thava’ (I will do as you say) , without minding His greatness, being happy for his devotees, for all of the world to witness He performed lowly acts as charioteer, etc., – having such surprising acts – krishNan;

thannai vaNanga vaiththa karaNam ivai – As said in ‘vichithrA dhEha sampaththi: eeSvarAya nivEdhitham – pUrvamEva kruthA brahman hastha pAdhAdhi samyuthA’ (~ after annihilation at the start of creation, long ago, emperumAn created sentient with arms, legs, etc.,), and ‘jihvE keerththaya kESavam, muraribum chEthO bhaja, SrIdharam pANithvandhva samarchchaya, achyutha kadhAm SrOthra dhvaya thvam SruNu – krushNam lOkaya lOchana dhvaya, harE: gachchAngri yugmAlayam, jigra grANa mukundha pAdha thuLaSeem, mUrdhdhan namAdhOkShajam” , (Oh tongue! sing about kEsavan;  Oh mind! worship murAri that is krishNan;  Oh arms! pay homage to SrIdharan; Oh the two ears! always hear the stories of achyuthan; Oh the two eyes! always see kaNNan;  Oh the two legs! walk only to Hari’s temple; oh nose!  smell only the thiruththuzhAy from kaNNan’s divine feet;  oh head! use of having head is to prostrate upon kaNNan’s divine feet ),

the senses of the body created by sarvESvaran for serving His divine feet.

umakku anRu enRu – in this way using the faculties/senses of the body given for liberating from the material world, like misusing the float given for crossing the river to instead go with the flood, they toil based on directions of their body (Akkai vazhi uzhanRu), and take it upon themselves to go for some remedies or the other (yAdhAnum paRRi neengum viratham) – emperumAnAr addressing such people: umakku anRu enRu – (emperumAnAr told that these senses of the body are) not meant for you to use for involving in this material world;

irAmAnusan – this emperumAnAr

uyirgatku –  it is not meaningful to advice to the non-sentient!  These AthmAs are having the life/breathing,  and so not able to tolerate their degradation, due to his ultimate kindness, addressing the sentient, he says that the senses of your body are not for you to use for yourself;

araN angu amaiththilanEl – in that place (where they used their senses for themselves), he advised based on the nature/temperament of individuals who were disillusioned about the separation of body and AthmA, and by writing text through SrI bAshyam, etc., and for their mind to fully get it he established that through his disciples, through positive (senses are for service to Him), and negative (senses are not for you) ways – if emperumAnAr had not preached this –

mahabharat

iv Ar uyirkku – As said in ‘Evam samsruthi chakrasthE bhrAmyamANEsva karmabhi:’  (like the wheel the sentient would go in cycles in this material world due to their karmas),  for the AthmAs who are drowning in the sea that is material world;  (if emperumAnAr had not saved them by advice etc.,)

araN Ar – is there any other protection?   As said in ‘kShEmassa Evahi yatheendhra bhavachrithAnAm [yathirAja vimSathi]’ (we prayed for emperumAn’s kindness, and you got that from Him for us, that is our wellness), and ‘dhathE rangee nijam abibatham dhESikA dhESAkAngkShee’ (whoever Is having love for SrIvaikuNtam, for all of them emperumAnAr got that from the divine feet of SrI ranganAthan) – it is established that only your divine self is the protector.

It is but said, ‘na chEth rAmAnujEth yEshA chathurA chathurAkshari | kAmavasthAm prapadhyanthE janthavO hantha mAdhrusa: [varavaramuni mukthakam – 5 / uththara dhinacharyA – 20]’

(Oh! If there was no ‘rAmAnujA’ the most prudent four lettered manthra, what (terrible) state would worms like me would have ended up in!).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

dharumanukkA –  referring to dharman represents other pANdavas and dhraupadhI as well.

Killing the hundred kauravas for dharuman shows His partiality towards His devotees.

vaiththa karaNam – since sentient were being like non-sentient at the time of annihilation, amudhanAr uses the word ‘vaiththa’ (placed/created), instead of ‘koduththa’ (gave) faculties/senses of the body, (because it is not possible to take it at that time, and also it is not to be given and forgotten but would be taken back during next annihilation, and also to show that the faculties/senses still belong to Him).

umakku anRu –  they were not placed on you as your properties.

enRu irAmAnusan … Aruyirkku – enRu -> in those ways – emperumAnAr advised. It is not acceptable to use the senses for own purpose; pANdavas who understood this truth did not perform any act as the means; they stood as servants by controlling their faculties/senses (surrendering in the form of not attempting any acts to protect themselves); whereas the kauravas who for their own benefits had used their senses and they died away – showing this as one of the examples, emperumAnAr created protection for the AthmAs.

– – – – –

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sthOthra rathnam – 40

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vishnu-lakshmi

Introduction

Due to his urge towards kainkaryam (service), ALavandhAr enjoys thiruvananthAzhwAn’s (AdhiSEshan) distinguished activities. As said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.15.157 “upamAnamaSEshANAm sAdhUnAm yassadhA’bhavath |” (How prahladha has become the example of all good people), for those who are interested in kainkaryam, it is thiruvananthAzhwAn’s activities which are best examples. ALavandhAr explains ultimate state of such AdhiSEshan.

nivAsaSayyAsanapAdhukASuka
upadhAnavarshAthapavAraNAdhibhi: |
SarIrabhEdhais thava SEshathAm gathair
yathOchitham SEsha ithIrithE janai: ||

Word by word meaning

nivAsa SayyA Asana pAdhukA amSuka upadhAna varshAthapa vAraNa Adhibhi: – [AdhiSEsha] being the palace where emperumAn resides, being the bed where he rests, being the throne [where he sits], being the sandals [which he wears], being the garments [which he wears], being the pillow [which he embraces], being the umbrella which protects him from rain and shine, and assuming many other forms [for his service]
yathOchitham – as suitable for each situation
thava SEshathAm gathai: – in service for you
SarIra bhEdhai: – in many forms
SEsha: ithi janai: IrithE – being called by everyone as “SEsha”
anantha bhOgini – on the divine form of thiruvananthAzhwAn
AsInam – divinely resting

Simple Translation

emperumAn is divinely resting  on the divine form of thiruvananthAzhwAn who is being the palace where emperumAn resides, being the bed where he rests, being the throne [where he sits], being the sandals [which he wears], being the garments [which he wears], being the pillow [which he embraces], being the umbrella which protects him from rain and shine, and assuming many other forms [for his service] in service for you and hence [thiruvananthAzhwAn] is being called by everyone as “SEsha” …

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • nivAsa – He is said to be the palace where emperumAn is mercifully residing.
  • SayyA – the bed where he rests/sleeps.
  • Asana – mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 53 “irundhAl singAsanamAm” (the throne when he sits)
  • pAdhukA – mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 53 “ninRAl mara adiyAm” (the wooden sandals, when he stands)
  • amSuka – garment which conveys emperumAn’s masculinity
  • upadhAna – mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 53 “pulgum aNaiyAm” (the pillow which he embraces)
  • varshAthapavAraNa Adhibhi: – as said in mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 53 “senRAl kudaiyAm” (umbrella when he walks), umbrella to protect him from rain and shine. With the word “Adhi“, it is explained that there is no end to his forms due to his great attachment to serve emperumAn. It is said in chAndhOgya upanishath 7.26.2 “sa EkadhA bhavathi .. sahasradhA bhavathi” (mukthAthmA assumes one form, two forms … thousand forms, to serve emperumAn).
  • SarIra bhEdhai: – the differences in the different bodies are only due to the different kainkaryams one may be engaged in
  • thava SEshathAm gathai: – Just like the forms of your highness vary as per the different types of protection you provide to others, his forms vary as per the services he engages in.
  • yathOchitham – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 12.68 – dhaSaratha says “… yadhA yadhA hi kausalyA …” (kausalyA will be like a servant, friend, wife, sister and mother according to the situation, for me), according to the times.
  • janai: SEsha ithIrithE – He is known as “SEsha” by everyone whether young or old; also, he is like an embodiment of servitude.
  • janai: – this can also indicate nithyasidhdhars (nithyasUris) as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.7.5peru makkaL uLLavar” (nithyasUris); as per SEshathvam (being a servant) which is explained in vEdhartha sangraham “paragatha athiSayAdhanEchchaya upAdhEyathvam Eva yasya svarUpam sa SEsha: praSSEshI” (one who is acknowledged for always trying to bring in greatness for another person, he is called SEsha; the other person is called SEshi); vishNu thathvam “pArathanthryam parE pumsi …” (the mukthAthmA who is liberated from bondage, attains total dependence on paramAthmA, attains incomparable independence and enjoys along with paramAthmA) and so on.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.3.5 – kaNNi enadhuyir

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

vishnu-holding-chakram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fifth pAsuram – AzhwAr says that each one of his qualities such as snEham (friendship) etc towards emperumAn is an ornament and other appendage for emperumAn.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “For krishNa who is enjoyable, the lord, the benefactor and is easily approachable, my prEma (love) etc are the ornaments etc”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaNNi enadhuyir kAdhal kanagach chOdhi mudi mudhalA
eNNil palkalangaLum Elum Adaiyum ahdhE
naNNi mUvulagum naviRRum kIrththiyum ahdhE
kaNNan empirAn emmAn kAla chakkaraththAnukkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kAlam – to control the time
chakkaraththAn – having the thiruvAzhi (divine chakra [disc])
emmAn – (by showing such beauty) being the lord who enslaved me
empirAn – my great benefactor (one who lets me enjoy such beauty eternally)
kaNNanukku – krishNa (who incarnated with simplicity synchronous with the time)
enadhu – my dear
uyir – AthmA
kaNNi – became the garland (which is placed on his head);
kAdhal – prEma [love] (which is the natural expression of this AthmA)
kanagam – golden
sOdhi – radiance (which reveals his supremacy over all)
mudi mudhalA – crown etc
eN il pal – innumerable
kalangaLum – became ornaments;
Elum – matching (revealing his supremacy over all)
Adaiyum – his divine pIthAmbaram (garment)
ahdhE – the same;
mU ulagum – three types of AthmAs [nithya (eternally free), muktha (liberated), badhdha (bound) souls]
naNNi – approach
naviRRum – continuously recite
kIrththiyum – eulogies
ahdhE – the same

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

For krishNa who is having the divine chakra to control the time, who is the lord who enslaved me and who is my my great benefactor, my dear AthmA became the garland; my prEma (love) became his innumerable ornaments such as the golden radiant crown etc; the same [prEma] became his divine pIthAmbaram (garment); the eulogies which were continuously recited by the three types of AthmAs who approach him, also are the same [his ornaments].

AzhwAr considers emperumAn‘s acceptance of his love as wonderful decorations and greatness for emperumAn.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaNNi enadhuyir – Whatever I considered as mine, he accepted that as his garland [what a great quality]! It is apt for him to have SrI mahAlakshmi who is said as in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.2 “mArvaththu mAlai” (the garland of his chest); instead he is having my existence as his garland.
  • kAdhal … – My love is his attractive, supremacy revealing divine crown and many other divine ornaments. How can AzhwAr‘s friendship become emperumAn‘s ornaments? emperumAn after becoming the target of AzhwAr’s love, considers that he acquired all the radiance that would be acquired by wearing many divine ornaments – thus based on emperumAn’s opinion, AzhwAr’s love is considered as the many ornaments for emperumAn.
  • Elum Adaiyum ahdhE – The same love is the matching divine garment for his waist. Once when a SrIvaishNava vaNNaththAn (washerman), washed [periya perumAL’s] clothes perfectly and presented to emperumAnAr, being very pleased, he held washerman’s hands and took him in front of periya perrumAL and said “nAyanthE! please bestow your divine glance for the clothes he washed to match your divine waist” and mercifully showed the clothes to periya perumAL. periya perumAL became very pleased and mercifully spoke to udaiyavar “For the sake of this washerman, I have forgiven the washerman who committed offense towards me in krishNAvathAram [When krishNa and balarAma entered mathurA, they first met a washerman who refused to give freshly washed clothes to them and insulted them, to be killed by krishNa]”.
  • Elum Adaiyum ahdhE – Not just one type of object, but all types of objects for him. AzhwAr‘s love is the divine pIthAmbaram (yellow garment) which highlights his supremacy also. This [love] is the long time effort which becomes emperumAn‘s divine ornaments and garments. His love is what sustains him as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.3aRiyAk kAlaththuLLE adimaikkaN anbu seyviththu” (when there was no scope to know about such relationship, you engaged me in servitude towards you). bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 4.3 “mahArajathamvAsa:” (the best golden garment). Since AzhwAr’s pAsurams are as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.3.11 “poyyil pAdal” (songs which have no lies), no need to doubt his words.
  • naNNi mU ulagum … – Not just greatly knowledgeable devotees, but all come and approach him and glorify him like waves rising from ocean – AzhwAr‘s love is such glorification. After accepting AzhwAr’s love, emperumAn started thinking “even those anyaparar (devotees with ulterior expectations) became ananyaparar (exclusive devotees)”.

Subsequently, emperumAn’s efforts to kindle such love in AzhwAr, is explained; he showed already serving devotees and converted AzhwAr to be like them.

  • kAla chakkaraththAn em pirAn emmAn kaNNanukku – For my lord, krishNa, who manifested his divine combination of beautiful hand and divine chakra and bestowed me ananyaparathvam (exclusive existence for emperumAn) and made me to be as said in thiruviruththam 97 “kazhivadhOr kAdhal uRRArkkum uNdO kaNgaL thunjudhal” (can those who have great love towards emperumAn, close their eyes and ever sleep?).
  • kAla chakkaram – He [sudharSana chakkaraththAzhwAr] can turn day into night. thiruvAzhi (divine chakram) which controls time. Also explained as the divine chakram that can eliminate our binding to time. In the dark times as said in SrIvishNu purANam 6.1.41 “… nArchayishyanthi” (In the kaliyuga, by the influence of crooked persons, people will stop worshipping vishNu, the sarvESvara) and in the samsAram [material realm] which is said as in thiruvAimozhi 10.6.1 “iruL tharu mA gyAlam” (this world which gives us ignorance), the divine chakra which drives out the darkness as said in thiruviruththam 33 “aruLAr thiruchchakkaram” (the divine chakra which is filled with mercy), which kindles my taste [towards him] and keeps me inseparable at his divine feet as he resides inseparable in his hand. chakkaraththAzhwAr will stay in his hand and make everyone fall at emperumAn‘s divine feet.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.3.4 – mAyththal eNNi

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

putna1

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fourth pAsuram – AzhwAr becomes pleased thinking “My prANa (vital air) has become the suitable pampering tool for your fatigue after performing activities such as accepting milk from [demoniac] pUthanA and so on, and for the tenderness of yours, who is Sriya:pathi (lord of SrI mahAlakshmi)”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “For you who is Sriya:pathi, who has enslaved me completely by killing pUthanA who is anukUla Sathru (enemy in disguise), my prANa became the distinguished decoration on your divine head”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Fourth pAsuram. AzhwAr says “Though I could not pamper you to remove your fatigue during the killing of pUthanA et al, for your tender divine body which cannot survive without pampering, my existence itself is the suitable garland”.

pAsuram

mAyththal eNNi vAy mulai thandha mAyap pEy uyir
mAyththa Aya mAyanE! vAmananE! mAdhavA!
pUththaN mAlai koNdu unnaip pOdhAl vaNangEnElum nin
pUththaN mAlai nedu mudikkup punaiyum kaNNi enadhuyirE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

mAyththal – to finish
eNNi – thinking
vAy – in the divine mouth
mulai thandha – placed her breast
mAyam – having a motherly form (which is favourable)
pEy – evil demon’s
uyir – prANa (vital air)
mAyththa – finished
Ayan – without any deficiency in “cowherd child” qualities
mAyanE – Oh amazing emperumAn!
vAmananE – blessing me to see vAmanAvathAram (where he manifested his lordship over the whole universe and showed that everything is fully dependent on him)
mAdhavA – Oh one who established (your natural) Sriya:pathithvam (being the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi)!
unnai – you (who is the destroyer of enemy in disguise)
pU – with distinguished flowers
thaN – cool
mAlai koNdu – with garlands
pOdhu – according to the situation
vaNangEnElum – even though I did not get to worship you
nin – your
pU – abundant flowers
thaN – fresh
mAlai – decorated with garland
nedu – tall (revealing the supremacy over everyone)
mudikku – for the divine crown
punaiyum – worn as decoration
kaNNi – garland
enadhu uyirE – my prANa (vital air, life)!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh amazing emperumAn who finished the life of the evil demon who was having a (favourable) motherly form and place her breast in your divine mouth thinking to finish you, who is without any deficiency in “cowherd child” qualities! Oh you who is blessing me to see vAmanAvathAram! Oh one who established (your natural) Sriya:pathithvam! Even though I did not get to worship you with cool garlands and flowers, my prANa (vital air, life) is the garland which is worn as decoration for your tall divine crown which is decorated with garland made of abundance of flowers!

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mAyaththal eNNi – Looking at her intentions while approaching krishNa, it is natural that there is need for some one to care for him. Since there is no mention of who is to be finished in “mAyththal eNNi” (thinking to finish), AzhwAr is saying “She came to finish the whole universe”; when the soul is destroyed, the body will naturally be destroyed; when the life itself is attacked, one need not attack each limb; he is the singular soul of the entire universe. sugrIva on seeing vibhIshaNa with his assistants said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17.5 “asmAn hanthum na samSaya:” (to kill us, there is no doubt).
  • vAy mulai thandha – AzhwAr is saying “thandha” (gave) since pUthanA trying to breast-feed the poison to krishNa made AzhwAr feel as if she gave it to AzhwAr himself; alternatively, “thandha” and “koduththa” can be simply treated as synonyms and is simply explaining that she breast-fed poison to krishNa.
  • mAyap pEy – Not just evil by birth, she also came in disguise. That is, instead of coming in her real form, she came in a motherly form as said in periya thirumozhi 1.5.6 “thAyAy vandha pEy” (the demon which came in the disguise of mother).
  • uyir mAyththu – Whatever she came to take [krishNa’s life], he did that [took away her life] to herself.
  • Aya mAyanE – Oh amazingly capable cowherd! He accepted the milk as a toddler; she too gave him milk like a mother; just by the nature of things [bhagavAn and her enmity towards him], she died.
  • vAmananE – At least in krishNAvathAram, if pUthanA breast-feeds poison, there is a real mother who can give antidote to him there. mUnRAm thiruvanthAdhi 74 “vengongai uNdAnai mIttu Aychchi UttuvAn, than kongai vAy vaiththAL sArndhu” (Mother yaSOdhA rescuing krishNa from pUthanA who gave her hot [evil] breast, placed her breast in his mouth], mUnRAm thiruvanthAdhi 29 “pEychchi pAl uNda perumAnaip pErththu eduththu, Aychchi mulai koduththAL anjAdhE” (grabbing krishNa from the demon from whom he was drinking milk, without any fear, mother yaSOdhA gave milk”. Another explanation – after giving birth to krishNa, his mother and father were engaged in thapas [were not paying attention], so he himself chases down the demons [and kills them]. When he goes after the enemies, it creates fear in the devotees’ hearts. This is what is done in periya thiruvanthAdhi 16 “sIrAl piRandhu siRppAl vaLarAdhu, pEr vAmanan AgAkkAl pErALA!” (Oh great personality! if you did not take birth as vAmana who did not have wealthy traditions while being born …).
  • mAdhavA – As said in a proverb “thInAL thiruvaudaiyArkku illai” (those who have SrI mahAlakshmi, have no inauspicious days], he escaped these dangers to embrace her. Even when there is no danger, they like to sing mangaLASAsanam (well-wishes) to the togetherness of periya pirAttiyAr and periya perumAL; those caring persons [AzhwArs] said in thiruppallANdu 2vadivAy nin vala mArbinil vAzhginRa mangaiyum pallANdu” (Long live, you who is having SrI mahAlakshmi in your beautiful right chest).
  • pUth thaN mAlai koNdu – With cool flower garlands. Though I did not get to fall at your divine feet and serve you during the times of pUthanA et al.
  • ni pUth thaN mAlai nedu mudikku – For your divine crown which reveals your supremacy over everyone which cannot survive without cool flower garland, my prANa/saththai (life/existence) is the desired garland.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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शरणागति गद्य – चूर्णिका 5 – भाग 3

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श्री: श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नम:

शरणागति गद्य

<< चूर्णिका 5 – भाग 2

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पिछले अंकों में हमने भगवान के स्वरुप (प्रकृति), रूप गुण (दिव्य विग्रह के गुण), आभूषणों, आयुधों, और महिषियों के विषय में किये गए वर्णन को देखा। अब हम श्रीवैकुण्ठ और लीला विभूति में उनके आश्रितों के विषय में जानेंगे।

आईए हम चूर्णिका के उस भाग को पुनः देखते हैं जिसमें इन द्वय विभूति में उनके आश्रितों के विषय में चर्चा की गयी है –

स्वच्छन्दानुवर्ती स्वरूपस्थिति प्रवृत्ति भेद अशेष शेषतैकरतिरूप नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय ज्ञानक्रियैश्वर्याद्यनन्त कल्याण गुणगण शेष शेषासन गरुड़ प्रमुख नानाविधानन्त परिजन परिचारिका परिचरित चरणयुगल ! परमयोगी वाङ्गमनसा परिच्छेद्य स्वरूप स्वभाव स्वाभिमत विविध विचित्रानन्त भोग्य भोगोपकरण भोगस्थान समृद्ध अनन्ताश्चर्य अनन्त महाविभव अनन्त परिमाण नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय वैकुण्ठनाथ ! स्वसंकल्प अनुविधायि स्वरुपस्थिति प्रवृत्ति स्वशेषतैक स्वभाव प्रकृति पुरुष कालात्मक विविध विचित्रानन्त भोग्य भोक्तृ वर्ग भोगोपकरण भोगस्थानरूप निखिल जगदुदय विभव लय लील !

वर्णन: 

स्वच्छन्दानुवर्ती – अब श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी श्रीवैकुण्ठ में निवास करने वाले जीवों के विषय में बताते है, जिनके जीवन का सार ही भगवान और श्रीजी के चरणों का कैंकर्य है। नित्यसुरिजन (सदा श्रीवैकुण्ठ में निवास करते है और जिन्होंने कभी लीला विभूति में जन्म नहीं लिया) मात्र भगवान के मुख को निहारते (भगवद्मुखोल्लास) हुए कैंकर्य करते है, यह जानते हुए कि भगवान की अभिलाषा क्या है, बद्धात्माओं के विपरीत जिन्हें भगवान द्वारा यह बताने की आवश्यकता होती है कि वे किस प्रकार का कैंकर्य करे।

स्वरुप स्थिति प्रवृत्ति भेदभगवान ऐसे अधिकारी का निर्णय करते है, जिन्हें वे कैंकर्य प्रदान करेंगे। उन अधिकारियों के स्वरुप, स्थिति और प्रवृत्ति के विषय में यहाँ चर्चा की गयी है। स्वरुप से आशय है उन अधिकारी का मूल स्वभाव, स्थिति से आशय है उनका आधार (जो उनके जीवन का आधार है) और प्रवृत्ति से आशय से है उनके कार्य। भेद अर्थात इन सभी में अंतर स्थापित करना।

नित्यसूरियों के संदर्भ में, भगवान की इच्छा अनुसार उनका कैंकर्य करना ही उनका स्वरुप है। उनकी स्थिति यह है कि भगवान का कैंकर्य करना ही उनका जीवन है (कैंकर्य ही उन्हें आधार प्रदान करता है) और प्रवृत्ति उस कैंकर्य में तत्परता से लीन होना । वे ये सभी कैंकर्य भगवान के मुखारविंद के भावों को ध्यान में रखकर, उनके प्रेम के प्रति अपनी कृतज्ञता प्रकट करने के लिए और यही उस स्थान पर उनका धर्म है, ऐसा जानकार करते है। हमारी तरह उन्हें उनके कैंकर्य के लिए स्मरण नहीं कराना पड़ता।

अशेष शेषतैकर अतिरूप – अत्यंत प्रेम और श्रद्धा से अभिभूत, सभी कैंकर्य करने वाले, कुछ न छोड़ने वाले अवतार के समान। जब भगवान चाहते है कि यह कैंकर्य हो, तब नित्यसूरी सम्पूर्णत: तन्मयता से उस कैंकर्य में रत हो जाते है, जिससे ज्ञात होता है कि वे उस निष्ठा के प्रतीक है, जिस निष्ठा से कैंकर्य किया जाना चाहिए।

अगले श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी उन नित्यसूरियों के गुणों के विषय में बताते है जो ऐसे कैंकर्य करते है।

नित्य – मुक्तात्माओं से पृथक, (जो संसार से श्रीवैकुण्ठ जाते है), नित्यसूरियों को ज्ञान आदि जैसे गुण भगवान द्वारा नित्य के लिए प्रदान किये जाते है।

निरवद्य– बिना किसी दोष के। कैंकर्य भगवान की प्रसन्नता के लिए है, नित्यसूरियों के आनंद के लिए नहीं।

निरतिशय ज्ञान – नित्यसूरियों में शेष/ सेवक होने का ज्ञान है, वे कैंकर्य करने के लिए निर्मित है, वे अनुयायी है और भगवान ही एकमात्र स्वामी है; वे भगवान की संपत्ति है और भगवान ही उनके नाथ है; नित्यसुरियों में यह ज्ञान पुर्णतः उदित और प्रशस्त है।

क्रिया – अपने कार्यों द्वारा यह प्रकट करना कि वे वास्तव में भगवान के शेष/ सेवक है। इसमें प्रथम भाग यह ज्ञान है कि हम सेवक है। द्वितीय भाग है कैंकर्य के लिए भगवान से विनय करना और तृतीय भाग है कैंकर्य करना। तृतीय भाग से वह पूर्ण होता है।

ऐश्वर्य – अन्य नित्यसुरियों और मुक्तात्माओं को कैंकर्य के प्रति निर्देशित करना। यद्यपि श्रीवैकुण्ठ में सभी मुक्तात्मा यह भली प्रकार समझते है कि क्या कैंकर्य करना चाहिए, तथापि वे ऐसी अपेक्षा करते है कि उन्हें आज्ञा हो कि कैंकर्य कैसे किया जाना है। उन्हें ऐसा अनुभव होता है कि ऐसी आज्ञा प्राप्त करने के पश्चाद ही उनके स्वरुप की पुष्टि होती है।

आदि – बहुत से अन्य ऐसे गुण, जो इस शब्द द्वारा संकेतिक है, परंतु विशेषतः उनका वर्णन नहीं किया गया है।

अनंत – उनके द्वारा किये जाने वाले कैंकर्य की कोई गिनती नहीं है।

गुणगण – गुणों का भण्डार

शेष – तिरुवनन्ताल्वान। शेषनागजी – भगवान के आसन।

शेषासन – विष्वक्सेनजी। भगवान की सेना के सेनाधिपति।

गरुड़ – पक्षिराज। भगवान के वाहन।

प्रमुख – इन नित्यसूरियों से प्रारंभ करके

नानाविध – विभिन्न कैंकर्य करने पर आधारित विभिन्न प्रकार की श्रेणी के नित्यसूरीगण। इस शब्दावली में श्रीवैकुण्ठ की बाहरी और भीतरी परिधि के सभी संरक्षकगण, सेना के संरक्षक आदि निहित है।

अनंत परिजनश्रीवैकुण्ठ में अनंत कैंकर्यपरारगण है जैसे शेषजी, शेषासनजी, गरुडजी, आदि जिस प्रकार वहां अनंत गुण है।

परिचारक परिचरित चरणयुगल – उन दिव्य युगल चरणों के धारक (चरणयुगल) जिनका ऐसे नित्यसुरिजन, अपने सहचरियों सहित असीम अनंत कैंकर्य करते है।

अगले श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी, भगवान के निवास, श्रीवैकुण्ठ का वर्णन करते है।

परमयोगी – महान संत (जैसे सनक, सनातन, आदि)

वांगमानस – उनके वचन और मानस।

अपरिछेद्य – जिस तक पहुंचा नहीं जा सकता।

स्वरूप स्वभाव –  महान संत कहते है कि श्रीवैकुण्ठ पांच उपनिषदों, (पवित्र/ शुद्ध/ अध्यात्मिक तत्वों) अथवा पूर्ण शुद्धसत्व से निर्मित है। परंतु वे उसके स्वरुप अथवा स्वभाव का पूर्ण रूप से वर्णन नहीं कर सकते। श्रीवैकुण्ठ नित्य है परंतु भगवान अपने संकल्प मात्र से उसे परिवर्तित कर सकते है। वह पांच उपनिषदों से निर्मित है और उसे विशेष तत्व द्वारा निर्मित नहीं समझा जाना चाहिए। क्यूंकि यह विशेष तत्व से निर्मित नहीं है, इसे नित्य जानना चाहिए।

स्वाभिमत – भगवान द्वारा पसंद किया जाने वाला और उनके ह्रदय के अत्यंत समीप

विविध विचित्र – विभिन्न प्रकार के

अनंत – जिसका कोई अंत नहीं है

भोग्य भोगोपकरण भोगस्थान समृद्धभोग्य अर्थात वह तत्व जिसका आनंद लिया जाता है (जैसे दिव्य संगीत अथवा दिव्य भोजन अथवा पुष्पों से दिव्यसुगंध)। भोगोपकरण अर्थात वह उपकरण जिसके द्वारा किसी तत्व का आनंद प्राप्त किया जाता है (उपरोक्त उदहारणो में उल्लेखित दोषरहित वाणी, गलमाल)। भोगस्थान अर्थात वह स्थान जहाँ उस तत्व का भोग किया जाता है। वह कोई मण्डप हो सकता है अथवा कोई बागीचा। श्रीवैकुण्ठ इन सब तत्वों से परिपूर्ण है।

अनंत आश्चर्य – वहां ऐसी अगणित अद्भुत वस्तुएँ है। वे नयी प्रतीत होती है परंतु वे वहां अनंत समय से है।

अनंत महाविभव – अगणित संपत्ति (यहाँ संपत्ति का आशय श्रीवैकुण्ठ में विद्यमान नदियाँ, ताल, तलाब, बागीचे, आदि से भी है)

अनंत परिमाण – ऐसे परिमाणों से निर्मित जिसकी कोई कल्पना नहीं कर सकता।

नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय वैकुंठनाथभगवान जो इस स्थान (श्रीवैकुण्ठ) के स्वामी है, जो नित्य, दोषरहित और अद्भुत है।

श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी अगले भाग में लीला विभूति में श्रीभगवान की संपत्ति के विषय में वर्णन करते है और फिर द्वय विभूतियों (श्रीवैकुण्ठ और लौकिक संसार) के नायक श्रीभगवान के चरणों में शरणागति करते है।

स्वसंकल्प– लीला विभूति में सभी कार्य भगवान के संकल्प के द्वारा होते है। इसके विपरीत श्रीवैकुण्ठ के लिए श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी स्वछंदानुवर्ती शब्द का उपयोग करते है (उनके मनोभावों के अनुसार कार्य करते है), और हम यह जानते है इन दोनों विभूतियाँ, नित्य और लीला और यहाँ निवास करने वाले प्राणी एक दुसरे से अत्यंत भिन्न है। अन्य शब्दों में, हम लीला विभूति में मात्र भगवान के आदेशानुसार कार्य करते है, उनके मनोभाव के अनुसार नहीं। उनकी नित्य विभूति मात्र उनके आनंद और प्रसन्नता के लिए है और वहीँ लीला विभूति उनके आनंद के लिए है। इसीलिए वे लीला विभूति में रचना और संहार करते है (मध्य में रक्षण भी) यद्यपि नित्य विभूति सदा एक समान रहती है, जैसा की उसके संबोधन में नित्य कहा गया है।

अनुविधाई – उनके संकल्प का पालन करना।

स्वरुप स्थिति प्रवृत्ति – हम पहले भी देख चुके है कि स्वरुप मूलभूत प्रवृत्ति है; स्थिति वह है जिससे उनका आधार है और प्रवृत्ति उनकी क्रिया है।

श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी अब (तीन स्थितियों) प्रकृति, पुरुष और काल तत्व के विषय में त्रय विशेषताओं का वर्णन करते है। प्रकृति मूलभूत अचित तत्व है। पुरुष से आशय सभी जीवात्माओं से है और काल अर्थात समय। हमें इन तीन स्थितियों के स्वरुप, स्थिति और प्रवृत्ति के विषय में आगे देखना चाहिए।

प्रकृति- सत्व, रज, और तमस से निर्मित है। उसकी परिमित असीमित है, अद्भुत है (वह निरंतर परिवर्तित होती रहती है– वह एक दिन विद्यमान रहती है और अगले ही दिन अदृश्य हो जाती है, वह कभी एक समय सत्य का दर्शन कराती है और वहीँ अन्य समय असत्य का भी)।

प्रकृति का स्वरुप अचित है, वह सत्व, रज, तम, तत्वों से निर्मित है।

प्रकृति की स्थिति – इस भौतिक संसार में जीवात्मा के आनंद उपभोग अथवा इस लौकिक जगत से मोक्ष प्राप्त कर आध्यात्मिक जगत (श्रीवैकुण्ठ) तक पहुँचने का साधन है। अन्य शब्दों में, प्रकृति जीवात्मा को ऐसी स्थिति प्रदान करती है जहाँ वह अपने पांच ज्ञानेन्द्रियों के माध्यम से वह सब आनंद प्राप्त करता है जो वह चाहता है और निरंतर जन्म मरण के चक्र में चलता रहता है अथवा उस स्थान का सदा भगवान के ध्यान/ चिंतन में उपयोग करता है, उनके श्रीचरणों में शरणागति करता है और श्रीवैकुण्ठ को प्राप्त करता है।

प्रकृति की प्रवृत्ति – ऐसे स्थानों को प्रदान करना है जैसे दिव्य देश अथवा निदियाँ और ऐसे जीवात्माओं को प्रदान करना, जो अराधना करे अथवा भगवान का ध्यान मनन करे। यह जीवात्मा को सभी कार्य करने के लिए आवश्यक सामग्री प्रदान करती है।

जीवात्मा का स्वरुप, अचित तत्व से भिन्न है। अचित निरंतर परिवर्तनशील है यद्यपि जीवात्मा परिवर्तनशील नहीं है। अचित में कोई ज्ञान नहीं यद्यपि जीवात्मा में है। हालाँकि जीवात्मा सदा अचित से सम्बंधित है।

जीवात्मा की स्थिति – भोजन और जल है। जीवात्मा को अपने पोषण हेतु एक भौतिक देह की आवश्यकता है और उस देह के पोषण के लिए भोजन और जल की। देह के बिना जीवात्मा की स्थिति नहीं है।

जीवात्मा की प्रवृत्ति – उन कार्यों में रत होने की है जिनका परिणाम पाप या पुण्य है।

काल स्वरुप अचित है; वह ज्ञान रहित है। उसे सत्य शुन्य भी कहा जाता है

काल की स्थिति यह है कि वह चित और अचित दोनों को ही परिवर्तन हेतु दिशा और गति प्रदान करता है। इससे यह प्रतीत होता है कि एक जीवात्मा उस देह को त्यागती है और एक फूल उस पेड़ से गिरकर सुख जाता है।

काल की प्रवृत्ति – स्वयं को पल, क्षण, मुहूर्त, दिवस, पक्ष, मास, अयन, वर्ष आदि (समय के विभिन्न माप) के द्वारा प्रकट करना है

स्वशेषतैक स्वभाव – सदा भगवान के नियंत्रण में रहना और मात्र उनके ही सेवक बनकर रहना और किसी के नहीं।

प्रकृति पुरुष कालामक – जैसा की उपरोक्त उल्लेखित है, प्रकृति, जीवात्मा और काल, प्रत्येक अवस्था का अपना स्वरुप, स्थिति और प्रवृत्ति है।

विविध – विभिन्न प्रकार के

विचित्र – अद्भुत

अनंत – जिसका कोई अंत नहीं है

भोग्य – उपभोग के लिए उपयुक्त

भोकथ्रूवर्ग – उपभोग आनंद हेतु विभिन्न प्रकार की सामग्री की उपलब्धता

भोगोपकरण – विभिन्न उपकरण जिनके द्वारा इन्हें प्रयुक्त किया जाता है

भोगस्थान – स्थान जहाँ सामग्री का उपभोग किया जाता है

रूप – लीला विभूति का रूप उपरोक्त वर्णित सभी वस्तुओं से निर्मित है

निखिल जगत उदय विभव लय लीला – सभी जगत के रचयिता, पालक और संहारक है, यह सब उनकी लीला का अंश है

इसके साथ श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी नारायण शब्द के अर्थ के वर्णन को पूर्ण करते है। संक्षेप में, वे प्रथम चूर्णिका में श्रीजी की शरणागति करते है। अगली चूर्णिका में वे परभक्ति, परज्ञान और परम भक्ति (भगवान के साथ होने पर उदित अवस्था में और भगवान से वियोग होने पर उदासीन, उनके साक्षात दर्शन करना और उनके साथ रहने पर ही जीवित रहना, क्रमशः) के साथ नित्य कैंकर्य की विनती करते है। तृतीय और चतुर्थ चूर्णिका के माध्यम से, श्रीजी उनकी विनती सुन उन्हें सभी कुछ प्रदान करती है। पंचम चूर्णिका में, वे उन परमात्मा का वर्णन करते है, जिनके चरणों में शरणागति की जानी चाहिए। जिसप्रकार वेद कहते है कि सृष्टि, पोषण और संहार के एक मात्र कारक, भगवान का निरंतर ध्यान करना चाहिए, श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी भी देखते है कि उन सभी महान गुणों के धारक कौन है और इस निष्कर्ष पर पहुँचते है कि वह परमात्मा सिर्फ नारायण ही है, क्यूंकि सभी प्राणी जिन्हें “नारा:” शब्द से संबोधित किया जाता है: वे उनकी ही शरण लेते है (अयन)। फिर वे वर्णन करते है कि “नारा:” किन शब्दों के से निर्मित है और भगवान का स्वरूप, रूप और गुण क्या है। फिर हमने भगवान के गुणों को देखा, उनके दिव्य विग्रह, उनके गुण, उनके आभूषणों, उनके आयुधों आदि के विषय में वर्णन को देखा। फिर, श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी उनकी दिव्य महिषियों के विषय में वर्णन करते है जो भगवान के सम्पूर्ण आभायमान गुण और स्वरुप का सदैव रस पान करती है। तद्पश्चाद वे श्रीवैकुण्ठ में निवास करने वाले सभी जीवों का वर्णन करते है (नित्यसुरीजन), श्रीवैकुण्ठ की विशेषताएं, उस जगत की विशेषताएं जिसकी रचना/ पालन/संहार भगवान ही करते है (इस भाग में अभी तक जो हमने देखा)। अब जो शेष है वह है शरणागति करना। शरणागति को सुगम बनाने हेतु वे “अपार कारुण्य” से प्रारंभ होने वाले गुणों का वर्णन करते है। इसके मध्य वे अष्ट गुणों को भी अंकित करते है। अब तक उन परम/ श्रेष्ठ गुणों और उस विशेष तत्व के स्वरुप को वे भली प्रकार से जान चुके है जिनकी शरण उन्हें प्राप्त करनी है, फिर वे इन गुणों का वर्णन किसलिए करते है? इसका कारण है कि यह अष्ट गुण उन गुणों के पूरक है, जो शरणागति करने के लिए आवश्यक है (“अपार कारुण्य “ से प्रारंभ करके)। इसके अतिरिक्त उन्होंने पहले भगवान के विभिन्न गुणों का वर्णन किया है (जैसे गांभीर्य, औधार्य, मार्धव, आदि)। आगे कहे जानेवाले आठ गुण इस उपरोक्त गुणों के परिष्कृत रूप का वर्णन करते है, सत्यकाम, सत्य संकल्प आदि से प्रारम्भ करते हुए। इसके अतिरिक्त जिनकी शरण हमें होना है, उनके प्रति पूर्ण श्रद्धा और गहरा विश्वास प्राप्त करने हेतु हमें यह जानना आवश्यक है कि वे इन सभी गुणों को धारण करने वाले है, जो इस कार्य में समर्थक होंगे। उस आठ गुण वह कार्य करते है, ऐसा श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी समझाते है।

भगवान ने लीला विभूति की रचना की उस समय से लेकर जिस समय तक जीवात्मा कैंकर्य प्राप्त कर भगवान के चरणों तक नहीं पहुँच जाता, उस समय तक अष्ट गुणों के माध्यम से भगवान सभी नियंत्रित करते है। आईये अब चूर्णिका 5 के अगले भाग में हम इन अष्ट गुणों के वर्णन और श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी द्वारा शरणागति करने के विषय में देखते है।

हिंदी अनुवाद- अडियेन भगवती रामानुजदासी

आधार – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/12/saranagathi-gadhyam-5-part-3/

संग्रहण – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

प्रमेय (लक्ष्य) – http://koyil.org
प्रमाण (शास्त्र) – http://granthams.koyil.org
प्रमाता (आचार्य) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
श्रीवैष्णव शिक्षा/बालकों का पोर्टल – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 4.3.3 – Eka mUrththi

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Mahavishnu-universes-2

Introduction for this pAsuram

[Note: As there is lots of sidhdhAntha related terms/aspects in this pAsuram, please visit http://ponnadi.blogspot.in/p/thathva-thrayam.html and read the articles there to have a better understanding of this pAsuram.]

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In third pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about the fulfilment acquired by emperumAn through this loving relationship with him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “My AthmA, after enjoying your beauty which has relationship with all due to you being the AthmA of all, was relieved from worldly sorrows”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram. AzhwAr says “By making me exist fully for you, you became fulfilled [completing what is to be completed]”.

pAsuram

Eka mUrththi iru mUrththi mUnRu mUrththi pala mUrththi
Agi aindhu bUthamAy iraNdu sudarAy aruvAgi
nAgam ERi naduk kadaluL thuyinRa nArAyaNanE! un
AgamuRRum agaththadakki Avi allal mAyththadhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Eka mUrththi – Having the causal form (as said in chAndhOgya upanishath “EkamEva” (Only him) with the chith (sentient entities) and achith (insentient entities) in their subtle form)
iru mUrththi – having the forms of mahath and ahankAram (both of which are sequential manifested states of the primordial matter which is avyaktha (unmanifest))
mUnRu mUrththi – having the variations based on sathvam (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) qualities, as attributes
pala mUrththi Agi – having the 11 senses (pancha karmEndhriyam (5 sense organs of action), pancha gyAnEndhriyam (5 sense organs of knowledge) and manas (mind)) as attributes (these 11 senses are an effect of vaikArika, one of the three types of ahankAram), as attributes
aindhu bUthamAy – having pancha bhUthams (five great elements, which are effects of bhUthAdhi, which is the thAmasa ahankAram, one of the three types of ahankAram) as attributes
iraNdu sudarAy – having sun and moon (which are cited as a sample for the entities inside the aNdam (oval shaped universe), which are part of vyashti srushti (variegated creation)) as his forms
aru Agi – being in a subtle form (as the in-dwelling super soul of such entities)

(for the protection of the created entities)
nAgam – on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan)
ERi – climb
naduk kadal uL – in the thiruppARkadal (milk ocean)
thuyinRa – resting
nArAyaNanE – Oh one who is known by the word nArAyaNa (which is established by such antharAthmathva (being the in-dwelling super-soul) and samudhrasAyithva (resting in ocean))!

(as explained previously)
un – your
Agam – form
muRRum – all beauty (of having all of my faculties as all of your decorations)
agaththu – in my heart
adakki – consumed and enjoyed
Avi – my AthmA
allal – the sorrows (which occurred to me in previous decad)
mAyththadhE – are gone

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn is having the [singular] causal form, having the forms of mahath and ahankAram, having the variations based on sathvam (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) qualities as attributes, having the 11 senses as attributes, having pancha bhUthams as attributes, having sun and moon as forms, being in a subtle form; Oh one who is known by the word nArAyaNa, who climbed on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) in the thiruppARkadal (milk ocean) and resting there! After having consumed and enjoyed all your beautiful form (which is having all my faculties as all your decorations), the sorrows of my AthmA are gone.

Some explain this as – up to “pala mUrththi“, emperumAn‘s forms namely para (in paramapadham), vyUha (in milk ocean), vibhava (incarnations) are explained and “aindhu bUtham iraNdu sudar” explains his relationship with leelA vibhUthi (material realm). That is – [para] vAsudhEva, singular form is the one who bestows everything and is the goal for all; that vAsudhEva form is manifest as two forms in SAnthOdhitha (vyUha vAsudhEva) and nithyOdhitha (where emperumAn is enjoyed by nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs) state; nithyOdhitha state is further seen as 3 forms namely SankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha; they are further present in many forms as twelve forms of kESava etc and dhaSAvathAram (ten primary incarnations).

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Eka mUrththi – As said in chAndhOgya upanishath “sadhEva sOmya idham agra AsIth” (Oh SvEthakEthu who is qualified to drink sOma juice! before creation, sath only existed), before creation, the whole material realm which is indicated by the term “idham” was in a subtle state, and bhagavAn existed having everything subdued in him – this state is discussed here as the singular form. It also explains, the distinguished form of emperumAn before srushti (creation). Thus, his form where he is set out to create, is explained here.
  • iru mUrththi – His witnessing prakruthi (primordial matter – unmanifested form) and mahAn (manifested form) and having them as his forms is explained. Thus, bhagavAn having both cause (prakruthi) and effect (mahAn) as his forms is explained; the proximity of both principles is explained here [as cause and effect]; mahAn is the manifested state of the unmanifested prakruthi.
  • mUnRu mUrththibhagavAn being with three different ahankArams as his forms is explained. ahankAram exists in the mode of sAthvika (goodness), rAjasa (passion) and thAmasa (ignorance).
  • pala mUrththi aindhu bUthamAy – Now, the previously followed order is not being followed here [Previously, the cause – effect relationship was explained in a step-by-step manner. Now, the effects are collectively explained]. Effect of sAthvika ahankAram is the 11 indhriyams (senses); the effect of thAmasa ahankAram is pancha bhUthams [earth, water, fire, air, ether]; rAjasa ahankAram facilitates both sAthvika and thAmasa ahankAram in their transformation. Thus explaining the 11 senses and 5 great elements and highlighting that emperumAn is having these as his [many] forms.
  • iraNdu sudarAy – As said in thaiththiriya nArAyaNa upanishath “sUryAchandhramasau dhAthA yathA pUrvamakalpayath” (brahmA [with bhagavAn as antharyAmi] created sun, moon [and everything] as they were before), sun and moon are examples for the effect [created objects].
  • aru Agi – After creating them, entering into them to sustain them as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “thath srushtvA thadhEvAnuprAviSath thadhanupraviSya sachcha thyachchAbhavath” (He created it (universe); he entered in there; after entering he became (assumed the forms of) chEthana (sentient) and achEthana (insentient)) – this subtle form is explained. After explaining achith (matter) previously [up to iraNdu sudar], should aru (formless – i.e. subtle form) not indicate chith (sentient beings)? As said in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.3.178, it is said that “…anEna jIvEna AthmanAnupravisya nAma rUpE vyAkaravANI…” (I (brahmam) enter through this jIvAthmA(s) as antharyAmi and give them names and forms), as bhagavAn enters as antharyAmi through jIvAthmAs, that principle [i.e., jIvAthmA] is also explained.
  • nAgam ERiemperumAn arrived at thiruppARkadal (milk ocean) and reclined on thiruvanthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) to be approached by brahmA et al who were thus created. Also explained as – like a farmer would build a hut and stay right there in the field after planting the seeds, emperumAn reclined in milk ocean for the protection of the created entities.
  • nArAyaNanE – The natural quality of emperumAn being the goal which makes him constantly giving out his mercy at all times, is explained here.
  • un AgamuRRum agaththadakki – Agam – body. For your divine body, these are the sandalwood paste, garland, garments, ornaments etc that are suitable; agaththadakki – making them exist in me. This is the purpose of creation [for bhagavAn to enter along with all of these aspects into AzhwAr‘s heart].

Who becomes relieved from sorrows by this? emperumAn only.

  • Aviyallal mAyththadhE – “Somehow the distress in your heart got eliminated. You became kruthakruthya (fulfilled that the task is completed) by uplifting me”. Alternatively – my soul became freed from sorrow.

Some explain this as – Eka mUrththi indicates parathva [his form as para vAsudhEva in spiritual realm], iru mUrththi indicates vyUha state of vAsudhEva and sankarshaNa, mUnRu mUrththi indicates – vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa and pradhyumna, pala mUrththi indicates [many] incarnations and “aindhu bUthamAy iraNdu sudarAy” indicates the classification of this person is responsible for creation, this other person is responsible for sustenance and so on.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 66

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr divined about the greatness of knowledge propagated by emperumAnAr, saying ‘nam irAmAnusan thandha gyAnaththilE’.  in this pAsuram – he divines about his greatness of giving mOksham (liberation).

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr divined about greatness of knowledge propagated by emperumAnAr, saying ‘nam irAmAnusan thandha gyAnaththilE’. In this pAsuram – When eeSvaran gives mOksham He only gives it with certain expectations from the devotee; unlike that, emperumAnAr gives mOksham only based on subservience to his own kindness! – divines amudhanAr about emperumAnAr’s greatness of giving mOksham.

gyAnam kanindha nalam koNDu nAL thoRum naibavarkku
vAnam koduppadhu mAdhavan val vinaiyEn manaththil
eenam kadindha irAmAnusan thannai eydhinarkku ath
thAnam koduppadhu than thagavu ennum charaN koduththE     –  66

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

mAdhavan – sarvESvaran, the husband of SrI (lakshmI),
vAnam koduppadhu – gives mOksham
gyAnam kanindha – ((only) to the ones having) maturity of knowledge
nalam koNdu – that is, love (towards Him),

and who based on that form of love accept Him as the means, and experience Him, and due to the affection born out of that experience, long for doing services to Him, and consider even one day time as one thousand eons due to that delay in doing services to Him, and

naibavarkku – decay/distraught
nAL thoRum – every day;

(whereas)
irAmAnusan thannai – emperumAnAr who
eenam kadindha – removed the defects
manaththil – in the mind of
val vinaiyEn – me who is the greatest sinner,
ath thAnam koduppadhu – gives that position (sthAnam) in the sky (SrIvaikuNtam)
eydhinarkku – to those who surrender (to him),
koduththu – by giving them as wealth
than – his
thagavu ennum –what is said as kindness
charaN – as the means.

gyAnam kanindha nalam is the maturity of knowing about Him that becomes devotion.

vyAkyAnam

mAdhavan – As said in ‘lakshmyAm saha hrusheekESa: dhEvyA kAruNya rUpayA – rakshakas sarva SidhdhAnthE vEdhAnthEshucha geeyathE’ (hrusheekEsan emperumAn who is the husband of Sri mahAlakshmi who is the form of kindness itself, saves us; all vEdhas and vEdhAnthams establish this), and in ‘agala killEn iRaiyum enRu alarmEl mangai uRai mArbA’, when sarvESvaran accepts a devotee, He does so while being together with periya pirAttiyAr (lakshmI) – this is shown in all vEdhas – thus, the husband of Her, the sarvESvaran;

vAnam koduppadhu – Him giving SrI vaikuNtam that is referred to as ‘paramAkASam’, and ‘nalam antham illadhOr nAdu’ (place of endless joy), to a devotee is –

gyAnam kanindha nalam koNdu – (based on devotion);  first getting the knowledge of their relationship with Him that He is their lord, and meditating upon Him without break or distraction like how oil pours down smoothly (unlike how water would pour down and spatter),  and as said in ‘AprayANath ahar ahar anushteeyamAna mAnakarma (Action of devotion every day, from the day the devotion is born till the end of life through the time of reaching SrIvaikuNtam), having such devotion that is based on love (not fear);

nalam -> snEham -> that is, devotion.

nAL thoRum naibavarkku – As said in ‘viLambE thath prApthirbbhajana sukam Ekasya vipulam’, (it is a big happiness to reach Him (in the end) and enjoy Him), even though the experience is of enjoyment, since there is delay (in going to SrIvaikuNtam – due to having to continue that devotion for some births for it to mature more or in case of lapses, etc.), such people would be down in desperation thinking when they would be able do services based on maturity of experience that becomes love,  and so they think even a day as thousand eons as said in ‘oru pagal Ayiram UzhiyAlO’, and till they reach that destiny they would be in that state as said in ‘kAl Azhum nenju azhiyum kaN suzhalum’.  This is shown in all the SAsthrams; (mAdhavan gives mOksham) –  to such devotees.

val vinaiyEn manaththil eenam kadindha irAmAnusan – now emperumAnAr who removed all traces of lowly long-present sins  from the mind of me who committed dangerous sins that cannot be removed by experiencing its effects or by amends,

thannai eydhinarkku – to those who surrendered to him (emperumAnAr); as said in ‘thriNeekrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: rAmAnuja padhAmbOja samASrayaNa Salina:’ (those who surrender to emperumAnAr think of other things as to be neglected), emperumAnAr, to those like piLLai uRangAvilli dhAsar (to whom he showed the divine eyes of periya perumAL and made him devoted to those beautiful eyes), the mute (in whose head emperumAnAr placed his divine feet), the huntress (who got a letter from emperumAnAr to thirvEnkatam udaiyAn for a place in SrIvaikuNtam)

(Note that the examples shown in the vyAkyAnam are selected from those not having any qualifications of their own, but only the acceptance/surrendering to emperumAnAr);

ath thAnam koduppadhu – (ath thAnam -> that place/position);  emperumAnAr giving to them that place/position (SrIvaikuNtam) which is otherwise to be achieved through a long time practice of means in the form of devotion along with all of its (seven) components.

than thagavu ennum charaN koduththE – emperumAnAr gives us his own kindness as the capital, the means; and with the stance that the people who surrender him should not consider even  that kindness as the means and so makes up some negligible things in us as eligibility, and would give us mOksham which is the definition of ultimate destiny, without any sorrow/angst.

ramanuja-showing-paramapadhamemperumAnAr, obedient to his kindness

amudhanAr uses the simpler word ‘eydhinarkku’  (just reached/surrendered to him and did not make any efforts) – it shows that emperumAnAr does not look for specific type of people or their eligibility, etc., but only their agreeableness, to take them in and give them that destiny.

‘ath’ (‘that’) implies, ‘that’ place which is not attainable even for vidhi (brahmA), Siva, Sanakan, and others.

By this, amudhanAr has divined about the greatness of emperumAnAr giving mOksham.

jeeyar too said, ‘mA malarAL kOn madiyil vaiththu ugakkum vAzhvu namakku ethirAsan aruLum vAzhvE [Arththi prabandham – 20]’ (the destiny of happiness of emperumAn keeping us in His lap is the destiny given to us only by emperumAnAr).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

thannai eydhinarkku – since emperumAnAr gives that destiny only to those who reached/surrendered to him, the argument of everyone of the world getting mOksham (sarva mukthi prasangam)  cannot arise here.

SrI mahAlakshmI and emperumAn the two are involved in giving mOksham to the ones who are distraught; here, just the one, emperumAnAr gives to his disciple that destiny, and without having to go through such pains.

By this amudhanAr has let us know that emperumAnAr is the ‘udhdhAraka AchAryar’ (AchAryan who can lift us up from this material world).

– – – – –

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