Daily Archives: January 23, 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 4.3.3 – Eka mUrththi

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Mahavishnu-universes-2

Introduction for this pAsuram

[Note: As there is lots of sidhdhAntha related terms/aspects in this pAsuram, please visit http://ponnadi.blogspot.in/p/thathva-thrayam.html and read the articles there to have a better understanding of this pAsuram.]

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In third pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about the fulfilment acquired by emperumAn through this loving relationship with him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “My AthmA, after enjoying your beauty which has relationship with all due to you being the AthmA of all, was relieved from worldly sorrows”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram. AzhwAr says “By making me exist fully for you, you became fulfilled [completing what is to be completed]”.

pAsuram

Eka mUrththi iru mUrththi mUnRu mUrththi pala mUrththi
Agi aindhu bUthamAy iraNdu sudarAy aruvAgi
nAgam ERi naduk kadaluL thuyinRa nArAyaNanE! un
AgamuRRum agaththadakki Avi allal mAyththadhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Eka mUrththi – Having the causal form (as said in chAndhOgya upanishath “EkamEva” (Only him) with the chith (sentient entities) and achith (insentient entities) in their subtle form)
iru mUrththi – having the forms of mahath and ahankAram (both of which are sequential manifested states of the primordial matter which is avyaktha (unmanifest))
mUnRu mUrththi – having the variations based on sathvam (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) qualities, as attributes
pala mUrththi Agi – having the 11 senses (pancha karmEndhriyam (5 sense organs of action), pancha gyAnEndhriyam (5 sense organs of knowledge) and manas (mind)) as attributes (these 11 senses are an effect of vaikArika, one of the three types of ahankAram), as attributes
aindhu bUthamAy – having pancha bhUthams (five great elements, which are effects of bhUthAdhi, which is the thAmasa ahankAram, one of the three types of ahankAram) as attributes
iraNdu sudarAy – having sun and moon (which are cited as a sample for the entities inside the aNdam (oval shaped universe), which are part of vyashti srushti (variegated creation)) as his forms
aru Agi – being in a subtle form (as the in-dwelling super soul of such entities)

(for the protection of the created entities)
nAgam – on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan)
ERi – climb
naduk kadal uL – in the thiruppARkadal (milk ocean)
thuyinRa – resting
nArAyaNanE – Oh one who is known by the word nArAyaNa (which is established by such antharAthmathva (being the in-dwelling super-soul) and samudhrasAyithva (resting in ocean))!

(as explained previously)
un – your
Agam – form
muRRum – all beauty (of having all of my faculties as all of your decorations)
agaththu – in my heart
adakki – consumed and enjoyed
Avi – my AthmA
allal – the sorrows (which occurred to me in previous decad)
mAyththadhE – are gone

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn is having the [singular] causal form, having the forms of mahath and ahankAram, having the variations based on sathvam (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) qualities as attributes, having the 11 senses as attributes, having pancha bhUthams as attributes, having sun and moon as forms, being in a subtle form; Oh one who is known by the word nArAyaNa, who climbed on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) in the thiruppARkadal (milk ocean) and resting there! After having consumed and enjoyed all your beautiful form (which is having all my faculties as all your decorations), the sorrows of my AthmA are gone.

Some explain this as – up to “pala mUrththi“, emperumAn‘s forms namely para (in paramapadham), vyUha (in milk ocean), vibhava (incarnations) are explained and “aindhu bUtham iraNdu sudar” explains his relationship with leelA vibhUthi (material realm). That is – [para] vAsudhEva, singular form is the one who bestows everything and is the goal for all; that vAsudhEva form is manifest as two forms in SAnthOdhitha (vyUha vAsudhEva) and nithyOdhitha (where emperumAn is enjoyed by nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs) state; nithyOdhitha state is further seen as 3 forms namely SankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha; they are further present in many forms as twelve forms of kESava etc and dhaSAvathAram (ten primary incarnations).

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Eka mUrththi – As said in chAndhOgya upanishath “sadhEva sOmya idham agra AsIth” (Oh SvEthakEthu who is qualified to drink sOma juice! before creation, sath only existed), before creation, the whole material realm which is indicated by the term “idham” was in a subtle state, and bhagavAn existed having everything subdued in him – this state is discussed here as the singular form. It also explains, the distinguished form of emperumAn before srushti (creation). Thus, his form where he is set out to create, is explained here.
  • iru mUrththi – His witnessing prakruthi (primordial matter – unmanifested form) and mahAn (manifested form) and having them as his forms is explained. Thus, bhagavAn having both cause (prakruthi) and effect (mahAn) as his forms is explained; the proximity of both principles is explained here [as cause and effect]; mahAn is the manifested state of the unmanifested prakruthi.
  • mUnRu mUrththibhagavAn being with three different ahankArams as his forms is explained. ahankAram exists in the mode of sAthvika (goodness), rAjasa (passion) and thAmasa (ignorance).
  • pala mUrththi aindhu bUthamAy – Now, the previously followed order is not being followed here [Previously, the cause – effect relationship was explained in a step-by-step manner. Now, the effects are collectively explained]. Effect of sAthvika ahankAram is the 11 indhriyams (senses); the effect of thAmasa ahankAram is pancha bhUthams [earth, water, fire, air, ether]; rAjasa ahankAram facilitates both sAthvika and thAmasa ahankAram in their transformation. Thus explaining the 11 senses and 5 great elements and highlighting that emperumAn is having these as his [many] forms.
  • iraNdu sudarAy – As said in thaiththiriya nArAyaNa upanishath “sUryAchandhramasau dhAthA yathA pUrvamakalpayath” (brahmA [with bhagavAn as antharyAmi] created sun, moon [and everything] as they were before), sun and moon are examples for the effect [created objects].
  • aru Agi – After creating them, entering into them to sustain them as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “thath srushtvA thadhEvAnuprAviSath thadhanupraviSya sachcha thyachchAbhavath” (He created it (universe); he entered in there; after entering he became (assumed the forms of) chEthana (sentient) and achEthana (insentient)) – this subtle form is explained. After explaining achith (matter) previously [up to iraNdu sudar], should aru (formless – i.e. subtle form) not indicate chith (sentient beings)? As said in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.3.178, it is said that “…anEna jIvEna AthmanAnupravisya nAma rUpE vyAkaravANI…” (I (brahmam) enter through this jIvAthmA(s) as antharyAmi and give them names and forms), as bhagavAn enters as antharyAmi through jIvAthmAs, that principle [i.e., jIvAthmA] is also explained.
  • nAgam ERiemperumAn arrived at thiruppARkadal (milk ocean) and reclined on thiruvanthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) to be approached by brahmA et al who were thus created. Also explained as – like a farmer would build a hut and stay right there in the field after planting the seeds, emperumAn reclined in milk ocean for the protection of the created entities.
  • nArAyaNanE – The natural quality of emperumAn being the goal which makes him constantly giving out his mercy at all times, is explained here.
  • un AgamuRRum agaththadakki – Agam – body. For your divine body, these are the sandalwood paste, garland, garments, ornaments etc that are suitable; agaththadakki – making them exist in me. This is the purpose of creation [for bhagavAn to enter along with all of these aspects into AzhwAr‘s heart].

Who becomes relieved from sorrows by this? emperumAn only.

  • Aviyallal mAyththadhE – “Somehow the distress in your heart got eliminated. You became kruthakruthya (fulfilled that the task is completed) by uplifting me”. Alternatively – my soul became freed from sorrow.

Some explain this as – Eka mUrththi indicates parathva [his form as para vAsudhEva in spiritual realm], iru mUrththi indicates vyUha state of vAsudhEva and sankarshaNa, mUnRu mUrththi indicates – vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa and pradhyumna, pala mUrththi indicates [many] incarnations and “aindhu bUthamAy iraNdu sudarAy” indicates the classification of this person is responsible for creation, this other person is responsible for sustenance and so on.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 66

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr divined about the greatness of knowledge propagated by emperumAnAr, saying ‘nam irAmAnusan thandha gyAnaththilE’.  in this pAsuram – he divines about his greatness of giving mOksham (liberation).

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr divined about greatness of knowledge propagated by emperumAnAr, saying ‘nam irAmAnusan thandha gyAnaththilE’. In this pAsuram – When eeSvaran gives mOksham He only gives it with certain expectations from the devotee; unlike that, emperumAnAr gives mOksham only based on subservience to his own kindness! – divines amudhanAr about emperumAnAr’s greatness of giving mOksham.

gyAnam kanindha nalam koNDu nAL thoRum naibavarkku
vAnam koduppadhu mAdhavan val vinaiyEn manaththil
eenam kadindha irAmAnusan thannai eydhinarkku ath
thAnam koduppadhu than thagavu ennum charaN koduththE     –  66

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

mAdhavan – sarvESvaran, the husband of SrI (lakshmI),
vAnam koduppadhu – gives mOksham
gyAnam kanindha – ((only) to the ones having) maturity of knowledge
nalam koNdu – that is, love (towards Him),

and who based on that form of love accept Him as the means, and experience Him, and due to the affection born out of that experience, long for doing services to Him, and consider even one day time as one thousand eons due to that delay in doing services to Him, and

naibavarkku – decay/distraught
nAL thoRum – every day;

(whereas)
irAmAnusan thannai – emperumAnAr who
eenam kadindha – removed the defects
manaththil – in the mind of
val vinaiyEn – me who is the greatest sinner,
ath thAnam koduppadhu – gives that position (sthAnam) in the sky (SrIvaikuNtam)
eydhinarkku – to those who surrender (to him),
koduththu – by giving them as wealth
than – his
thagavu ennum –what is said as kindness
charaN – as the means.

gyAnam kanindha nalam is the maturity of knowing about Him that becomes devotion.

vyAkyAnam

mAdhavan – As said in ‘lakshmyAm saha hrusheekESa: dhEvyA kAruNya rUpayA – rakshakas sarva SidhdhAnthE vEdhAnthEshucha geeyathE’ (hrusheekEsan emperumAn who is the husband of Sri mahAlakshmi who is the form of kindness itself, saves us; all vEdhas and vEdhAnthams establish this), and in ‘agala killEn iRaiyum enRu alarmEl mangai uRai mArbA’, when sarvESvaran accepts a devotee, He does so while being together with periya pirAttiyAr (lakshmI) – this is shown in all vEdhas – thus, the husband of Her, the sarvESvaran;

vAnam koduppadhu – Him giving SrI vaikuNtam that is referred to as ‘paramAkASam’, and ‘nalam antham illadhOr nAdu’ (place of endless joy), to a devotee is –

gyAnam kanindha nalam koNdu – (based on devotion);  first getting the knowledge of their relationship with Him that He is their lord, and meditating upon Him without break or distraction like how oil pours down smoothly (unlike how water would pour down and spatter),  and as said in ‘AprayANath ahar ahar anushteeyamAna mAnakarma (Action of devotion every day, from the day the devotion is born till the end of life through the time of reaching SrIvaikuNtam), having such devotion that is based on love (not fear);

nalam -> snEham -> that is, devotion.

nAL thoRum naibavarkku – As said in ‘viLambE thath prApthirbbhajana sukam Ekasya vipulam’, (it is a big happiness to reach Him (in the end) and enjoy Him), even though the experience is of enjoyment, since there is delay (in going to SrIvaikuNtam – due to having to continue that devotion for some births for it to mature more or in case of lapses, etc.), such people would be down in desperation thinking when they would be able do services based on maturity of experience that becomes love,  and so they think even a day as thousand eons as said in ‘oru pagal Ayiram UzhiyAlO’, and till they reach that destiny they would be in that state as said in ‘kAl Azhum nenju azhiyum kaN suzhalum’.  This is shown in all the SAsthrams; (mAdhavan gives mOksham) –  to such devotees.

val vinaiyEn manaththil eenam kadindha irAmAnusan – now emperumAnAr who removed all traces of lowly long-present sins  from the mind of me who committed dangerous sins that cannot be removed by experiencing its effects or by amends,

thannai eydhinarkku – to those who surrendered to him (emperumAnAr); as said in ‘thriNeekrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: rAmAnuja padhAmbOja samASrayaNa Salina:’ (those who surrender to emperumAnAr think of other things as to be neglected), emperumAnAr, to those like piLLai uRangAvilli dhAsar (to whom he showed the divine eyes of periya perumAL and made him devoted to those beautiful eyes), the mute (in whose head emperumAnAr placed his divine feet), the huntress (who got a letter from emperumAnAr to thirvEnkatam udaiyAn for a place in SrIvaikuNtam)

(Note that the examples shown in the vyAkyAnam are selected from those not having any qualifications of their own, but only the acceptance/surrendering to emperumAnAr);

ath thAnam koduppadhu – (ath thAnam -> that place/position);  emperumAnAr giving to them that place/position (SrIvaikuNtam) which is otherwise to be achieved through a long time practice of means in the form of devotion along with all of its (seven) components.

than thagavu ennum charaN koduththE – emperumAnAr gives us his own kindness as the capital, the means; and with the stance that the people who surrender him should not consider even  that kindness as the means and so makes up some negligible things in us as eligibility, and would give us mOksham which is the definition of ultimate destiny, without any sorrow/angst.

ramanuja-showing-paramapadhamemperumAnAr, obedient to his kindness

amudhanAr uses the simpler word ‘eydhinarkku’  (just reached/surrendered to him and did not make any efforts) – it shows that emperumAnAr does not look for specific type of people or their eligibility, etc., but only their agreeableness, to take them in and give them that destiny.

‘ath’ (‘that’) implies, ‘that’ place which is not attainable even for vidhi (brahmA), Siva, Sanakan, and others.

By this, amudhanAr has divined about the greatness of emperumAnAr giving mOksham.

jeeyar too said, ‘mA malarAL kOn madiyil vaiththu ugakkum vAzhvu namakku ethirAsan aruLum vAzhvE [Arththi prabandham – 20]’ (the destiny of happiness of emperumAn keeping us in His lap is the destiny given to us only by emperumAnAr).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

thannai eydhinarkku – since emperumAnAr gives that destiny only to those who reached/surrendered to him, the argument of everyone of the world getting mOksham (sarva mukthi prasangam)  cannot arise here.

SrI mahAlakshmI and emperumAn the two are involved in giving mOksham to the ones who are distraught; here, just the one, emperumAnAr gives to his disciple that destiny, and without having to go through such pains.

By this amudhanAr has let us know that emperumAnAr is the ‘udhdhAraka AchAryar’ (AchAryan who can lift us up from this material world).

– – – – –

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