Monthly Archives: December 2016

sthOthra rathnam – 18

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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sitarama

Introduction

ALavandhAr previously spoke about the greatness of SaraNya (refuge – the lord) and in this pAsuram, to eliminate the thought of hesitation in us thinking “How can I approach such ubhaya vibhUthi nAtha (the lord of both worlds)?”, explains twelve qualities which are those who let the devotees engage in him. Alternatively – Previously bhagavAn‘s sarvESvarathvam (supremacy) is explained and now he speaks about his qualities which are apt to be spoken about.

vaSI vadhAnyO guNavAn rujuS Suchir
mrudhurdhayALur madhurassthiras sama: |
kruthI kruthagyasthvamasi svabhAvathas
samasthakalyANaguNAmruthOdhdhi: ||

Word by word meaning

vaSI – controlled (by his devotees)
vadhAnya: – generous (of presenting himself to his devotees)
guNavAn – having sauSeelya (excellence in disposition, presenting himself to everyone without discrimination)
ruju: – honest (in mind, words and actions)
Suchi: – having purity (to show his mercy unconditionally)
mrudhu: – one who cannot bear the separation from his devotees
dhayALu: – compassionate (cannot bear the sorrow of his devotees)
madhura: – sweet
sthira: – firm in protecting (his devotees)
sama: – being equal (for all who surrender unto him)
kruthI – engage in actions (of his devotees, considering them to be his own)
kruthagya: – grateful towards his devotees even for the smallest of their acts
thvam – you
svabhAvatha: – naturally
samastha kalyANa guNa amrutha udhadhi: asi – being a nectarean ocean of auspicious qualities

Simple Translation

You are naturally a nectarean ocean of auspicious qualities such as being controlled (by your devotees), being generous (of presenting himself to your devotees), having sauSeelya (excellence in disposition, presenting himself to everyone without discrimination), being honest (in mind, words and actions), having purity (to show his mercy unconditionally), unable to bear the separation from his devotees, compassionate (cannot bear the sorrow of his devotees), sweet, firm in protecting (your devotees), being equal (for all who surrender unto him), one who engages in actions (of his devotees, considering them to be his own) and grateful towards his devotees even for the smallest of their acts.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • vaSI – Explains that bhagavAn will have full control of the previous explained supremacy. With this too, it is established that he is even more valuable, since he has supremacy and good qualities as well [just having one of them is not so great]. bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6.4.22 “sarvasya vaSI sarvasyESAnas sarvasyAdhipathi:” (One who controls everything; he is the lord of everything,; he is the ruler of all); sahasranAmam “jagath vaSE varthathEdham” (everything is under the control of krishNa). Alternatively – explains that those who are favourable towards his divine feet, he is under their control. SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 31.4 SrI rAma tells viSvAmithra “imau sma muniSArdhUla! kinkarau sampasthithau | AgyApaya yathEshtam vai SAsanam karavAva kim ||” (Oh best among sages! We are near you to serve your highness. You can order us. What should we do?); mahAbhAratham krishNa tells yudhishtra “AgyApaya mahAbAhO! brUhi yaththE vivakshitham | karishyAmi hi thath sarvam yathvam vakshyaSi bhAratha ||” (Oh mighty armed! You express what you desire! Order me. Oh dharmaputhra! Whatever you say, I will do that fully); mahAbhAratham “svayamEva harir vavrE viprapAdhAvanEjanam” (Hari himself washed the divine feet of the brAhmaNas [who are dear to him]); varadharAja sthavam 20 “anyAdhInathvam …” (While vEdhas speak about your independence, we see that you are dependent [on your devotees] …). If one thinks that his subservience towards his devotees is for others, that is not correct – purely out of his own independent will, he takes that upon himself since there is no one to control him.
  • vadhAnya: – What is the act of such ASritha pArathanthriya (one who is submissive towards his devotees)? He bestows himself and his properties to his devotees – that generosity is explained here. “priyavAg thAnaSeelaScha vadhAnya: parikIrthitha:” (One who speaks sweetly and is generous, is said as “vadhAnya“); yajur vEdham kAtakam 7.5.36 “ya AthmadhA baladhA:” (That paramapurusha (supreme lord) who gives himself and the mental strength to enjoy him); SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 16.27 “… sa sarvANarthinO dhrushtvA samEthya prathinandhya cha ||” (That SrI rAma, looking at those who came to accept alms from him, welcomed them, gave them joy and united with his friends); SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.18 “… udhArAs sarva EvaithE gyAnIthvAthmaiva mE matham” (All [four] of them are generous, but the gyAni is the one who sustains (me) – this is my principle); jithanthE sthOthram 1.5 “na thE rUpam …” (my forms etc are not for me but for my devotees).
  • guNavAn – His Seela guNam (quality of mixing with others freely) which he uses to retain those who move away from him thinking about their own inferior nature and bhagavAn‘s superior quality of bestowing himself and his properties. Since this section is dealing guNams (qualities), here “guNavAn” is not a common term indicating auspicious qualities as said in “Seelam hi nAma mahathO mandhais saha nIrandhrENa samSlEsha:” (Seelam means, a great person mixing freely with an inferior person), here it is talking about Seela guNam. Since it is said “guNyatha: ithi guNa:” (that which is likeable is called guNa), as guNa cannot be left out by the one who is experiencing [bhagavAn], here, guNa indicates Seela. This is like the word “SAla” which indicates a tree as well as a specific type of a tree. purusha sUktham “ajAyamAna: … ” (the unborn, assumes many births), Starting with SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.2 vAlmIkI asks “kO nvasmin sAmparatham lOkE guNavAn kaScha vIryavAn …” (Who is with guNam (qualities) in this world now? Who is very potent now?) and nAradha responds SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.8 “… ikshvAku vamSa prabhavO rAmO nAma guNAkara:” (That SrI rAma, the descendant of ikshvAku dynasty, has the best qualities). As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 1.7 “babhUva guNavaththara: | sa hi dhEvairudhIrNasya …” (Due to the prayers of dhEvas to have rAvaNa killed, the ancient vishNu appeared in this mortal world; Such Sri rAma is greater than his supreme state of vishNu, in qualities), the effect of Seela guNam is avathAram (incarnation).
  • ruju: – While appearing like this [in this mortal world], since different people have different tastes, he presents himself to elevate them as water is pushed up into higher plains. Arjava means being harmonious in his mind, thoughts and speech towards his devotees. sundhara bAhusthavam 30 “yajjAthIyO yAdhruSO yathsvabhAva: … thajjAthIya: thAdhruSa: thath svabhAva:” (Out of his vAthsalyam towards his devotees, sundhararAja unites with them based on their birth, activities, qualities etc); SrIvaikuNta sthavam 66 “thadhvai thathAsthu kathamO’yamayO svabhAvaO yAvAn yathAvidhaguNO bhajathE bhavantham | thAvAmsthathAvidhaguNas thadhInavruththi: samSlishyaSi thvamiha thEna samAnadharmA ||” (Leave aside what was explained before. How amazing is his nature! (that is) In whichever nature, form, qualities etc., one worships you, you unite with him by presenting him yourself with such nature, qualities, actions which are submissive under him and with practices which are similar to his).
  • Suchi: – While helping others, instead of looking for some favour in return, you are so pure that you help them without any expectations. As said in manu smruthi 5.106 “… yO’rthE Suchis sa hi Suchir na mrudhvAriSuchi: Suchi: ||” (Among all aspects of purity, one who is pure [unperturbed] with wealth is considered to be pure; one who merely purifies himself by soil and water is not pure), here it also explains the purity of bhagavAn who elevates a nithya samsAri (eternally bound soul) into the level of nithyasUri (eternally liberated soul) simply due to the sambandham [relationship between bhagavAn and AthmA]. SrI rAmAyaNam uththara kANdam 82.9 agasthya muni says “pAvanas sarvalOkAnam thvamEva raghunandhana” (Oh raghunandhana [SrI rAma]! you are the one who purifies all the worlds). In karma kANdam – garuda purANam 219.6 to 219.9 “bhakthirashtavidhA hyEshA yasmin mlEchchE’pi varthathE | sa viprEndhrO muni: SrImAn  sa yathis sa cha paNditha: || mayA pUjyas sadhA chAlau madhbhaktha: SvapchO’pi ya: | thasmai dhEyam thathO grAhyam sa cha pUjyO yathA hyaham ||” (The mlEchcha [one who is outside the varNASrama system], who has these eight types of bhakthi, he is the top-most of brAhmaNa who meditates upon (bhagavAn); he is the one who has the wealth of kainkaryam; he is a renunciate; he is a scholar; though he is a chaNdALa, my devotee is always to worshipped along with me. One can give (knowledge to) him; and can accept (knowledge) from him; he is always venerable at par with me.
  • mrudhu: – Since he treats them like this while being together, it is understood that  he cannot bear their (his devotees) separation. Since the context is about Athma guNam (qualities of his nature), this shows the tenderness in his heart. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.42 hanumAn tells sIthA “naiva thamSAn na maSakAn …” (Since Sri rAma’s mind is fixated on you, he does not even drive away the flies, ants, worms and snakes from his body); SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 SrI rAma tells hanumAn “na jIvEyam kshaNamapi …” (I cannot even bear sIthA’s separation for a moment); SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 5.9 “avagAhyArNavam svapsyE …” (Oh lakshmaNa! let me dive deep into the ocean without you and sleep there, so I can cool down the scorching love [of separation]).
  • dhayALu: – dhayA means “Unable to bear the sorrow of his devotee’s sorrows” – paradhu:ka asahatvam. mahOpanishath “sa EkAkI na ramEtha” (nArAyaNa who was alone during deluge was not joyful); SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.42 “vyasanEshu manushyANAm bhruSam bhavathi dhukkitha:” (He feels the pain of the suffering of lowest of humans); if this is explained commonly, his mercy towards his devotees is incomprehensible. SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.17 “… priyO hi gyAninO’thyartham aham sa cha mama priya: ||” (Among these four, the gyAni who is always united with me and is exclusively devoted to me is the best. For such gyAni, I am very dear and he too is dear to me); SrI rAmAyaNAm sundhara kANdam 15.50 hanumAn says “sthrI praNashtEthi kAruNyAth” (out of compassion due to thinking “a woman was abducted” …); SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.35 “sa tham nipathitham” (Sri rAma protected … the one [kAkAsura] who fell on the ground ….).
  • madhura:emperumAn‘s sweetness is explained here – he is so sweet that even if he is merciless he cannot be given up. That is, being relishable for each entity in its own way. thaiththirIya upanishath “rasOvai sa:” (bhagavAn is embodiment of taste); thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 7 “Esha hyEvAnandhayAthi” (He only gives pleasure to jIvAthmA); thaiththirIya upanishath “rasam hyEvAyam labdhvAnandhI bhavathi” (this jIvAthmA reaches paramAthmA who is embodiment of all tastes, and acquires joy) and so on.
  • sthira: – If some one shows little attachment towards such relish-able emperumAn, he remains the one who removes the fear of such devotees, even when his own confidantes become enemies. SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.3 “na thyajEyam kathanchana” (I will never abandon this vibhIshaNa who approached me with friendship); SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.33 “abhayam sarva bhUthEbhya:” (I will protect you from everyone); periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.9.2 “en adiyAr adhu seyyAr …” (emperumAn to pirAtti – my devotees would not engage in wrong-doings, even if they do, it is with good intent).
  • sthira: – He will remain unperturbed, even if his devotees engage in unfavourable acts.
  • sama: – Being equal to all those who surrender unto him in spite of the shortcomings in their gyAnam (knowledge), vruththa (actions) etc. SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.29 “samOham sarva bhUthEshu” (I am equally disposed towards all creatures); thiruvAimozhi 1.6.3Idum eduppum ilAdhAn” (bhagavAn’s quality of not rejecting any one due to their defects and not accepting any one due their qualities (i.e., being neutral towards every one)); thiruvAimozhi 1.6.5koLgai koLAmai ilAdhAn” (bhagavAn who does not accept some (seeing their good qualities) and reject others (seeing their bad qualities)).
  • kruthI – Would be ready to accept orders [from his devotees]; If some one surrenders unto as mentioned here, he would consider their duties/responsibilities as his own. When a devotee attains bhagavAn, bhagavAn will consider that as his own benefit. SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.85 “abhishichya …” (vibhIshaNa who was crowned by SrI rAma); SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.24 “… thava chArtha: prakalpyathE” (your desire will be fulfilled).
  • kruthagya: – In this manner, even after doing so many favours, he would always consider their simple favourable act as something very great. He will be ignorant their offences. sahasranAmam “avigyAthA sahasrAmsu:” (He is ignorant (about his devotees’ mistakes) and knowledgeable (about his devotees’ noble acts)). He will also be ignorant of his favours [he will not consider them to be great]. His nature is explained in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 47.22 “… ruNam pravruththamiva mE hrudhayAnnApasarpathi ||” (dhraupathi called out to me saying “gOvindha!” from far and I am unable to shed that cry like a debt (which grew manifolds due to interest build up)). kruthagya: is also explained as emperumAn always feeling bad for not helping his devotees enough. SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 124.19 “SirasA yAchatha:”  (SrI rAma says – bharatha, my dear brother, requested me with great anxiety, but I did not fulfill his request).
  • thvamaSi – In comparison to bhagavAn (the abode of the qualities) himself, the qualities don’t shine [bhagavAn outshines his qualities]; alternative explanation – the qualities too shine due to the contact with bhagavAn.
  • svabhAvatha; – These qualities are not imaginary/fabricated. Alternative explanation – they are natural and cannot be said as acquired subsequently.
  • samastha kalyANa guNmaruthOdhadhi: – All the qualities [individually] are auspicious, infinitely enjoyable and are like an ocean for those who pursue them. “ishukshayAnnivarthanthE … mathikshayAnnivarthanthE na gOvindha guNakshayAth” (Soldiers are returning due to lack of arrows and not because of having destroyed the earth and the sky; similarly people withdraw from glorifying gOvindha due to shortcomings in their knowledge and not because of having completed glorifying his qualities).

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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sthOthra rathnam – 17

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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panch-bhutha-sun-moon-antharyami

Introduction

Here ALavandhAr explains the variety of entities which are controlled by bhagavAn and which are required to be the target of his sarvESvarathva (lordship over everything) which was explained previously.

yadhaNdam aNdAthara gOcharam cha yath
dhaSOththarANyAvaraNAni yAni  cha |
guNA: pradhAnam purusha: param padham
parAthparam brahma cha thE vibhUthaya: ||

Word by word meaning

yath aNdam – that brahmANdam [the 14 layered oval shaped universe under the control of brahmA]
aNdAnthara gOcharam cha yath – whatever is inside the aNdam
dhaSa uththarANi AvaraNAni cha – those [seven] AvaraNas (enclosures) [which cover the aNdam] each of which is 10 times bigger in size than the previous one (all of these)
guNA: – qualities viz sathva (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance)
pradhAnam – and prakruthi (matter)
purusha: – and the collection of jIvAthmAs (sentient entities)
param padham – and SrIvaikuNtam (spiritual realm)
parAth param – the collection of nithyasUris who are greater than mukthAthmAs (who are greater than dhEvathAs starting with brahmA et al)
brahma cha – dhivya mangaLa vigraham (divine auspicious form)
thE vibhUthaya; – are your bodies/forms

Simple Translation

That brahmANdam [the 14 layered oval shaped universe under the control of brahmA], whatever is inside the aNdam, those [seven] AvaraNas (enclosures) [which cover the aNdam] each of which is 10 times bigger in size than the previous one and all of these, qualities viz sathva (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance), and prakruthi (matter), and the collection of jIvAthmAs (sentient entities), and SrIvaikuNtam (spiritual realm), and the collection of nithyasUris who are greater than mukthAthmAs (who are greater than dhEvathAs starting with brahmA et al), and the divine auspicious form(s) are all your bodies/forms.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • yadhaNdam – As each aNdam having 14 layers, and the countless such aNdams as said in SrIvishNu purANam 2.7.27 “aNdAnAnthu sahasrANAm” (thousands of aNdams).
  • aNdAnthara gOcharancha yath – the collection of entities such as the lord of the aNda [brahmA], indhra, the protectors of the directions, kings, plants, animals etc, which reside in the aNdam.
  • dhaSOththarANi … – Further the [seven] different enclosures, where each of them in the form of water, fire, wind, ether, bhUthAdhi (layer of ahankAra), mahAn (the great element), and prakruthi (matter), and where each of them is greater than the previous one by a factor of 10, in the order in which they have been mentioned.
  • guNA: – the three qualities viz sathva, rajas and thamas which are the cause for bondage, as the matter binds a chEthana (soul) through the three qualities.
  • pradhAnam – the changeless region [mUla prakruthi – primordial matter]. The reason for  separately identifying guNams and the matter which has those guNams, is to establish that the sAnkhya philosophy which says that the qualities are the cause for creation, is avaidhika (unacceptable as per vEdham).
  • purusha: – Collection of badhdhAthmAs (bound souls); Since “andAnthara gOcharam” already explains the bound souls in vyashti state [variegated creation by brahmA], this explains the bound souls in samashti state [collection of AthmAs during initial creation directly by bhagavAn].
  • param padham – parama padham (SrIvaikuNtam) which has abundance of bliss [unlike this materialistic realm where joy is mixed with sorrow]; muNdaka upanishath 2.2.10 “hiraNmayE parE lOkE … jyOthishAm jyOthis thadhyadhAthmavidhOvidhu:” (that world which is made of abundance of gold, … the brightest among the brightness is known by paramAthma gyAnis (those who know paramAthmA)); thaiththirIya brAhmaNam 2.8.9.6 “paramE vyOman” (in the highest (spiritual) sky); thaiththirIya AraNyakam 1.2 “sOSnuthE sarvAn kAmAn saha brahmaNA vipaSchithA” (jIvAthmA enjoys all the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn, along with him); purusha sUktham 13 “thripAdhasyAmrutham dhivi” (parama padham has 3 quarters of his wealth [and material realm has 1 quarter of his wealth]); purusha sUktham 1.18 “… yathra pUrvE sAdhyAs santhi dhEvA:” (Those dhEvas in parama padham know that abode as a great one); mahAbhAratham AraNya parvam 136.18 and 136.23 “athyarkAnaladhIptham thath sthAnam vishNOr mahAthmana: | svayaiva prabhayA rAjan! dhushprEksham dhEvadhAnavai: || thathra gathvA punarnEmam lOkamAyAnthi bhAratha ||” (The abode of vishNu the great, is brighter than the brightness of sun and fire. Oh king! Due to such brightness it can not be seen by dhEvathAs and asuras. Oh descendant of bharatha! One who reaches that abode does not return to this material realm); in this manner, parama padham is explained.
  • parAth param – mukthas (liberated souls) are greater than brahmA et al; nithyas (eternally free souls) are greater than such mukthas.
  • brahma cha – The divine auspicious form which is indicated by the word “brahma”, which is abundant with pure goodness, abundant with radiance, being the abode of beauty, tenderness etc, being big and having the ability to make others big. SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.63 “sa paras sarvaSakthInAm brahmaNas samanantharam | mUrtham brahma …” (bhagavAn is greater than the strength of all (his forms such as bound souls, liberated souls, divine form etc). The divine form of vishNu which is known as brahmam is a confidante of him. Oh most fortunate! hari is the antharyAmi of everything which is known as brahmam). chathu:SlOkI 4SAnthAnantha mahavibhUthi paramam yadhbrahma rUpam harE: mUrtham brahma thathOpi thathpriyatharam rUpam yadhathydhbhutham | yAnyanyAni yathAsukam viharathO rUpANi sarvANi thAni Ahu: svairanurUparUpavibhavair gAdOpagUdAnithE ||” (hari’s svarUpam which is faultless, boundless, having the huge spiritual and material realm, which is great and is indicated by the word brahma; his divine auspicious forms are even more pleasing to himself, much more magnificent, and makes brahmam to be known as “with form”; his other forms which occur per his divine desire – it is said that all of these are embraced by your [SrI mahAlakshm’s] matching svarUpam (nature), rUpam (form) etc).
  • thE vibhUthaya: – Since the words vibhUthi and SarIra are synonyms,  his wealth is subservient to him like a body to the soul. SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.31 “vibhUthayO harErEthA jagathas srushtihEthava:” (Progenitors like brahmA, dhaksha et al, time, and all creatures of the world are the body of hari who is the cause of this creation); SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.86  “yAni mUrthAnyamUrthAni yAnyathrAnyathra vA kvachith | santhi vai vasthujAthAni thAni sarvANi thadhvapu: ||” (Whatever is with form or without form, the collection of all entities which are here, there and everywhere at any time, they are all bodies of that paramAthmA); SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.38 “… thath sarvam vai harEsthanu:” (Whatever is created, they are all bodies of hari) and so on. In this way, SAsthram popularly uses the word vibhUthi (wealth) and SarIram (body) as synonyms.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

sthOthra rathnam – 16

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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krishna-Govardhan

Introduction

As said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.13 “mahAthmanas thu mAm …” (but the great souls who are pure, know me and worship me without placing their mind in anything else), those good souls who attain you are able to see you; and ALavandhAr thinks that those good souls attaining him as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.4yArumOr nilaimaiyan ena aRiveLiya emperumAn” (emperumAn is such that he can be perceived by [devoted] people as “He is of such qualities”) and considers it [them knowing/attaining emperumAn] as his (ALavandhAr‘s) own benefit.

ullangitha thrividha SImasamAdhiSAyi
sambhAvanam thava paribradimasvabhAvam |
mAyAbalEna bhavathA’pi nigUhyamAnam
paSyanthi kEchidhaniSam thvadhananyabhAvA: ||

Word by word meaning

ullangitha – crossed over (beyond)
thrividha SIma – having three types of measurements (kAla (time), dhESa (place) and vasthu (entity))
(ullangitha) sama athiSAyi sambhAvanam – (crossed over (beyond) ) having doubt of “if there is anyone equal or higher?”
thava paribradima svabhAvam – your prabhuthva (lordship)
mAyA balEna – by amazing ability
bhavathA nigUhyamAnam api – even when concealed by you
thvath ananya bhAvA: – those who think about you exclusively
kEchith – some great souls
aniSam – all times
paSyanthi – are seeing

Simple Translation

Those (few) great souls who think about you exclusively are seeing your prabhuthva (lordship) which is beyond having three types of measurements (kAla (time), dhESa (place) and vasthu (entity)) and is beyond any doubt of “if there is anyone equal or higher?”, even when your such lordship was concealed by you by your amazing ability.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • ullangitha – Your lordship which is without the three types of limits and is beyond doubt of anything equal or greater. By being vibhu (all pervading), there is no limit by place/space; by being nithyam (eternal), there is no limit by time; by being the prakAri (substratum) of everything and due to no other entity being able to sustain in separation from you, there is no limit by entity; there is none who is equal to him or greater than him present.
  • mAyA balEna – concealing with the strength of prakruthi (material nature) which hides bhagavAn‘s svarUpam; his having amazing abilities which make the divine form of bhagavAn look like material forms.
  • bhavathApi nigUhyamAnam – you who is said as in nAnmugan thiruvanthAdhi 60 “AL pArththuzhi tharuvAy” (searches for devotees); even when you concealed your greatness as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 120.11 “AthmAnam mAnusham manyE” (SrI rAma – I consider myself as a human), SrIvishNu purANam 5.3.12 “aham vO bAndhavO jAtha:” (krishNa – I consider myself as your (cowherds) relative).
  • paSyanthi kEchidhaniSam thvath ananyabhAvA: – Those great souls who are sath prakruthi (good people) will see you as you are at all times.
  • thvath ananyabhAvA: -Those who don’t have thoughts about anything but you; those who don’t know any means other than you; also said as those who know nothing other than you as the target of their knowledge.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

sthOthra rathnam – 15

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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paramapadhanathan

Introduction

In the “nAvEkshasE” SlOkam [10], the kAraNathva (bhagavAn being the cause of everything) which is explained in vEdhAntha sUthram 1.2 “janmAdhi asya yatha:” (brahmam is the one from whom creation etc occurs) is highlighted. In the “svAbhAvika” SlOkam [11], the principles [importance of bhagavAn’s qualities] explained in guNopasamhAra section [section which deals with experiencing bhagavAn with all his auspicious qualities] of vEdhAntha sUthra are highlighted. In the “ka: SrIS Sriya:” SlOkam [12], the principles explained in the 3rd chapter of vEdhAntha sUthra are highlighted and in “vEdhApahAra” SlOkam [13], the principles explained in upabrumhaNam (ithihAsas and purANas) are highlighted. In the “kasyOdharE” SlOkam [14], supremacy established by logical reasoning which follows the line of SAsthram is explained. Now, in this SlOkam, while this is clearly established through authentic texts, as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.20 “AsurIm yOnimApannA:” (being born as asura), thinking “alas! these demoniac people are missing out on him!”, feels sorrow for the loss of such people. Alternative explanation – Let this distinguished lord be not seen by demoniac people as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.4yArumOr nilaimaiyan ena aRivariya emperumAn” (emperumAn is such that he cannot be perceived by [envious] people as “He is of such qualities”).

thvAm SeelarUpacharithai: paramaprakrushta
sathvEna sAthvikathayA prabalaiScha SAsthra: |
prakhyAthadhaivaparamArthavidhAm mathaiScha
naivAsuraprakruthaya: prabhavanthi bOdhdhum ||

Word by word meaning

thvAm – you (who is superior to all)
Seela rUpa charithai: – with your Seela guNam (the quality of simplicity), form (which is glorified by the vEdham) and (divine) activities
parama prakrushta sathvEna – your abode/wealth which is filled with pure goodness
sAthvikatathayA prabalaiScha SAsthrai: – SAsthrams which are strong/firm because of their nature of goodness
prakhyA thadhaiva paramArtha vidhAm – of those who know in truth about the renowned lord
mathai: cha – their opinions/principles
Asura prakruthaya: – demoniac people
bOdhdhumEva – to know
na prabhavanthi – are incapable

Simple Translation

[Alas!] The demoniac people are incapable to know you (who is superior to all) who is known through

  • your Seela guNam (the quality of simplicity), form (which is glorified by the vEdham) and (divine) activities,
  • your abode/wealth which is filled with pure goodness,
  • SAsthrams which are strong/firm because of their nature of goodness and
  • through the opinions of those who know in truth about the renowned lord.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • thvAm – You who is superior to all, and apt [lord] for this jIvAthmA.
  • Seela – As said in “Seelam hi nAma mahathO mandhais saha nIrandhrENa samSlEsha:” (Seelam means, a great person mixing freely with an inferior person). The nature [of lord] that is explained in “nAvEkshasE” SlOkam. That is, though he is sarvAdhika (greater than all), considering the loss and gain of the jIvAthmAs as his own, taking up their uplifting on himself as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.2.3 “bahu syAm” (Let me become many).
  • rUpa – The form which is described as “ka: puNdarIka nayana:“. chAndhOgya upanishath 1.7 “hiraNyaSmaSrur hiraNyakESa ApraNakAth sarva Eva suvarNa: | thasya yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkamEvam akshiNI ||” (bhagavAn having gold-like shining moustache, gold-like shining hair and limbs; his eyes resemble a lotus blossomed by the sun); nArAyaNa sUktham 11 “neela thOyadha madhyasthA vidhyullEkEva bhAsvarA” (Shining like a lightning in the middle of a cloud); mahAbhAratham SAnthi parvam 206.60 “na bhUtha sangha samsthAnO dhEhO’sya paramAthmana:” (The divine body of paramAthmA is not made of the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether)); varAha purANam 14.41 “na thasya prAkruthA mUrthir mAmsamajjAsthi sambhavA” (He does not have a body which is connected to material nature, which is made of flesh, bone marrow, bone etc) and so on.
  • charithai: – and by the divine activities which are beyond human capability as highlighted in “krAnthvA nigIrya punarudhgirathi” and “vEdhApahAra guru pAthaka“.
  • parama prakrushta sathvEna – and by his abode which is made of pure goodness as said in “parama sathva samASraya: ka:“. rig ashtakam 5.6.24.12 “kshayanthamasya rajasa: parAkE” (in paramapadham (spiritual realm) which is beyond the mUla prakruthi (primordial matter) which has rajO guNam (passion) etc); purusha sUktham uththara anuvAkam 2 “thamasa: parasthAth” (beyond the primordial matter); SrI pAncharAthram “svasththAdhArakam sathvam miSrasthvAth vilakshaNam” (pure goodness which sustains others, and which is different from goodness which is mixed with passion and ignorance) and so on.
  • sAthvikathayA prabalaiScha SAsthrai: – by the portion of vEdham which gives good advice to sAthvika (virtuous) people. By strong/firm SAsthrams as indicated by brahmA in the mode of goodness in SrI mAthsya purANam 53.63 starting with “agnE: Sivasya mAhAthmyam …” (when in the mode of ignorance, agni, Siva are glorified) and highlighting “sAthvikEshvatha kalpEshu mAhAthmyamadhikam harE:” (when in the mode of goodness, vishNu is glorified).
  • prakhyAthadhaiva paramArtha vidhAm mathaiScha – By the principles of the knowers of the renowned lord [great personalities such as parASara bhagavAn, manu, vEdha vyAsa, SrI Saunaka, Apasthamba, vAlmIki and so on]. SrIman nArAyaNan is well established as the supreme lord in srushti vAkhyam (the sacred hymns relating to creation), nArAyaNa anuvAkam (sUktham), subAlOpanishath, antharyAmi brAhmaNam etc.

Such lord …

  • thvAm Asura prakruthaya: – those with cruel activities, about your highness who is superior to all.
  • bOdhdhumEva na prabhavanthi – They are not capable of knowing you. SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.20 “AsurIm yOnimApannA:” (being born as asura) and so on.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

sthOthra rathnam – 14

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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thrivikraman-thirukkovalur

Introduction

ALavandhAr concludes explaining the supremacy of bhagavAn through logic and reasoning which are favourable to pramANam (SAsthram, authentic scriptures).

kasyOdharE haravirinchimukha: prapancha:
kO rakshadhImamajanishta cha kasya nAbhE: |
krAnthvA nigIrya punarudhgirathi thvadhanya:
ka: kEna vaisha paravAnidhi SakyaSanka: ||

Word by word meaning

hara virinchi mukha: – Siva, brahmA etc
prapancha: – world
kasya udharE – (subdued) in whose stomach?
imam – this world
ka: rakshathi – who is protecting?
kasya nAbhE: – from whose navel
ajanishta – (this world) was created?
thvath anya: ka: – other than you
(imam) – this world
krAnthvA – (during thrivikrama avathAram) measured
nigIrya – (during avAnthara praLayam (intermediate deluge)) swallowed
puna: udhgirathi – and spat out again?
Esha: – this world
kEna vA – by who else
paravAn ithi – having lord
Sakya Sanka: – can there even be a doubt?

Simple Translation

In whose stomach Siva, brahmA et al and the world were subdued? Who is protecting this world? From whose navel (this world) was created? Who else other than you measured, swallowed and spat out this world again? Can there even be a doubt on the lordship of this world? [undoubtedly, it is you only]

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • kasyOdharE hara virinchi mukha: prapancha: – In whom, all creatures starting with brahmA, Siva were subdued during the total deluge? As said in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.2.1 “sadhEva sOmya idhamagra ASIdhEkamEva adhvithIyam” (Dear child! this world (which is seen with many names and forms), during total deluge remained as brahmam which is none as sath as one entity (due to lack of names and forms), without a second (since there is none like that), remained for dhvi parArdha kAlam (100 years of brahmA’s life) without names and forms, and becomes subdued in sarvESvaran as said in subAla upanishath 2 “thama: parE dhEva EkIbhavathi” (mUla prakruthi (primordial matter) named thamas, became subdued in sarvESvaran). As said in mahAbhAratham SAnthi parvam 210.24 “brahmAdhishu pralinEshu nashtE lOkE charAcharE | AbhUthasamplavE prApthE praleenE prakruthau mahAn || Ekas thishtathi viSvAthmA sa thu nArAyaNa: prabhu: ||” (When brahmA et al all are destroyed, the movable and immovable entities of the world become destroyed, five great elements are finished and mahath (the great element) becomes subdued in to mUla prakruthi (primordial matter), only the one who is the sarvAntharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul of all) remains. He is nArAyaNa, the sarvaswAmi (lord of all)), when it comes to working based on karma, there is no difference between [great personalities] brahmA et al and [minute entities] ant etc.
  • kO rakshyathi – Who is protecting the world which contains rudhra, brahmA et al? SrI vishNu purANam 1.22.21 “na hi pAlana sAmarthyamruthE sarvESvaram harim | …” (Oh wise person! Except for hari who is well situated in sustaining others, no one has the ability to give protection), para samhithA “na sampadhAm samAhArE vipadhAm vinivarthanE | …” (I have not seen any one other than purushOththama who is capable of bestowing wealth and removing the dangers without a trace).
  • ajanishta cha kasya nAbhE: – From whose stomach, the unmanifested universes came into existence? In mAhAbhAratham, in relation to mArkaNdEya rishi “srujathas thasya dhEvasya padhmam sUryasamaprabham | nAbhEr vinissrutham thasya thathrOthpanna: pithAmaha: ||” (When that lord started creating, a lotus shining like sun arose from his navel and brahmA appeared in that lotus), mahAbhAratham “yaththath padhmamabhUth pUrvam thathra brahmA vyajAyatha | brahmaNaSchApi sambhUthaS Siva ithyavadhAryathAm || SivAth skandhas sambabhUva Ethath srushti chathustayam ||” (From the lotus flower which appeared from bhagavAn‘s navel, brahmA was born. It should be known that Siva was born from brahmA. From Siva, skandha was born. These are the four stages of creation in the beginning) and so on.
  • krAnthvA – Who placed his feet on everyone starting from brahmA upto a blade of grass? ALavandhAr asks if the one who placed the divine feet is the lord or the one whose head was trampled is the lord? vishNu dharmam mAngaLyasthavam “sangais surANAm …” (Let that hari who placed his feet over the dhEvathAs, humans et al, be with me to bring all auspiciousness to me) .
  • nigIrya punarudhgirathi – [spitting out again] during intermediary deluges.
  • thvadhanya: ka: – Who else is the wholesome protector other than you?
  • kEna vaisha paravAn ithi SakyaSanka: – Is there still doubt that there is some other person who is lording over? As said in “sandhigdhE kalu nyAya: pravarthathE” (Only in doubtful matters, one can try to apply logic to clarify the doubt) – there is no question of doubting some one else to be supreme. One is the creator, other is the created; one is the lord, other is servant; one is Sriya:pathi (lord of SrImahAlakshmi), other is umApathi (lord of pArvathi); one is puNdarIkAksha (lotus-eyed), other is virUpAksha (with unusual (three) eyes); one is garudavAhanan (who rides garuda), other is vrushabhvAhanan (who rides a bull); one is sinner (rudhra with kapAla attached to his hand), other is purifier (vishNu who relieved rudhra from his sin); one is purushOththama (supreme purusha – lord), other is purusha (jIvAthmA); one (rudhra) beholds the lotus feet on his head, other (vishNu) being the owner of those lotus feet ; one is worshipped by nithyasUris (eternally free souls), other is worshipped by vEthALas (ghosts); in this manner when there is so much difference between rudhra and vishNu like darkness and light respectively, and since rudhra is one among us jIvAthmAs, there is no question of doubting him to be the supreme; same rule applies to brahmA also and thus he too cannot be considered as the supreme.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

sthOthra rathnam – 13

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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madhusudhanan-2

Introduction

ALavandhAr explains kshEthragyathva (being jIvAthmA) of brahmA rudhra et al and parathva (supremacy) of bhagavAn through incidents from ithihAsam and purANam.

vEdhApahAragurupAthaka dhaithyapIdAdhi
Apath vimOchanamahishtapalapradhAnai: |
kOnya: prajApaSupathI paripAthi kasya
pAdhOdhakEna sa Sivas svaSirOdhruthEna ||

Word by word meaning

vEdha apahAra – Stealing of vEdham
guru pAthaka – sin acquired due to plucking own father’s head
dhaithya pIdA Adhi – grief inflicted by asuras etc
Apath vimOchana – removing those dangers
mahishta pala pradhAnai: – bestowing of great results
anya: ka: – who else (other than you)
prajA paSu pathI paripAthi – protected brahmA who is known as prajApathi and Siva who is known as paSupathi?
sa: Siva: – that Siva
sva SirO dhruthEna – beholding on his head
kasya pAdha udhakEna – by whose SrIpAdha thIrtham (holy water which washed the feet)
Siva: (abhUth) – became pure?

Simple Translation

Who else (other than you) protected brahmA who is known as prajApathi and Siva who is known as paSupathi, by removing the dangers such as stealing of vEdham [brahmA losing vEdham], sin acquired due to plucking own father’s head [rudhra plucking the head of brahmA] and grief inflicted by asuras [for indhra et al dhEvathAs] etc? Beholding on his head, by whose SrIpAdha thIrtham (holy water which washed the feet), that Siva became pure?

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • vEdhApahAra – Explaining how brahmA was given the divine vision into vEdham as said in SvEthASvathara upanishath 6.18 “yO vai vEdhAmScha” (one [bhagavAn] who instructed the vEdham to brahmA), such vEdham was stolen by asuras (demons), brahmA became drowned in an ocean of sorrow after losing vEdham, emperumAn helped brahmA by destroying the enemies, rescuing vEdham and giving it back to him. mahAbhAratham SAnthi parvam 357.31 “thathO hruthEshu vEdhEshu brahmANam kaSmalO’viSath | thathO vachanamISAnam prAha vEdhair vinAkrutha: || brahmA – vEdhA mE paramam chakshu: vEdhA mE paramam dhanam | vEdhA mE paramam dhAma vEdhA mE brahma chOththamam || mama vEdhA hruthAs sarvE dhAnavAbhyAm balAdhitha: | andhakArA imE jAthA lOkA vEdhair vivarjithA: || vEdhAdhruthE hi kim kuryAm lOkAn vai srashtumudhyatha: | ahO batha mahath dhu:kham vEdhanASanajam mama || prAptham dhunOthi hrudhayam mAm thu SOkAmayasthvayam || …. jagrAha vEdhAnakilAn rasAthalagathAn hari: | prAthAchcha brahmaNE rAjan | thathas svAm prakruthim yayau || thathasthayOr vadhEnAsu vEdhOpaharaNEna cha | SOkApanayanam chakrE brahmaNa: purushOththama: ||” (Subsequently, after the vEdhams were stolen brahmA lost his mind. He spoke to ISvara thus – vEdhams are my superior eyes; they are my superior wealth; they are my superior radiance; they are my supreme brahmam. By the strength of asuras, the vEdhams are stolen from here. The world is surrounded with darkness due to the loss of vEdhams. What will I who started creating the worlds, do? Alas! I am inflicted with this great sorrow due to the loss of vEdhams. This disease of sorrow is torturing my mind… hari retrieved the vEdhams from rasAthala (one of the lower regions) and gave it to brahmA. Oh king! brahmA regained his composure after that. In this manner, by killing the demons madhu and kaitabha and retrieving the vEdhams, purushOththama eradicated brahmA’s grief ) and so on.
  • guru pAthaka – rudhra, out of arrogance cut the head of brahmA who is lOkaguru (universal teacher) and his own father and became a sinner. bhagavAn protected rudhra by eliminating his sins and gave life to brahmA whose head was cut-off. SrImathsya purANam 182 “dhEvIm prathi rudhra: – thatha: krOdhaparIthEna sarakthanayanEna cha | vAmAngushtanakAgrENa chinnam thasya SirO mayA || brahmA – yasmAdhanaparAdhasya SiraS chinnam thvayA mama | thasmAchchApasamAvishta: kapAlIthvam bhavishyasi || rudhra: – brahmahA”kulithO bhUthvA charan thIrthAni bhUthalE | thathO’ham gathavAn dhEvi himavantham SilOchchayam || thathra nArAyaNaS SrImAn mayA bhikshAm prayAchitha: | thathasthEna svakam pArSvam nakAgrENa vidhAritham || mahathi sravathI dhArA thasya rakthasya nissruthA || vishNu prasAdhAth suSrONi | kapAlam thath sahasradhA | sputitham bahudhA yAtham svapnalabdham dhanam yathA ||” (rudhra told dhEvi (pArvathi) – Subsequently, by me who was angry with reddish eyes, that brahmA’s head was plucked with my left thumb’s nail. brahmA – Since you cut off my faultless head, you shall be cursed and will be a kapAli (one who has my skull stuck to your hand). rudhra – Oh dhEvi! I went around many holy places being afflicted with brahmahaththi dhOsham (killing of a brAhmaNa) and worried and finally reached the himAchala mountain. I begged for alms from SrIman nArAyaNan there. He then scrapped a part of his body with his nail. Blood started flowing from there…. Oh beautiful lady! by the grace of vishNu, that kapAlam (skull) broke into thousands of pieces and disappeared like wealth acquired in dream [wealth acquired in dream disappears once woken up from sleep]) and so on.
  • dhaithya pIdAdhi Apath vimOchana – hiraNya, rAvaNa et al; asuras from thripura (three towns); Adhi indicates curse of dhurvAsa rishi etc. Removing the dangers of dhEvathAs from these situations.
  • mahishta pala pradhAnai: – [Not only he rescued them from dangers] Though they are jIvAthmAs, emperumAn bestowed them great honours such as [rudhra] to be famously known as “ISvara” all over the world [and brahmA to be considered as creator and so on]. [pramANams (authentic texts) quoted to establish that these dhEvathAs are also jIvAthmAs who are bound in this material world] mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 14.8 “yuga kOti sahasrANi vishNumArAdhya padhmabhU: | punasthrailOkyadhAthruthvam prApthavAnithi SuSruma ||” (We hear that brahmA who is born in a lotus flower worships vishNu for 1000 crore yugams  and again attains the position of being the lord of 3 worlds [upper, middle and lower layers]”, narasimha purANam “brahmAdhayas surAs sarvE vishNumArAdhya thE purA | svam svam padhamanuprApthA: kESavasya prasAdhatha: ||” (brahmA and other dhEvathAs previously worshipped vishNu and retained their positions by the grace of kESava), mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam “EvamEshO’surANAm cha surANAnchApi sarvaSA: | bhayAbhayankara: krishNas sarvalOkESvara: prabhu: ||” (In this manner, our lord and the lord of all the worlds, krishNa, always gives asuras (demons) and dhEvas (celestial beings) fear and protection respectively at all times).
  • kOnya … – Who fully protects prajApathi and paSupathi from the dangers caused by themselves and others to them?
  • kasya pAdha udhakEna … – The holy water from whose divine feet is held by rudhra in his matted hair, to make him Siva – Sudhdha (pure)? Who else is as pure as you to purify him when he brings upon impurity in him? ISvara samhithA – brahmA’s words – “dhravibhUthas thadhA dharmO haribhakthyA mahAmunE | gruhIthvA dharma pAnIyam padham nAthasya dhushtayE || kshALitham parayA bhakthyA pAdhyArgyAdhibhirarchitham | thadhambu pathitham dhrushtvA dhadhAra SirasA hara: || pAvanArtham jatAmadhyE yOgyO’smIthyavadhAraNAth | varshAythAnyatha bahUn ka mumOcha thadhA hara: ||” (Oh best among rishis! (When bhagavAn measured the worlds) at that time, dharmam (the deity for righteousness) out of devotion towards hari, assumed the form of water. I took that dharmam in the form of water and washed the divine feet of jagannAtha with great devotion. I also offered arghyam (washing the hand), pAdhyam (washing the feet) etc in worship. Looking at the [holy] water falling down, Siva firmly believing “I am qualified to accept this holy water [to purify myself]”, accepted the falling water in his matted hair on his head to purify himself. After that, he retained the water in there for thousands of years, without letting it go), periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.7.3 “… chathumukan kaiyil chadhuppuyan thALil chankaran sadaiyil thangi …” (gangA stayed in the hands of four-headed brahmA, and at the feet of four-handed vishNu and at the head of Sankara), periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.7.2 “nalam thigazh sadaiyAn mudik konRai malarum nAraNan pAdhath thuzhAyum kalandhizhi punal” ([gangA] water which flows down with the konRai flower from rudhra who has good qualities and the thuLasi from the divine feet of SrIman nArAyaNan) and so on.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

sthOthra rathnam – 12

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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krishna-githa-etc

Introduction

In this pAsuram, instead of the (common and specific) names which cause doubts about the identity of the person, ALavandhAr is mercifully explaining the names which are individually complete and are able to clearly identify the supremacy of emperumAn.

kaSSrI; Sriya: paramsathvasamASraya: ka: ka: puNdarIkanayana: purushOththama: ka: |
kasyAyuthAyuthaSathaikakalAmSakAmSE viSvam vichithrachidhachithpravibhAgavruththam ||

Word by word meaning

SrIya: SrI: ka: – Who is the wealth of SrI: (SrI mahAlakshmi)?
paramasathva samASraya: ka: – Who has pure goodness in him?
puNdarIka nayana: ka: – Who is lotus-eyed?
purushOththama: ka: – Who is known as purushOththama (best among men)?
kasya – Whose
ayutha ayutha Satha Eka kalA amSaka amSE – one small fraction of (thousandth of thousandth of many crores sized) vow/will
viSvam – [sustains] all of this world
vichithra chith achith pravibhAga vruththam – having diversified categories of chEthana (sentient entities) and achEthana (insentient entities)?

Simple Translation

Who is the wealth of SrI: (SrI mahAlakshmi)? Who has pure goodness in him? Who is lotus-eyed? Who is known as purushOththama? Whose one small fraction of (thousandth of thousandth of many crores sized) vow/will sustains all of this world which is having diversified categories of chEthana (sentient entities) and achEthana (insentient entities)?

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • ka: SrI: Sriya: – Every chEthana and achEthana other than ISvara himself is surrendered to SrI mahAlakshmi for their existence etc. Who else other than you is the refuge for such SrI mahAlakshmi for her sustenance? kim (who) – kshEpE (dismissal); i.e., there is none other than yourself. Explained in SrI sUktham 9 “ISvarIm sarvabhUthAnAm” (the goddess of all creatures), nILA sUktham, thaiththirIya samhithA 4.4.12 “asyESAnA jagathO vishNupathnI” (goddess of all, divine consort of vishNu), periya thirumozhi 7.7.1 “thiruvukkum thiruvAgiya selvA” (emperumAn who is the wealth of SrI mahAlakshmi).
  • parama sathva samASraya: ka: – With the adjective “parama“, “parama sathva” is differentiated from rajas (passion), thamas (ignorance) and sathva (goodness) too which is read along with the other too. Who is having the forms which are the abode of pure goodness? Explained in SvEthASvathara upanishath 3.12 “mahAn prabhurvai purusha: sathvasyaisha pravarthaka:” (Oh great personality! [bhagavAn] the one who can bestow the results [of mOksham (liberation). He is the nurturer of pure goodness), purusha sUktham uththarAnuvAkam 2 “Adhithya varNam thamasa: parasthAth” (shining like sun, one who is beyond material nature).
  • ka: puNdarIka nayana: – Who is the one who has divine eyes which reveal his supremacy, which have the satisfaction of bliss of his own experience and which highlight his compassion etc towards his devotees? Explained in chAndhOgya upanishath 1.6 and 1.7 “thasya yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkam Evam akshiNI” (The two divine eyes of SrIman nArAyaNan who is parabrahamam, resemble a lotus flower that was blossomed by morning sun’s rays), SrIvishNu purANam 1.4.26 “mahAvarAha: sputapadhmalOchana:” (bhagavAn in the form of great pig (wild boar) with blossomed lotus-eyes), jithanthE sthOthram 1 “jithanthE puNdarIkAksha” (Let the lotus-eyed lord be victorious), periya thirumozhi 7.7.9 “thAyA aLikkinRa thaN thAmaraik kaNNA!” (Oh broad-lotus-eyed lord who protects like a mother!).
  • purushOththama: ka: – Who else is greater than you? Your highness, who is a trustworthy person yourself said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 15.18 “yasmAth ksharamathIthO’hamaksharAdhapi chOththama: | athO’smi lOkE vEdhE cha prathitha: purushOththama; ||” (Since I am more knowledgeable than bound soul in this world who has varying levels of knowledge and the liberated soul who is complete in knowledge, I am well-known in Sruthi and smruthi as purushOththama).
  • kasyAyutha … – On whose minute portion, i.e., one small fraction of (thousandth of thousandth of many crores sized) vow/will, this variegated universe which has many chEthana and achEthana entities are sustained? Variegated achith (insentient entities) include ether etc. Variegated chith (sentient entities) include the four types of bodies [dhEva (celestial), manushya (human), thiryak (animal) and sthAvara (plant)] acquired by jIvAthmAs based on their karma and the aspects which are enjoyed by those four types of entities. amSam – explained as a fraction of his size; also explained in context of time – the world remaining for a small fraction of time. Explained in purusha sUktham 13 “pAdhOsya viSvA bhUthAni” (all of this material realm [which contains unlimited 14-layer universes] is quarter portion of his wealth), SrIvishNu purANam 1.9.53 “yasyAyuthAyuthAmSAmSE …” (We worship that parabrahmam on whose fraction of capacity the whole world is sustained), “mErOrivANur yasyaithath …” (this material realm for bhagavAn is like a an atom in front of huge mEru mountain), SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.42 “vishtabhyAhamitham kruthsnamEkASEna sthithO jagath” (I behold these worlds with a minute fraction of my abilities).

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

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ఆర్తి ప్రబంధం – 10

శ్రీః
శ్రీమతే శఠకోపాయ నమః
శ్రీమతే రామానుజాయ నమః
శ్రీమత్ వరవరమునయే నమః

ఆర్తి ప్రభందం

<<ఆర్తి ప్రబంధం – 9

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నమ్మాళ్వార్ మరియు ఎమ్పెరుమానార్ – ఆళ్వార్ తిరునగరి

ప్రస్తావన

మణవాళ మామునులు తాను ఎందులకు మరల మరల జనించి మరణించుచుండెనో అని పరిశీలిస్తున్నారు. తనకు ఈ జనన మరణములు కొనసాగుటకు శ్రీ రామానుజుల చరణపద్మములను ఆశ్రయించి అక్కడే ఎల్లప్పుడు నివసించక పోవడం ఒక్కటే కారణమని నిశ్చయించెను. ఆ దివ్య పాదములకు దూరమగుటయే అన్నింటికి కారణము. కావున, ఈ తప్పును సరిద్దుకొనుటకు, శ్రీ రామానుజుల పాదపద్మములనే ఆశ్రయించి ఆక్కడే ఎల్లప్పుడు ఉండుటకు మణవాళ మామునులు నిశ్చయించెను.

పాశురం 10

పూ మగళ్ కోన్ తెన్నరన్గర్ పూన్కళఱ్కుప్ పాదుగమాయ్
తాం మగిళుమ్ శెల్వచ్ చటకోపర్ తేమలర్ తాట్కే
ఏయందు ఇనియ పాదుగమాం ఎన్దై ఇరామానుశనై
వాయందు ఎనదు నెంజమే వాళ్

ప్రతి పద్ధార్ధం

ఎనదు – ఓ! నా
నెంజమే – హృదయమా (ఎప్పుడు నను అనువర్తించు)!!!
వాళ్ – ఇప్పటినుండి దయచేసి వారి వద్ద నివసించు
వాయందు – పాదపద్మములందు ఆశ్రయించి
ఇరామానుశనై – శ్రీ రామానుజ
ఎన్దై – నా తండ్రియగు మరియు నా ఆత్మకు నిజమైన జీవనాధారమగు
ఏయందు – శ్రీ రామానుజులకు నప్పబడునవి అయిన
ఇనియ పాదుగమామ్ – పాదుకల రూపమును
తాట్కే – దివ్య పాదముల
శెల్వచ్ – అన్ని సాత్త్విక గుణములతో నిండిన ఒకరు
చటకోపర్ – మరియు శఠకోప అని ప్రసిద్ధమైనవారు
తేమలర్ – ఎవరి పాదపద్మములపై అప్పుడే వికసించిన పువ్వుల నుండి తేనె కారునో
పాదుగమాయ్ – (అట్టి శఠకోపనులను) పాదుకా అని కొనియాడబడును.
తామ్ మగిళుమ్ – మరియు పాదుకలుగా ఉండుటచే ఆనందించు
పూన్కళఱ్కు – ఎప్పుడు సంతోషముగా అనుభవించగల పాదములైన
తెన్నరన్గర్ – శ్రీరంగనాథుడు, ఎవరైతే
కోన్ – నాథుడైన
పూ మగళ్ – పుష్పములో ఉండు సుగంధమువలే ఉండు పెరియ పిరాట్టియార్ (శ్రీ మహాలక్ష్మి)

సామన్య అర్థం

ఈ పాశురమున, మణవాళ మామునులు. తన హృదయమును శ్రీ రామానుజుల చెంత చేరి వారి చరణకమలములనే ఆశ్రయించమని చెప్పెను. అదియేగాక, తన హృదయమును అక్కడే ఉండమని మరియు అక్కడనుండి దూరముకాకూడదనియూ ఆదేశించెను. మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులను, పెరియ పిరాటియార్ల నాథులైన శ్రీ రంగనాథుల పాదుకగా ఉండుటను ఆనందముగా అనుభవించు శఠకోపుల (నమ్మాళ్వార్) పాదుకగా వర్ణించెను.

వివరణ

పెరియ పిరాటియార్లను పువ్వుల సువాసనగా వర్ణింపబడుతుంది. శ్రీ రంగనాథులు ఇట్టి పెరియ పిరాట్టిని తన హృదయమున నిలుపుకుని ఉన్నారని “పూ మన్ను మాదు పొరున్దియ మార్బన్ (ఇరామానుశ నూఱ్ఱన్దాది 1) ”  అను వాఖ్యామునందు చెప్పబడి ఉన్నది.  “పూవార్ కళల్గళుక్కు (తిరువాయ్ మొళి 6.10.4)” అను వాఖ్యామునకు అనుగుణముగా శ్రీ రంగనాథుల పాదుకా అను ప్రసిధ్దియైన వారు మరియు ఎప్పుడు అలా ఉండుటను అనందముగా అనుభవించు వారు శఠగోపులు. శఠగోపులే “అడిక్కీళ్ అమర్నదు పుగున్దు (తిరువాయ్ మొళి 6.10.11)” అని చెప్పెను, కాపున వారే శ్రీ రంగనాథుల పాదుకకు సూచకమగును.  పాదుకగా ఉండుటుటయేగాకా, అట్లు కైంకర్యము చేయుటను శఠగోపులు “ముగిల్ వణ్ణన్ అడియై అడైన్దు “తిరువాయ్ మొళి 7.2.11) “ఉఱ్ఱెన్ ఉగన్దు పణి శెయ్దు (తిరువాయ్ మొళి 10.8.10)” అను వాక్యములో పేర్కొనబడినట్లు మిక్కిలి ఆనందముగా అనుభవించెను. ఇప్పుడు అట్టి శఠగోపులకు, శ్రీ రామానుజులకు ఉన్న సంబంధమును వర్ణించబడెను. శఠగోపుల పాదపద్మములు తేనె స్రవించు తాజా పుష్పములతో సువాసనతో ఉండెను. “మేవినేన్ అవన్ పొన్నడి మెయ్మైయే (కణ్ణినుణ్ శిఱుత్ తామ్బు 2)” అని శ్రీ మధురకవి ఆళ్వార్లు వర్ణించినట్లు, తాను శఠగోపుల పాదపద్మములందే ఉండుట  తగునని శ్రీ రామానుజుల అభిప్రాయము. అందువలనే శ్రీ రామానుజులను, శఠగోపుల పాదుకలని కీర్తించారు. చివరగా మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులకూ తనకూ ఉన్న సంబంధమును స్థాపించెను. మణవాళ మామునులు, శ్రీ రామానుజులు మొదట వారి ఆత్మ యొక్క జీవనాధారమునకు బాధ్యులని చెప్పుచున్నారు. వారు వారి హృదయమునకు ఎమ్పెరుమానార్ అని ప్రసిధ్దిచెందిన  శ్రీ రామానుజుల వద్దకు వెళ్ళి, వారి చరణ కమలమును ఆశ్రయించి మరియు అక్కడే నివసించవలెనని ఉపదేశించెను.  తిరువరన్గత్తు అముదనార్లు  ,“ఇరాముశన్ చరణారవిందమ్ నామ్ మన్ని వాళ నెంజే (ఇరామానుశన్ నూఱ్ఱందాది 1)” అని తన హృదయమునకు ఉపదేశించినట్లు, మణవాళ మామునులు వారి హృదయమునకు ఉపదేశించుచుండెను.  మణవాళ మామునులు ” ఓ! హృదయమా, ఈ అడియేన్ చెప్పినట్లు విని, నడుచుకొను హృదయమా, వెళ్ళి శ్రీ రామానుజుల చెంత మిక్కిలి దగ్గర సంబంధముతో ఉండుము, మరియు దీనికి బదులుగా ఏదియు  కోఱ (ఎదురుచూడ)  రాదు.  శ్రీ రామానుజుల దివ్య పాదపద్మములయందు ఉండుటయే నీ స్వరూపము” అని చెప్పుచున్నారు. మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజుల చరణకమలములందున్న ప్రేమకు ప్రతిరూపమగుటచే (సారమగుటచే), వారిని తరచూ “యతీంద్ర ప్రవనర్” అని పేర్కొనెదరు. ఇంతక ముందు “శెల్వచ్ శఠకోపర్” అను వాక్య భాగము శఠగోపుల ధనమును సూచించును. “దనమ్మదీయమ్ తవ పాద పన్కజమ్ (స్తోత్ర రత్నమ్)” అను వాక్యమున చెప్పినట్లు, మనం పొందగలిగిన అత్యంత గొప్ప సంపద వైకుంఠనాథుని పాదపద్మములే. అట్టి ఉన్నతమైన సంపదను శఠగోపులు పొందియుండుటచే, వారిని “శెల్వచ్ శఠకోపర్” అని వర్ణించిరి.

అడియేన్ వైష్ణవి రామానుజ దాసి

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sthOthra rathnam – 11

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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brahma-vishnu-siva

Introduction

In this pAsuram the parathva lakshaNam (identity of supremacy) is explained. In the previous pAsuram, through gathi sAmAnya nyAyam, nArAyaNa is established as the supreme lord.  In this pAsuram, ALavandhAr explains bhagavAn‘s supremacy which is established in nArAyaNa anuvAkam and is the explanation of all of vEdhAntham in highlighting that the words such as Siva, Sambhu etc also indicate nArAyaNa only.

SvAbhAvikAnavadhikAthiSayESithruthvam
nArAyaNa thvayi na mrushyathi vaidhika: ka: |
brahmA SivaS Sathamakha: parama: svarAtithi
EthE’pi yasya mahimArNavaviprushasthE ||

Word by word meaning

nArAyaNa – Oh nArAyaNa!
brahmA – brahmA
Siva – Siva
Sathamakha: – indhra
parama: svarAt – mukthAthmA (liberated soul) who is greater than the previously mentioned dhEvathAs and not bound by karma
ithi EthE api – all of these said persons
yasya thE – (such great) your
mahima arNava viprusha: – a drop in the ocean of your greatness
thvayi – in (such) you
svAbhAvika – natural
anavadhika athiSaya – having boundless greatness
ISithruthvam – aiSwarya (ability to control)
ka: vaidhika: – which vaidhika (one who practices vEdham)
na mrushyathi – cannot tolerate?

Simple Translation

Oh nArAyaNa! brahmA, Siva, indhra and mukthAthmA who is not bound by karma and greater than all of those dhEvathAs – all of these said persons are like a drop in the ocean of your greatness; which vaidhika (one who practices vEdham) cannot tolerate your aiSwarya (ability to control) which is natural and having boundless greatness?

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • svAbhAvika
    • By svAbhAvika (natural), [bhagavAn‘s control/wealth is ] differentiated from the control/wealth of brahmA et al which are acquired based on their karma, and are temporary as a result of that and hence [due to the temporary nature] are mixed with sorrow.
    • By anavadhika and athiSaya (boundless greatness), the control/wealth of bhagavAn is differentiated from nithyasUris (eternally free souls) and mukthAthmAs (liberated souls). Even though the control/wealth of nithyas and mukthas which are highlighted in chAndhOgya upanishath 7.25.2 “sa svarAd bhavathi” (that mukthAthmA becomes relieved from bondage of karma) and chAndhOgya upanishath 3.7.1 “sathyakAmas sathyasankalpa:” (having desire and vow which will never remain unfulfilled), they are attained by bhagavAn’s sanction and are with boundaries [in comparison to bhagavAn’s abilities].
    • By ISithruvthvam (ability to control) which is a distinct quality,  the entity “nirviSEsha chin mAthram” (there is no attribute and pure knowledge is brahmam) which is explained by vEdhAnthis [mAyAvAdha scholars] who are influenced by baudhdha principle, is differentiated.
  • nArAyaNa – “nArAyaNa anuvAkam which declares that all common words such as sath, brahmA etc and specific words such as Siva, Sambhu etc., rest on lord nArAyaNa” is remembered here.
  • thvayi – towards you who is explained as the most supreme in all vEdhAnthams and who is the apt lord for the jIvAthmA.
  • na mrushyathi – one who cannot tolerate the control/wealth of you that is explained so far.
  • vaidhika: ka: – it means “such person is not to be considered as brAhmaNa”. brahmANda purANam “ya: puthra: pitharam dhvEshti tham vidhyAdhanyarEthasam | yO vishNum sathatham dhvEshti tham vidhyAdhanthyarEthasam ||” (One who loathes his father, can be known to be born of some one else; one who constantly loathes vishNu, can be known to be born of a chaNdALa), padhma purANam “vishNu bhakthi vihInO yassarvaSAsthrArtha vEdhyapi | brAhmaNyam thasya na bhavEth thasyOthpaththir nirUpyathAm ||” (Though one knows the meanings of all of SAsthram, if he lacks devotion towards vishNu, he does not have brAhmaNyam. His birth can be verified). Why are words such as Siva, Sambhu etc reveal nArAyaNan only, when brahmA, rudhra et al are credited with SarvESvarathvam (being the supreme) in thaiththirIya samhithA 4.2.8 “hiraNyagarbhas samavaththAgrE bhUthasya jAtha: pathirEka ASIth” (At first, hiraNyagarbha (bhagavAn who has in him, the collection of all the creatures) who is lord of everyone was present [hiraNyagarbha commonly indicate brahmA]), rig ashtakam 3.6.19 “na kirindhra thadhuththarO na jyAyO asthi vruthrahan” (Oh indhra! there is none higher than you; Oh one who killed vruthra! there is none greater than you), SvEthASvathara upanishath 3.2 “EkO hi rudhrO na dhvithIyAya thasthu:” (rudhra is only one; there is no one to assist him) and so on? Why is it that those people are accused to be not understanding these pramANams (texts) properly? The higher truth is explained in nArAyaNa anuvAkam (sUktham) 11 “sa brahmA sa Sivas sEndhras sOkshara: paramas svarAt ||” (That paramAthmA (bhagavAn) is [the antharyAmi for] brahmA, he is [the antharyAmi for] Siva, he is [the antharyAmi for] indhra, he is the [the antharyAmi for] liberated soul who is greater than these dhEvathAs such as brahmA, Siva, indhra et al and free from bondage), and so on. Since indhra who is a well known jIvAthmA and mukthAthmA who is fully surrendered to bhagavAn are spoken along with brahmA and rudhra, their non-supremacy is clearly established.
  • EthE’pi – These personalities who are considered as lords in this world and who are considered as servitors.
  • yasya – [That personality] As said in SrI bhAgavatham 2.5.15 “nArAyaNaparA vEdhA:” (vEdhams speak about nArAyaNan), his great fame in all of vEdhAntham is remembered.
  • mahima arNava viprushasthEALavandhAr says “nArAyaNa anuvAkam explained that they are like a drop in the ocean of sarvESvara’s greatness”.
  • yasya thE – ALavandhAr mercifully explains the well established fame of bhagavAn in Sruthi and his realisation of that meaning.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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sthOthra rathnam – 10

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Mahavishnu-universes

Introduction

After having raised the objection to praise and been convinced , ALavandhAr explains emperumAn‘s parathvam (supremacy) which makes him the refuge, in the subsequent five SlOkams. In this first SlOkam (among the five), ALavandhAr mercifully explains emperumAn’s supremacy through “gathi sAmAnya” nyAya (method where the goal is the same but path is different) where in the common words such as sath, brahma etc., nArAyaNan is explained as the jagath kAraNam (cause of the universe) in the form of kAraNa vAkya (words/phrases that rest on the cause/root). Also explained as – ALavandhAr is wondering about emperumAn’s compassion by comparing the two aspects:

  • when he started praising, emperumAn gave his merciful glance which was triggered by his vAthsalyam (motherly affection);
  • during total deluge, with a compassionate heart, you [emperumAn] created chEthanas [gave them bodies] by showering his special mercy, and manifested your friendly nature to propel their friendliness towards you who is the benefactor, to have them engage in [righteous] actions and withdraw from [sinful] actions.

nAvEkshasE yadhi thathO bhuvanAnyamUni
nAlam prabhO bhavithumEva kutha: pravruththi: |
Evam nisargasuhrudhi thvayi sarvajanthO:
svAmin na chithramidhamASrithavathsalathvam ||

Word by word meaning

prabhO – Oh my lord!
na avEkshasE yadhi – if (you) had not bestowed your merciful glance
thatha: – after the total deluge
amUni bhuvanAni – these worlds
bhavithumEva na alam – would not have been created;
pravruththi: kutha: – it is obvious that no actions would have occurred [if the worlds were not created to start with]
svAmin – Oh lord!
Evam – in this manner
sarva janthO: – for all creatures
nisarga suhrudhi – being a natural friend
thvayai – in you
ASritha vathsalathvam idham – this quality of manifesting motherly affections towards your devotees
na chithram – not strange

Simple Translation

Oh my lord! if (you) had not bestowed your merciful glance after the total deluge, these worlds would not have been created;  it is obvious that no actions would have occurred [if the worlds were not created to start with]; Oh lord! in this manner, it is not strange to see this quality of manifesting motherly affections towards your devotees, when you are the natural friend for all creatures.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • nAvEkshasE yadhi – As said in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.2.3 “thadhaikshatha bahu syAm prajAyEyEthi” (That parabrahmam, vowed to become many), if he did not mercifully glance at the chEthanas who were as good as asath (insentient) [before creation, all souls are in a subtle state without any form or name, and acquire form and name as part of creation]. Instead of looking at the sins committed by the chEthanas since time immemorial, emperumAn, out of his compassion, mercifully glanced at them looking at their miserable state; [if not for his compassion] there is none who will question him “Why did you not show your mercy at them?”.
  • thatha: – Explaining the [non-existing] gap between emperumAn vowing “bahu syAm” (let me become many) and the creation occurring [i.e., it happens instantaneously].
  • amUni bhuvanAni bhavithumEva nAlam – [Without the mercy of emperumAn] the 14 layered words which are the abodes from where one can pursue worldly pleasure and liberation, will not even be created. Speaking in negation is to establish the principle firmly. thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 7 “kO hyEnvAnyAn ka: prANyAth” (Who in this world can attain worldly pleasure or liberation if not for bhagavAn‘s presence?), SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.39 “na thadhasthi vinA yath syAnmayA bhUtham charAcharam” (there is no movable/immovable object that exists without me).
  • kutha: pravruththi: – When they don’t even come into existence without your vow, how can they engage in action [without you]? All of creation, action and inaction are based on your mercy only.
  • prabhO – Highlighting his aiSwarya (wealth/control) in the context of jagath kAraNathva (being the cause for the universe).
  • sarva janthO: Evam nisarga suhrudhi – You were feeling alone as said in mahOpanishath “sa EkAkI na ramEtha” (nArAyaNa who was alone during deluge was not joyful) even though nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm – SrIvaikuNtam) is [always] present, gave bodies and senses to jIvAthmAs [in the material realm] to make them brahmA, rudhra et al up to animals and plants, and became relieved of your own sorrow; towards you who is such unconditional well-wisher of all.
  • svAmin – Due to your relationship [being the lord], you have to consider the creation of these worlds as your own benefit. bhattar (denoted by the word “abhyuktha” (revered)) too said in SrI rangarAja sthavam uththara Sathakam 88 “… svamudhdhiSya … upAdhaththE …” (Oh SrIranganAtha! upanishath declares “SrIman nArAyaNan accepts chEthanas (sentient entities) and achEthanas (insentient entities) as his own through srushti (creation), sthithi (sustenance), niyamanam (control) etc”. Thus you being the means and goal is natural for you and nothing artificial. Thus I too acquired you as the unconditional means). Oh one who has exclusive lordship over all chEthana and achEthana!
  • idham ASritha vathsalathvam na chithram – Is the vAthsalyam in you towards me to make me qualified to praise you who is beyond the comprehension of everyone’s words and mind, surprising? SrI rAmAyaNam 18.36 “kimathra chithram …” (Oh knower of dharma! lord of all! bestower of joy! What is surprising in saying that you who is filled with sathva guNam (goodness) and who remains in virtuous path, spoke beautiful words?).

By jagath kAraNathvathvam (being the cause of the universe), his being greater than everyone is established; By atharva SikhA “kAraNam thu dhyEya:” (meditate upon that which is the cause), his being refuge for everyone is established; since it is said in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 7 “Esha hyEvAnandhayAthi” (He only gives pleasure to jIvAthmA), his prApyathvam (his being the goal) is established; since he performs srushti, etc as his own benefit, his sarva svAmithvam (being the lord of all) is established; since he motivated ALavandhAr to engage in praising him by manifesting his friendly nature, his ASritha vAthsalyam (motherly affection towards his devotees) is established.

In the next article we will enjoy the next SlOkam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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