Monthly Archives: October 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 3.8.5 – kaNgaLAl kANa

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Eighth decad

Previous pAsuram

trivikrama

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fifth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “The ear, sensory organ for hearing says ‘I want to see and hear'”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “My ears desire to see him and when he arrives to bless me with his audience, they also desire to hear the flapping sound of the wings of periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr)”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

pAsuram

kaNgaLAl kANa varum kolen(Ru) AsaiyAl
maN koNda vAmanan ERa magizhndhu sel
paN koNda puLLin siRagoli bAviththuth
thiN koLLa Orkkum kidandhu en sevigaLE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kaNgaLAl – with eyes (which are the faculty for seeing)
kANa – to see in front
varum kol – would he come?
enRu – that
AsaiyAl – with desire
maN koNda – accepting earth (going as a needy person to accept his own property)
vAmanan – SrI vamAnan
ERa – climbing (to show himself to those who desire to see him)
magizhndhu – (as a result of that) being pleased
sel – one who can move around
puLLin – periya thiruvadi’s (garuda’s)
paN koL – that which has the tune of sAma vEdham
siRagoli – sound of the flapping of the wings
bAviththu – meditating upon
en sevigaL – my ears
kidandhu – remaining (attracted)
thiN koLLa – firmly
Orkkum – think about that

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

SrI vAmanan who accepted the earth, climbs on garudAzhwAr who is pleased [due to that climbing] and moves around with his wings flapping with the tune of sAma vEdham; meditating upon that sound, my ears firmly remain thinking about that desire “would he come in front of me to be seen by my eyes?”. “paN koNda” is also explained as “adorned with ornaments” [paN also means ornaments].

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaNgaLAl … – Due to the desire of his eyes which longed to see emperumAn, would he come to be seen by those eyes? emperumAn’s distinguished greatness such that everyone will patiently wait to see him. “Will the apt object for the sight arrive to be seen?” as said in subAlOpanishath “chakshuScha dhrashtavyancha nArAyaNa:” (the eyes which are seeing and that which is seen are nArAyaNa).

Will he come as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 40.3 “gAthraiSSOkAbhikarSithai:” (sIthA pirAtti said “you bless me so that I who is greatly attached to SrI rAma, can touch the tiger among men SrI rAma, with my body parts which are very weak) [Will the insentient sensory organs crave for his arrival?]. No.

  • AsaiyAl – It is due to my desire. Alternatively, it is explained as AzhwAr being confident that emperumAn will arrive seeing AzhwAr’s desire. [Is the desire sufficient to make him come?] In bhagavath vishayam, whatever is done, that is sufficient; this is explained in SrI bhagavath gIthA 2.40nEhAbhikramanASOsthi” (no loss for the efforts that are begun).
  • maN koNda vAmanan – AzhwAr is saying “vAmana” even after accepting the earth [while he became thrivikrama at that time]; like confidential associates would call a crowned king with his pet names which were there before being crowned, AzhwAr says vAmana even after his transformation into thrivikrama, due to his great attachment in that form.
  • ERa magizhndhu sel – garudAzhwAr moving around blissfully to express his joy after emperumAn climbing on him.
  • paN koNda puL – paN indicates “decoration for the vAhanam (vehicle)”; also, since he is vEdhAthmA (embodiment of vEdham), paN also indicates the musical portions of sAma vEdham such as bruhadhranthara etc.
  • siRagoli bAviththu – meditating upon the flapping sound of the wings
  • thiN koLLa Orkkum – Even if some one staying in front of him and say something, his ears do not hear them; they only hear the flapping sound of the wings. pakhsapAtham towards that is the reason [double meaning – pakshapAtham means partiality; paksha also indicates wings, so attachment towards wings].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thirumAlali – 24 – veLLa nIr parandhu pAyum

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Full series

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periyaperumal-art-2

avathArikai (Introduction)

In the 21st pAsuram, AzhwAr said “manaththinAl ninaikkalAmE” (is it possible to measure emperumAn’s beauty through the mind?). In the 22nd, he said “pEsaththAn AvadhuNdO” (is it possible to talk about emperumAn?). In the 23rd, he said “enganam maRandhu vAzhgEn?” (how will I live forgetting him?). Once periya perumAL started showing his overflowing love for him after seeing that he was trying to find ways of forgetting him, AzhwAr thinks that his love towards emperumAn was nothing compared to that which emperumAn showed towards him. He feels that his love is not congruent with the greatness of emperumAn and that the love born out of this insentient body is like the clarity that a mad person gets on occasions [in other words his love is not permanent, but only occasional] and cannot be believed. Taking pity on himself he disparagingly tells his heart “Oh heart! are you trying to play truant with your love in this matter too, like you do with worldly matters?”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings, first.

வெள்ள நீர் பரந்து பாயும் விரிபொழில் அரங்கம் தன்னுள்
கள்ளனார் கிடந்தவாறும் கமல நன் முகமும் கண்டு
உள்ளமே வலியைப் போலும் ஒருவன் என்று உணர மாட்டாய்
கள்ளமே காதல் செய்து உன் கள்ளத்தே கழிக்கின்றாயே.

veLLa nIr parandhu pAyum viripozhil arangam thannuL
kaLvanAr kidandhavARum kamala nanmugamum kaNdum
uLLamE valiyai pOlum oruvan enRu uNara mAttAy
kaLLamE kAdhal seydhu un kaLLaththE kazhikkinRAyE

Listen

Word-by-Word Meaning

veLLam nIr – kAvEri with huge floods
parandhu pAyum – flowing on all sides
viri pozhil – having expansive gardens
arangam thannuL – inside the temple
kaLvanAr – azhagiya maNavALan [SrI ranganAthan] who steals (the hearts of his followers)
kidandha ARum – the way that he is sleeping
kamalam nal mugamum – divine, beautiful face like a lotus
kaNdum – even after worshipping
uLLamE – Oh, heart!
valiyai pOlum – you are too hardened, it appears
oruvan enRu – that he is incomparable
uNara mAttAy – you do not realise
kaLLamE kAdhal seydhu – faking your love (in emperumAn related matter)
un kaLLaththE – in your falsified actions
kAlaththaik kazhikkinRAyE – you are wasting your time!

vyAkhyAnam (Explanatory Notes)

veLLanIr parandhu pAyum – From the source point of sahyAdhri hill where kAvEri begins her journey, her intention is only to come to SrIrangam. Displaying her intention and her desire, she comes with such a forceful flood flowing in all directions that no one can stop her by building a dam across her. Since there is no end to her desire [to come to SrIrangam and worship the Lord there] there can be no end to her flow also. Hence no one can say that she flowed [using the past tense]. Thus AzhwAr uses the word pAyum which is in the present tense. In other words, she keeps flowing continuously.

viri pozhil arangam – wherever the water [kAvEri] flows, the gardens also spread out expansively.

arangam thannuL kaLvanAr – when he enjoys with the innocent nithyasUris, he does so honestly. But when he wants to attract the crafty samsAris, he decides that he needs to be crafty himself and hence lies down as if he is sleeping inside the temple. An alternative explanation is: while it may appear superficially that he is lying down after seeing the richness of the flowing water and the gardens, in reality he is lying there only to entice the samsAris. Hence AzhwAr is using the term kaLvanAr. When confidants such as thiruppANAzhwAr go near him and worship him they will say “seyya vAy aiyyO! ennaich chindhai kavarndhadhuvE”- implying that there is a crafty look on his face. In other words it would appear that if someone approaches him, he would steal their AthmA and pocket it smoothly. In other words, emperumAn would make that person as his confidant. The person had all along been thinking that the AthmA, which actually belongs to emperumAn, is his own since time immemorial. emperumAn decides that he will make it his own without that person being aware of it. He displays his physical beauty and as said in jithanthE SlOkam “jithanthE puNdarIkAksha!  namasthE viSva bhAvana! I namasthEsthu hrushIkESa! mahApurusha! pUrvaja!” (Oh kaNNa with red coloured lotus eyes! This (Athma) vasthu (entity) has been won over by you. (this) is not mine; only yours; Oh the one who created all the worlds! Oh the one who controls the sensory organs! Oh, the magnanimous and great person! Oh the one who came ahead of everyone else! (this entity AthmA) instead of being mine, should only be yours). This AthmApahAram (coveting of AthmA) has been going on for a very long time. But when emperumAn takes this AthmA, which is always his, it appears that he is stealing it. Even submitting this AthmA to him is equivalent to stealing the AthmA. In thiruvAyppAdi (in gOkulam) along with butter, he also steals the jIvAthmAs. Our submitting this AthmA to him is equivalent to king mahAbali returning his lands to him as a gift.

kidandhavARum – what enticed me is neither his auspicious AthmaguNa (qualities of his AthmA) such as simplicity nor the lAvaNya rUpa guNa (qualities of various parts of his physical form) such as his divine eyes, but the beauty of his lying posture – kidandhadhOr kidakkai as AzhwAr mentioned in the previous pAsuram which is samudhAya SObhA (spendour of his entire physical form).

kamala nanmugamum – for the qualities of well blossomed nature, freshness, coolness and fragrance, lotus can be taken as a similie for emperumAn’s divine face to an extent. But since it cannot equal emperumAn’s divine face, AzhwAr qualifies the divine face as nanmugam. Can the prAkrutha (belonging to materialistic realm) lotus come anywhere near the sudhdha sathva (purely good) and radiantly divine face of emperumAn? Would the lotus which blossoms on seeing sun equal the divine face which blossoms on seeing ASrithars (followers)? By qualifying as nanmugam AzhwAr says that only periya perumAL’s face is a cool [comforting] face in samsAram and all the other faces are hot [repelling] ones.

kaNdum uLLamE valiyai pOlum – even after having dharSan of the beautiful lying posture of emperumAn, AzhwAr’s heart did not show any change in its appearance. AzhwAr wonders “Oh heart! are you this hardened that you are not showing any change even after looking at emperumAn?” Compared to the greatness of emperumAn, whatever changes he had shown earlier are nothing, as far as AzhwAr is concerned.

AzhwAr’s heart asked him, “what is the hardness that I have now shown?”

oruvan enRu uNaramAttAy – you are not realising that he is beyond any comparison. If you realise, you should realise his greatness and auspicious qualities such as ASritha vAthsalyam (motherly affection towards his followers) as they are. If you realise these qualities as they are, you should have matching involvement towards him.  Only because you don’t have this involvement, your heart is hardened, says the AzhwAr.

If such an involvement had not taken place, in the earlier pAsurams. what is the meaning of saying “kaNNinai kaLikkumARE” (pAsuram 17), “paniyarumbu thIrumAlO” (pAsuram 18), “udal enakku urugumAlO” (pAsuram 19)?

kaLLamE kAdhal seydhu – AzhwAr tells his heart “just as you had exhibited falsified love towards worldly matters, you had shown similar false love towards emperumAn also as a matter of habit. You did not have true love towards emperumAn”.

un kaLLaththE kazhikkinRAyE – This deceitful nature has been with you since time immemorial. Just as you had shown false love for a long time in other matters, you had shown similar false love in emperumAn’s matter also. You thought that this matter is similar to the other worldly matters. Your love does not match the greatness of emperumAn’s matter, says the AzhwAr.

We shall now take up the 25th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.8.4 – kaigaLAl Ara

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Eighth decad

Previous pAsuram

lakshmi_narayan_py94_l

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fourth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “My eyes say ‘we want the activities of hands and our own activity of seeing'”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “my eyes desire to see the ananthaSAyi (one who is lying on AdhiSEsha) root of such incarnations”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaigaLAl Arath thozhudhu thozhudhunnai
vaigalum mAththiraip pOdhum Or vIdinRip
pai koL pAmbERi uRai paranE! unnai
mey koLLak kANa virumbum en kaNgaLE!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

en kaNgaL – my eyes
kaigaLAl – with my hands
unnai – you
Ara thozhudhu thozhudhu – worship you fully many times
vaigalum – forever
Or mAththiraip pOdhum – even a moment
vIdu inRi – without break
paikoL – having expanded hoods
pAmbu ERi uRai – one who is permanently lying on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha)
paranE – oh supreme lord!
unnai – you
mey koLLak kANa – to see in front of me
virumbum – desire

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh supreme lord who is permanently lying on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) having expanded hoods! My eyes worship you with my hands fully many times forever without a break even for a moment and desire to see you in front of me.

“My eyes worship you with my hands” implies AzhwAr‘s eyes desire to perform the activity of hands which is to worship him.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaigaLAlAzhwAr‘s hands not worshipping emperumAn is like a lover-girl with well-developed breasts which were not touched by her lover-boy. He desires to perform the natural activity of his hands [which is worshipping emperumAn]. SrI vishNu dharmam “vichithrA dhEhasampaththir ISwarAya nivEdhithum | pUrvamEva kruthA brahman hasthapAdhAdhisamyuthA ||” (Oh brAhmaNa! To offer oneself and other materials, AthmA previously got connected to the amazing body with hands and legs).
  • Arath thozhudhu – Like it is said “pasiyar vayiR Ara uNNa” (a hungry man ate to his full satisfaction), The hands that desire to worship you but remain grief-stricken with that unfulfilled desire, worship you to their full satisfaction. AzhwAr desires to praise to the mouth’s satisfaction and serve to the hands’ satisfaction. Like it is natural for the mouth to praise, it is natural for the hands to worship emperumAn.
  • thozhudhu thozhudhu – [keep worshipping] When an act is done to accomplish a particular ulterior goal, the act will stop once the goal is accomplished. When an act is performed with the thought that it is the means, it will stop when the goal is accomplished. Instead, this is done as the main routine activity. When explaining the nature of mukthAthmAs (liberated souls), nArAyaNIyam “mukthAnAm lakshaNam hyEthath” is the same as the residents of SvEtha dhvIpam (milk ocean) as said in the same SlOkam “nithyAnjali putA:” (having hands in anjali posture always). Their state would be similar to the joyful state of a hungry man eating as said in the same SlOkam “hrushtA:” (joyful). “nama ithyEva vAdhina:” – they will always be saying “nama:“.
  • unnai – Like the AthmA which sustains by worshipping you, who sustains by having them worship you. You who made my hands worship you. You who is apt to be worshipped. manu smrithi 4.6 “sEvA Svavruththi:” (serving others is dog’s job) is explained for serving worldly people. [But here] You who cannot sustain yourself without the worship from me, who cannot sustain without worshipping you.
  • vaigalum … – Daily. In every day, without a break for even a moment. Instead of worshipping once a day and remaining free other times, worshipping every moment. This is not like nithyAgnihOthri (one who performs agnihOthram every day – but this ritual is only done at specific time and not always) [here nithya/vaigalum means every moment of every day].
  • pai koL … – Here the greatness and attraction to accept the worship and the nature of the worshipper are explained. Due to lying on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) whose hoods are expanded due to coming in contact with the divine body of emperumAn, emperumAn resembles a precious stone pressed on a gold plate – as a result, AzhwAr calls him “paran” (supreme). ananthaSAyi (one lying on AdhiSEsha) is the sarvESvaran (supreme lord). AzhwAr desires for the result explained in paryanka vidhyA (a type of upAsanam).
  • unnai – You who is apt and enjoyable.
  • mey koLLAk kANa – To see you truly. Unlike previous instances where AzhwAr‘s divine internal vision is feeling as though emperumAn is right in front of him and when AzhwAr seeks out to embrace him, he is not present and thus cries out, here AzhwAr seeks for emperumAn‘s real presence.
  • virumbum – desired for that.
  • en kaNgaLE – My eyes desired to worship him and to see him. Like SrI bharathAzhwAn praised iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) for following SrI rAma, and himself desired for lakshmaNa’s activities too.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 3.8.3 – vAsagamE Eththa

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Eighth decad

Previous pAsuram

butter-theft-with-azhwar

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In third pAsuram – AzhwAr mercifully explains the desire of his hands for his activities and the activities of his mouth/speech.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “My hands analyze krishNa who likes the possessions of his devotees due to great love towards them”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

vAsagamE Eththa aruL seyyum vAnavar tham
nAyaganEe! nAL iLam thingaLaik kOL viduththu
vEyagam pAl veNNey thoduvuNda An Ayar
thAyavanEe! enRu thadavum en kaigaLE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vAsagamE – speech only
Eththa – to praise
(adhukkE) aruL seyyum – one who blesses (that only)
vAnavar tham – (as a result of that) to be glorified by nithyasUris
nAyaganE – Oh one who is the controller!
nAL – being fresh every day
iLam thingaL – young rising moon
kOL – pleasing radiance
viduththu – revealing (like the moon will rise softly, releasing the beautiful shining smile (of the intact teeth) and the beauty of the lips)
vEyagam pAl – placed inside bamboo hut
veNNey – butter
thoduvu uNda – due to stealing and consuming it
An Ayar – cowherds
thAyavanE – one who nurtures their existence etc
enRu – saying so
en kaigaL – my hands
thadavum – (where he performed his act of stealing) will seek out to touch him

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh controller of nithyasUris who glorify you, due to your blessing my mouth/speech to praise you! Oh nurturer of the existence etc of cowherds by stealing and consuming the butter placed inside bamboo hut with the light generated by the pleasing radiance of the young rising moon which is fresh everyday [here fresh young rising moon is an example for krishNa’s shining teeth]! Saying these, my hands will seek out to touch you.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vAsagamE Eththa … – AzhwAr‘s hands thought “Why should speech alone praise? Can I not praise once?”. Did my speech offer anything special to you to be able to praise you who remains detached [without any expectation] even after being praised by nithyasUris as said in rig vEdham [vishNu sUktham] “… vipanyava: …” (those who are wise and have the nature of praising [him] constantly, reach that supreme abode of vishNu). Though he has no expectation, he became desirous to be praised by speech. Is he manifesting that detachment towards me now? Also explained as – emperumAn who blessed the speech to naturally praise him as done by nithyasUris.
  • nAL iLam thingaLaik kOL viduththu – He entered in to the huts to steal cow’s butter as said in periya thirumozhi 4.4.3 “padaladaiththa siRu kurambai nuzhaindhu pukkup pasu veNNey kaLavu kANa“. Butter is usually preserved in a container that is secured in a rope hanging from the ceiling; due to his own dark complexion and the darkness of the place, he would search for the pots by touch – when his hand touches the pot, he would feel excited and smile – at that time his shining teeth would help him as the lamp and would eat the butter joyfully. When some one arrives, he would immediately close his mouth and darkness will surround the place again. [Why would he close his mouth?] Since the presence of others is unfavourable for him, he would become upset and stop smiling by closing his mouth. [What happens to the shining kausthuba jewel in his chest?] He would cover that with his hands too. His smile (teeth) resembles a fresh moon. periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 1.7.2 “sekkaridai nunik kombil thOnRum siRupiRai muLaip pOl nakka sendhuvar vAyth thiNNai mIdhE naLir veNpal muLaiyilaga” (emperumAn‘s cool white teeth inside the raised lips which resemble a crescent which appears on a stick In the reddish sky (early evening)). Instead of saying “thingaL pOl“, AzhwAr just said “thingaL” – this type of usage is called muRRuvamai in thamizh [where the example is super-imposed in the object that is explained]; this is similar to thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “thAvi vaiyam koNda thadam thAmarai” (the vast lotus [instead of saying lotus like feet] that stretched and accepted the earth).
  • kOl viduththu – releasing the radiance; stops covering the teeth with his lips.
  • vEy agam – house/hut built using bamboo.
  • pAl veNNEy thoduvuNda – Mercifully stole and ate the milk and butter from those places [pAl – milk].  Also explained as – the butter in the house [pAl – place].
  • vEy agam pAl veNNey thoduvuNda – After spying the place, he went in to the house, stole the butter and mercifully consumed it. vEyththu – spying and checking the situation. Naturally, one will first spy the place before stealing from there [so vEyththu as spying seems more appropriate than vEy as bamboo]. His stealing of butter is explained in detail by thirumangai AzhwAr in siRiya thirumadal starting with “pOrAr vEL“.
  • An Ayar thAyavanE enRu – Saying “Oh one who is caring like a mother for the cowherds!”.
  • thadavum en kaigaLAzhwAr searching to catch emperumAn red-handed while he enters the house for stealing. Alternatively – when AzhwAr starts meditating upon emperumAn’s butter stealing act, his hands are not able to locate his eye. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 42.34 “rAmam mE anugathA dhrushti:” (dhaSaratha says to kausalyA – My vision followed rAma to the forest). Can we retrieve that which was consumed by the ocean? How will my eyes which waited for 60000 years [to see rAma] return to me? [Still, are they not your eyes?] When something gets attached to an apt target, is there any point arguing based on ownership? “adhyApi” (even now) when their (eyes’) help is needed, they are not here to help. Even if I cannot see him, at least I will touch you who gave birth to him and feel his presence.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.8.2 – nenjamE

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Eighth decad

Previous pAsuram

vamana-mahabali

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In second pAsuram – AzhwAr mercifully explains the desire of his vAk indhriyam (organ for speech) which is subsequent to manas (mind) as said in “mana: pUrvO vAguththara:” (thoughts in mind culminate into speech).

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “My speech always explains his nature of eliminating the hurdles and making me exist fully for him”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. AzhwAr says “As said in ‘mana: pUrvO vAguththara:‘, vAk (speech) which is subsequent to manas [thoughts in mind], speech desired for the actions of mind and itself”.

pAsuram

nenjamE nIL nagarAga irundha en
thanjanE! thaNNilangaikkiRaiyaich cheRRa
nanjanE! gyAlam koLvAn kuRaLAgiya
vanjanE! ennum eppOdhum en vAsagamE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

en vAsagam – my speech
eppOdhum – always
nenjamE – heart
nIL nagarAga – considering it as a big divine city
irundha – (due to his) residing
en thanjanE – Oh one who is a good companion!
thaN – cool (like a bee-hive which is filled with bees, the place which is filled with rAkshasas)
ilangaikku – for lankA
iRaiyai – rAvaNa who is the leader
cheRRa – finished
nanjanE – Oh one who became like a poison!

(Eliminating the pride of mahAbali)
gyAlam – earth
koLvAn – to make it fully exist for him
kuRaL Agiya – one assumed the form of a vAmana
vanjanE – Oh mischievous one!
ennum – will keep saying

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My speech will always keep saying “Oh one who is a good companion due to his residing in my heart, considering it as a big divine city! Oh one who became like a poison and finished rAvaNa, the leader of cool lankA! Oh mischievous one who assumed the form of a vAmana to make the earth fully exist for him (after eliminating the pride of mahAbali)”.

It is implied that, AzhwAr wants emperumAn to eliminate his hurdles like he destroyed rAvaNa and should make him fully exist for emperumAn like how emperumAn took over the earth from mahAbali.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nenjamE … – This is the word of speech. Speech said “Would you always stay in the heart? Why don’t you spend some time with me too?”.  By saying nenjamE (exclusively in heart), AzhwAr wonders “How other senses, paramapadham, kshIrAbdhi etc abodes, long for him in his absence?”. As said in periya thiruvanthAdhi 68 “kallum kanai kadalum vaikiundha vAnAdum pul enRu ozhindhanakol EpAvam” (Alas! (after entering my heart) looks like he is considering thiruvEnkatam, kshIrAbdhi, the upper world called as paramapadham etc as insignificant), what is happening to paramapadham and his presence there? Whatever attachment he has in “kalangAp perunagar” (big city which is never disturbed – mUnRAm thiruvanthAdhi 51), he shows the same in AzhwAr’s heart. His unfulfilled desires in paramapadham are fulfilled here only. He considered AzhwAr’s heart as the deficit-less abode. Only due to that [residing in the heart with full satisfaction and ignoring other abodes], his speech calls out for him.
  • en thanjanEAzhwAr shows gratitude to emperumAn for making him call out in this manner. Among samsAris (materialistic people), there is none who calls out for emperumAn like this. Because of this thoughts in his heart, he cries out for emperumAn like this.
  • thaN ilangai … – Oh one who became a poison to rAvaNa who is the leader of beautiful lankA, by destroying him! thiruvadi (hanuman), who is never attracted and is totally detached to anything materialistic, himself saw the beauty of lankA and said as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 49.17 “ahO vIryam ahO dhairyam ahO sathvam ahO dhyuthi:” (How valiant! How brave! How strong! How radiant!) [nampiLLai’s words “thiruvadi madhiththa aiSwaryamiRE” (opulence respected by hanuman himself)]. thaNmai indicates beauty.
  • gyAlam … – Oh one who knows the knack to retrieve the earth which was snatched by mahAbali! emperumAn did not cut off his head like he did to rAvaNa since mahAbali had a little bit of audhAryam (generosity). It is the knack of sarvESvaran (supreme lord) himself assuming the form of a needy person and getting back the kingdom to indhra considering “he (mahAbali) had a pseudo virtue (of generosity)”.
  • vanjanE – The mischief of assuming the form of a dwarf and cheating mahAbali, showing his small feet asking as in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.9 “mUvadi” (just three steps), measuring with huge feet, covering everything in two steps, imprisoned mahAbali using the third step. Here AzhwAr says “koLvAn” (emperumAn will keep it) since emperumAn considers indhra’s gain as his own. My speech is repeatedly speaking about this mischief. After meditating upon this mischief, my heart is not even desiring for SrI rAma’s honesty. In rAmAvathAram, emperumAn ensured that his greatness is not compromised; here (in vAmanAvathAram) he gave up his own greatness [to help indhra].
  • eppOdhum – Like a hungry person will say “food! food!” [AzhwAr is saying this always].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 23 – gangaiyil punidhamAya

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srirangam

avathArikai (Introduction)

Azhwar’s heart told him “if it is not possible to think and speak about this matter [emperumAn], you could forget about it and live” to which he responds “how can I, who am deeply involved in the periya perumAL’s (mUlavar at SrIrangam] lying posture, forget him and live?”

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings.

கங்கயில் புனிதமாய காவிரி நடுவு பாட்டு
பொங்கு நீர் பரந்து பாயும் பூம்பொழில் அரங்கம் தன்னுள்
எங்கள்மால் இறைவன் ஈசன் கிடந்ததோர் கிடக்கை கண்டும்
எங்ஙனம் மறந்து வாழ்கேன் ஏழையேன் ஏழையேனே.

gangaiyil punidhamAya kAviri naduvu pAttup
pongu nIr parandhu pAyum pUmbozhil arangam thannuL
engaLmAl iRaivan Isan kidandhadhOr kidakkai kaNdum
enganam maRandhu vAzhgEn EzhaiyEn EzhaiyEnE

Listen

Word-by-Word Meaning

EzhaiyEn – fickle minded person like I am
gangaiyil – more than gangai [gangA]
punidham Aya – with the quality of sanctity
kAviri naduvu pAttu – in the middle of kAviri
pongu nIr – frothing flood
parandhu pAyum – flowing in all the places uniformly
pUmpozhil – having beautiful groves
arangam thannuL – in the temple
engal mAl – having affection towards his followers
iRaivan – the Lord of all
Isan – the controller of all, periya perumAL’s
kidandhadhu Or kidakkai –  unparalleled lying posture
kaNdum – after seeing and enjoying
maRandhu – forgetting (that divine posture)
enganam vAzhgEn – how can I sustain myself?
EzhaiyEnE – (caught in emperumAn’s matter) I am standing, stunned, unable to do anything

vyAkhyAnam (Explanatory Notes)

gangaiyil punidhamAya – kAviri, which is greater than gangai in sanctifying others. While it is greater than gangai in terms of beauty and sweetness of the waters, it is greater than gangai in the purifying quality of sanctifying others. SrIranga mahAthmyam states “gangAsAmyam purA prApthA dhEvadhEvaprasAdhanAth I rangAvadharaNAdhUrdhvam AdhikyanchApyavApa sA II” – kAviri, who became equal to gangai with dhEvadhEvan’s [emperumAn’s] grace, became superior to gangai after the installation of SrIranga vimAnam (turret). purANas spoke high of kAviri and said that she was superior to gangai after periya perumAL took his position there. The sanctity for gangai is because she had the link to emperumAn’s divine feet once, when brahmA cleansed his divine feet. In ISwara samhithai, brahmA says “dhravIbhUthas thadhA dharmO haribhakthyA mahAmunE! I gruhIthvA dharmapANIyam padham nathasya thushtayE II kshAlitham parayA bhakthyA pAdhyArghyAdhibhir architham I thadhambu pathitham dhrushtva dhadhAra SirasA hara: II pAvanArtham jatAmadhyE yOgyO’smIdhyavadhAra- varshAyuthAnyatha bahUn na  mumOcha thathA hara: II” – Oh, the great one among the rishis! At that time (when bhagavAn measured the worlds), dharmam (virtue), due to its devotion towards hari, became water. jagannAthan’s (Lord of the universe) divine feet were cleansed (by me) with superior devotion, with that virtue turned water, for his pleasure. He was also worshipped with pAdhyam (water used for cleaning divine feet) and argyam (water used for cleaning divine hands). Looking at the water which was falling [from emperumAn’s divine feet], Sivan affirmed that “I am qualified (to purify myself)” with that water and bore the water in the centre of his head to sanctify himself. Then for tens of thousands of years, rudhran did not let go of that water. Thus, the water, which was borne by Sivan to sanctify himself, got a fault also that it had connection with Sivan. Saivas, the followers of Siva, do not consider it appropriate to touch the garland or prasAdha (offering) of Siva since they are nirmAlyam (unfit or useless). Hence, as thirumangai AzhwAr said in thivezhukURRirukkai “ARupodhisadaiyOn” – matted hair with the weight of river, since gangai stayed on in his matted hair, she contacted the rancid smell and connectivity with the matted hair. Since kAviri did not have such flaws and since periya perumAL lies amidst her tributaries, does she not have a superior sanctity over gangai? Even though gangai has that flaw since she stayed in sankaran’s matted hair, since she became the “SrIpAdha thIrtham” (water from divine feet) of emperumAn, wherever she went, her sanctity overshadowed her fault. poygai  AzhwAr, in his mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 97 said “undhan adi sErndhu aruL peRRALanRE podi sEr anarkangaiERRAn avirsadai mERpAyndha punaRgangai ennum pErppon” – gangai, who flowed into the matted hair of rudhran to purify him, attained your divine feet and received your grace so that she could purify all those who had committed sins. kAviri’s greatness is that such an emperumAn came on his own and lay down amidst her tributaries.

naduvupAttu – in the middle. Just as he lay down in the lap of yaSOdhAppirAtti, periya perymAL lay down in the middle of kAviri to rest awhile.

pongu nIr parandhu pAyum pUmpozhil arangam thannuL – due to excess flow of water and with the excessive joy of impending dharSan of periya perumAL, kAviri is coming in with lot of enthusiasm, throwing waves all over. parandhu pAyum – instead of coming in as a narrow stream, she is coming with lot of desire, touching both shores. pUm pozhil arangandhannuL – due to the copious flow of water, the gardens are always full of flowers. With water flow suiting the softness of periya perumAL , with the gardens looking as if it is always spring season, the dhivyadhEsam (divine place) removes the ennui of all persons. By saying gangaiyil punidhamAya the sancity of thiruvarangam (SrIrangam) and by saying pongunIr parandhu pAyum pUmpozhil the sweetness have been indicated.

engaL mAl – emperumAn appears as the epitome of affection towards his followers. By saying engaL [our] he takes in other AzhwArs and others who have surrendered to emperumAn and who have left their protection fully with him. By initially talking about the sanctity of the place and then its sweetness, it would appear superficially that emperumAn is lying there because of these two reasons. But if one were to delve deeper, it would be clear that he is lying there only to show his thirumEni (divine form) to his followers out of the profound affection that he has towards them. Azhwar hints that it is not only affection, but also the result of natural relationship with followers.

iRaivan – the reason for the affection is because he is their swAmy (lord).

Isan – not only is he their lord, he also has the power to control them and guide them towards virtuous ways. Thus with these three words [engaL mAl, iRaivan and Isan] he shows that emperumAn shows affection towards his followers, is their lord and controls them. Thus, preventing his followers from getting involved in worldly matters which are controlled by the three guNas [saththva, rajas and thamas], he wishes to take them to nithya vibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam) where they can enjoy permanently and is lying here, at SrIrangam, to get ownership of his possessions [the AthmAs who are willing to come to SrIvaikuNtam) with his quality of vAthsalya (motherly affection)

kidandhadhOr kidakkai – leaving aside the three auspicious qualities just mentioned previously, Azhwar is now showing how he has been trapped by the beauty of emperumAn’s divine lying posture. Had he been in the divine standing or divine sitting posture, it might have been possible to forget that. To emphasise that it is not possible to forget his divine lying posture, AzhwAr is using the word Or (as in kidandhadhOr) which emphatically says that he is non pareil. For the beautiful people of the world, their beauty would be enhanced when they are in standing or sitting but would be totally erased when they are lying. In the case of periya perumAL, his beauty surpasses everything when he is in the lying posture. Did not pirAtti admire and enjoy this, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 38.25 “SrImAn sukha suptha:” – emperumAn who was lying down and looked beautiful? Or kidakkai – He is using the word Or to emphasise that he is not sure whether emperumAn is lying on one side or lying supine. It is clear that it is AzhwArs’ natue to be immersed in emperumAn’s divine postures. If he is standing, they would say as in periya thirumozhi “nilaiyAra ninRAn” – he was standing so beautifully; if he is sitting, they would say as in thiruvAimozhi “pirAn irundhamai kAttinIr” – you showed us your beauty in sitting posture, and as in this pAsuram if he is lying down.

kaNdum enganam maRandhu vAhzgEn – If this had not been enjoyed before, it might have been forgotten. But, having enjoyed this posture, how can it be forgotten? Enganam maRandhu vAzhgEn – AzhwAr says, “when this matter is like food for me, how can I forget this and subsist on worldly matters which are like sand? If I forget this, there is no way that I can sustain with other matters”

EzhaiyEn EahziyEnE – even If I approach emperumAn with greed, to enjoy him, since he cannot be enjoyed fully, I am unable to enjoy. If I separate from him, I am unable to sustain myself. Thus in both ways, I have become impoverished. EzhaiyEn EzhaiyEnE – if Ezhmai were to refer to weakness, since time immemorial, I had become weakened due to involvement in worldly pursuits. Now, getting involved in the immeasurable beauty of bhagavath vishayam (related to emperumAn), I have become weakened as I cannot go for other worldly pursuits too. Earlier, due to karma for a very long time, I had become weakened. Now, due to involvement with emperumAn, I have become weakened, is another meaning for this term.

We shall proceed to the 24th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.8.1 – mudiyAnE

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Eighth decad

vishnu-on-garuda

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr mercifully explains how his divine heart is unhappy due to not having seen emperumAn after having desired for that.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr mercifully explains the great attachment of his divine heart towards emperumAn who is the apt [lord], the refuge and the goal.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

First pAsuram. AzhwAr speaks about the great desire of his divine heart to attain him.

pAsuram

mudiyAnEe! mUvulagum thozhudhEththum sIr
adiyanEe! Azhkadalaik kadaindhAy! puLLUr
kodiyAnEe! koNdal vaNNA! aNdaththumbaril
nediyAnEe! enRu kidakkum en nenjamE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

mudiyAnE – Oh one with the crown (which highlights your supremacy of being the lord of both spiritual and material realm)!

(Due to that relationship)
mUvulagum – all the worlds
thozhudhu Eththum – will approach and praise
sIr adiyAnE – Oh one who is having the divine feet which have the complete qualities of being the apt refuge!

(Even if those who take shelter of you, pray for worldly benefits)
Azh kadal – the deep ocean
kadaindhAy – Oh one who helped them by churning!
puL Ur kodiyAnE – Oh one who is having periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) as his vehicle and the flag (so he can visit his devotees and give them pleasure when they see him from distance)!
koNdal – Like a black cloud (to be enjoyed by those devotees and to invigorate them)
vaNNA! – oh one who is having the form!

(after giving this joy of experiencing the beautiful form)
aNdaththu – the residents of paramapadham
umbaril – the leader of nithyasUris
nediyAnE – Oh the great!
enRu – meditating upon these (qualities individually)
en nenjam – my heart
kidakkum – will remain still (being very weak without engagement in any activity)

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one with the crown (which highlights your supremacy of being the lord of both spiritual and material realm)! Oh one who is having the divine feet which have the complete qualities of being the apt refuge, which are approached and praised by all the worlds! Oh one who helped the dhEvathAs by churning the deep ocean! Oh one who is having periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) as his vehicle and the flag (so he can visit his devotees and give them pleasure when they see him from distance)! oh one who is having blackish cloud like form! Oh the great leader of the nithyasUris who are the residents of paramapadham! My heart will remain still (being very weak without engagement in any activity) meditating upon these qualities.

aNdaththu umbar can also mean dhEvas starting with brahmA.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mudiyAnE – His crown is the one which reveals his primordial lordship and his ownership over both spiritual and material realms; AzhwAr first sights the divine crown which highlights his supremacy. His crown is so great that it will make others’ crowns fake. His crown is such that, it controls both spiritual and material realms.
  • mudiyAnEe – The depth of AzhwAr’s anxiety can be identified by the tone of the lengthy cry. There is no specific order of starting with low pitch and reaching high pitch; it (his cry) right away starts in high pitch [It is also explained as – AzhwAr is directly focussing on the highest spot – the crown on the head instead of starting from lower parts of his divine body].
  • mudiyAnEe AzhwAr referred “ponmudiyan” previously (thiruvAimozhi 3.7.4) and is re-emphasising it here.
  • mUvulagum … – Oh one who has the divine feet which are the refuge for all worlds without discriminating based on the qualities or the lack of them [in those who are surrendering]! After being captivated by the divine crown, AzhwAr falls at the divine feet of emperumAn. AzhwAr never leaves the divine feet of emperumAn. He is being triggered by his previous statement in thiruvAimozhi 3.7.7 “than thALiNaik kIzh koLLum”  (one who places under his divine feet). This implies that AzhwAr is requesting emperumAn to place his divine feet which is common to all worlds, on his head.
  • Azh kadalaik kadaindhAy – He is reminded by thiruvAimozhi 3.7.5 “AramudhUttiya appanai” (the lord who fed the nectar). Oh emperumAn who painstakingly helps even those who desire for worldly benefits after leaving the enjoyment in such divine feet. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19.31 “apramEyO mahOdhadhi:” (immeasurable great ocean), emperumAn who took on the immeasurable great ocean and made it look like a small pit of water and churned it.
  • puL Ur kodiyAnEe – Oh one who has periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) as vehicle and flag to visit those who are affectionate towards you! Vehicle helps him reach where his devotees are and garudAzhwAr becomes the flag to help the devotees know his arrival from distance and sustain themselves. [In connection with previous phrase of “Azh kadalaik kadaindhAy“] This is also explained as emperumAn arriving on garuda to present the nectar in a jug like container when the dhEvas (celestial beings) became tired churning the ocean to fetch the nectar from it.
  • koNdal vaNNA – When he appeared on garuda, he resembled a blackish cloud trying to devour mEru mountain. mahAbhAratham “neelam mErAvivAmbhudham” (Like a water laden cloud on top of the mEru mountain).
  • aNdaththu umbaril – Looking at his sitting posture on garudAzhwAr, he surely is to be believed as the supreme lord. From his posture, it is clear that his [immeasurable] wealth is greater than the measurable wealth of brahmA et al. Like his beauty, his wealth is attractive too.
  • enRu kidakkum – When one starts saying “nediyAnE“, one cannot stop saying that they desire to see him or hear him. Rather one would keep saying “nediyAnEe!” [with a long syllable] extending the tone continuously, like staying in the same posture and getting bed-sours. His heart is said to be like SrI bharathAzhwAn who cried out in a meek voice “AryA!” and remained silent as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 99.88 “ukthvAryEthi sakruth dhInam punarnOvAcha kinchana“.
  • en nenjamE – Unlike in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.5 “kodiya en nenjam” (my cruel heart) [where AzhwAr praises his heart], he is not praising his heart here. He says “While my heart do what I did [desire for emperumAn], what can I do to relieve it’s agony?”. When asked “Should you not wait for your husband [lord] to bless you with his visit?”, AzhwAr replies “How can I pacify my heart which is very eager to see him?”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.8 – mudiyAnE

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parthasarathy-nammazhwar

Highlights from thirukkurukaip pirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

mudiyAnE AzhwAr acquired the desire to see emperumAn as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.10thEr kadaviya perumAn kanai kazhal kANbadhenRu kol kaNgaL” (when will my eyes see the divine feet of krishNa who rode the chariot) and that desire increased rapidly. But he was unable to see emperumAn and have his desires fulfilled. Due to that grief, becoming unhappy, he cries out saying that he wants to enjoy emperumAn through all his sense organs in all manner.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In eighth decad – AzhwAr acquired the desire to see emperumAn as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.10 “thEr kadaviya perumAn kanai kazhal kANbadhenRu kol kaNgaL” (when will my eyes see the divine feet of krishNa who rode the chariot) in “seyya thAmaraik kaNNan” and that desire grew like a tree with hundreds of branches due to his meditation upon the same aspect in “payilum sudaroLi” [which explains servitude towards devotees] which is a support [for such desire towards emperumAn]. As his desire was not fulfilled, he became very unhappy, and his sense organs too wanted to enjoy emperumAn in all manner [every organ wanting to see, hear, touch, smell and speak]. Like a poor man with many hungry children during famine situation would cry out for food for both himself and his children, AzhwAr cries out to see emperumAn who has divine ornaments, divine weapons, spiritual distinguished divine form, all auspicious qualities and activities which are done for his devotees. AzhwAr’s endless desire [towards emperumAn] is explained by these pAsurams which highlight that his sense organs desired for emperumAn, and even in that, each sense organ desired for the experience of all other sense organs.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In eighth decad – After the distinguished qualities of bhagavAn which is the foundation for the servitude towards bhAgavathas which he enjoyed in previous decad, created great desire to experience such qualities in AzhwAr‘s divine heart, having the association with bhAgavathas as a support during the hard times of separation, having agonised by the lack of experience of such emperumAn for himself and his faculties such as his heart, sense organs etc, highlights the following aspects:

  1. the lordship of emperumAn who is the target of enjoyment
  2. how he eliminates the unfavourable aspects and makes us fully exist for him
  3. his great love towards his devotees
  4. his resting on AdhiSEsha [in kshIrAbdhi (milk ocean)] which is the root for all his incarnations
  5. his having the vehicle (garuda) to visit his devotees
  6. the divine combination of his hand and sudharSana chakra, both of which exist for his devotees to enjoy
  7. bhagavAn with such vAhana (vehicle), Ayudha (weapons) etc being his dhAraka (that which sustains), pOshaka (that which nourishes) and bhOgya (that which gives pleasure)
  8. his beauty which makes us enjoy him
  9. how he eliminates the hurdles of such enjoyment
  10. his effortless way of eliminating such hurdles

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr cries out greatly in grief due to not having acquired this experience.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In thiruvAimozhi 3.6seyya thAmaraik kaNNan“, AzhwAr explained the craving of his eyes to see emperumAn in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.10 “thEr kadaviya perumAn kanai kazhal kANbadhenRu kol kaNgaL“; emperumAn showed his devotees who are like his shadow or lines in his feet, to AzhwAr; but the subsequent association with such devotees reminded the qualities of bhagavAn more for AzhwAr instead of helping him in sustaining the separation by mutual discussions, thus leading to more such craving.

In the previous decad, as part of explaining the true nature of bhAgavathas, bhagavAn was also explained; bhagavAn is of the nature that, even if one approaches him for a different purpose [in this case, to enjoy his devotees], he will ensure that they are fully consumed by him. Due to that remembrance also, AzhwAr‘s attachment towards emperumAn started over flowing. Not only AzhwAr’s eyes desired to see emperumAn’s divine feet, his other sense organs too started craving, each sense organ desired for the activity of other organs and so on, AzhwAr himself craved for the activities of all such organs, the sense organs which are craving more than and him craving more than his sense organs, like a man with many children during famine who can neither feed himself nor his children, would grab the food of his children and the children would grab his food and say “How am I going to feed myself? How am I going to feed my children?”, AzhwAr and his sense organs are suffering in anguish.

As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 40.3 “gAthraiSSOkAbhikarSithai:” (sIthA pirAtti said “you bless me so that I who is greatly attached to SrI rAma, can touch the tiger among men SrI rAma, with my body parts which are very weak), sIthA pirAtti requested hanuman that to facilitate her reunion with SrI rAma so that she can enjoy him in this life itself, AzhwAr too becoming anguished, wanting to see his weapons, ornaments, the divine form which adorns them, his auspicious qualities and activities, thinking “emperumAn cannot remove my craving for him by simply presenting his qualities like before”, cried out in high pitch [mudiyAnE! thanjanE! vanjanE! etc in this decad], to melt those who hear his cry.

nampiLLai explains the aspect of association with devotees causing more remembrance of bhagavAn using SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.3. “guhEna sArdham thathraiva sthithOsmi dhivaAn bahUn” – sumanthra (dhaSaratha’s minister) remained with SrI guhap perumAL, where SrI rAma left them and went away; though he stayed there only for a couple of days, the term “bahUn” (many days) is used; due to the separation, it felt very long. When miLagAzhwAn was asked “Why did it feel so long when he was with SrI guhap perumAL?”, he mercifully replied “When we stay with those who remind us of the object of separation, the anguish will double”. AzhwAr himself said in thiruvAimozhi 9.5.7 “mEgak kuzhAngaLkAL kAttEn min nummuru ennuyirkkadhu kAlan” (Oh clouds! don’t come in front of me; since you remind me of emperumAn (when I am in separation), you are death personified for me”.

How can the sense organs which are the gates for knowledge gathering/disposal, crave? That explains the great attachment of AzhwAr towards bhagavAn. Alternatively, it is also explained as, even the sense organs became like sentient objects and started craving due to AzhwAr’s taste towards bhagavAn. If taste towards worldly matters will create craving in them, what to speak of matters relating to bhagavAn? Those who have developed taste in bhagavath vishayam do not do it as a means to attain anything else, but to simply enjoy bhagavAn; SrI prahlAdhAzhwAn towards emperumAn in SrIvishNu purANam 12.20.19 “yA prIthiravivEkAnAm” (Like ignorant people are engrossed in worldly matters, I should be engrossed in matters related to your highness).

Alright. Can one sense organ desire for the activity of another organ? chakshuSSravA: – a snake would both see and hear with it’s eyes; that ability is also given by emperumAn only; if he can bestow that ability, what is wrong with that? He gives this ability in paramapadham to those who enjoy him, since he is bound to give sAmyApaththi mOksham (when liberated, the souls also acquire some of his qualities) as explained by thirumangai AzhwAr in periya thirumozhi 11.3.5 “thammaiyE okka aruL seyyum ammAn” (emperumAn will bless his devotees to become like him [in some aspects]). AzhwAr also explained emperumAn’s nature in thiruvAimozhi 9.9.9 “thUdhu sey kaNgaL koNdu onRu pEsi thUmozhi isaigaL koNdu onRi nOkki” (speaking through the eyes which sends messages and seeing through his mouth which sings beautiful songs). [If his sense organs too start sharing his craving, would his craving not reduce? No.] Like a river which is flooded will greatly flow through various branches, yet will not give up it’s own force while reaching the ocean, though AzhwAr’s craving is released through his sense organs, his own craving will never decrease.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.7.11 – adiyOngu

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Seventh decad

Previous pAsuram

Nammazhwar-2

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end – AzhwAr says “Those who recite this decad which reveals about servitude towards bhAgavathas, will surely cross over the samsAram (material realm) which is a hurdle for this goal [of servitude towards bhAgavathas]”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr explains eradication of birth [in this material realm] as the result for this decad.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

adiyOngu nURRuvar vIya anRu aivarkkaruL seydha
nediyOnaith then kurugUrch chatakOpan kuRREvalgaL
adiyArndha AyiraththuL ivai paththu avan thoNdar mEl
mudivu Arak kaRkiRkil sanmam seyyAmai mudiyumE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

adi Ongu – the rise of their kingdom/reign
nURRuvar – the hundred brothers starting with dhuryOdhana
vIya – to be finished
anRu – at that time (when they were banished)
aivarkku – for the five pANdavas
aruL seydha – helping them in all ways
nediyOnai – on the one who remained very eager (as if he has done nothing)
then kurugUr – the leader of the orderly AzhwArthirunagari
SatakOpan – nammAzhwAr‘s
kuRREvalgaL – in the form of confidential activity
adi Arndha – being complete due to the pAdha bhandham (connection with the divine feet of emperumAn. It can also mean, the proper sequence/connection of the words/lines)
AyiraththuLLum – among the thousand pAsurams
avan thoNdar mEl – on his servitors
mudivu – focussed
ivai paththu – these ten pAsurams
Ara – to grasp it well (in the heart)
kaRkiRkil – if one can practice it well
sanmam seyyAmai – birth (which blocks one’s servitude)
mudiyum – will be finished

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn still remained eager even after helping the five pANdavas in all ways at that time (when they were banished) to finish the hundred brothers starting with dhuryOdhana who had their kingdom/reign on the rise; nammAzhwAr, the leader of the orderly AzhwArthirunagari, sung these complete ten pAsurams among the thousand pAsurams which are complete due to the pAdha bhandham, focussed on such emperumAn’s servitors; if one can practice this decad to grasp it well in their heart, his/her birth (which blocks one’s servitude) will be finished.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • adiyOngu nURRuvar vIya – To finish the dhuryOdhana and brothers, who trapped the pANdavas in the wax palace, won them over in gambling by deceit, driving them out of the kingdom and making them stay in the forest etc., and themselves growing their families in great numbers, and rooted strongly in the kingdom.
  • anRu – at that time when the pANdavas where banished by the kauravas.
  • aivarkku aruL seydha nediyOnai – Helping the five, is applicable in both cases. Here [in AzhwAr‘s case], he blessed such that he is not suffering the impact of the five senses and there, he helped the five pANdavas who were affected by the impact of five senses.
  • aivarkku – When they (dhuryOdhana et al) took over the elephants, horses etc, krishNa himself became everything they lost as said in mahAbhAratham rAjasUya parvam “yasya manthrI cha gOpthA cha” (for whom krishNa is the minister, protector et al).
  • nediyOnai – Even after engaging in actions for pANdavas, he claimed that he had not done anything for them as said in mahAbhAratham “nAthisvasthamanA:” (My heart is not satisfied).
  • then kurugUr … – Since AzhwAr is performing kainkaryam by speech that goes up to servitude towards bhAgavathas, this is a confidential service to sarvESvaran.
  • adi Arndha AyiraththuL – The thousand pAsurams which are complete in the poetic word/line structure as in rig vEdham and SrI rAmAyaNam which is said as in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 2.18 “pAdhabathdhO’ksharasama:” (with four lines, and matching letters in each line).
  • avan thoNdar mEl mudivu – Wherever sarvESvaran is mentioned [in this decad], those are secondary in nature [the primary purpose is to highlight the importance of bhAgavathas, who are his devotees].
  • Arak kaRkiRkil – If they can learn to have the meanings well established in their heart. Also, explained as, without leaving even a single pAsuram.
  • sanmam seyyAmai mudiyum – births which are impediment to serve his devotees, will be eradicated.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 22 – pEsiRRE pEsalallAl

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periyaperumal-thiruppanazhwarperiya perumAL and thiruppANAzhwAr (purest at his heart)

avathArikai (Introduction)

“If it is not possible to think through the mind (heart), can you not speak through the mouth?” asked the heart. thaiththiriya samhithai 7.5.3. states “mana: pUrvO vAguththara:” – initially mind and then the mouth engage. Thus, the mouth can speak only what the mind thinks. If there is a matter which is outside the scope of mind, can the mouth speak about it? Oh my heart, who thinks that it is possible to speak, please tell, says the AzhwAr.

Let us first go through the pAsuram and its meanings.

பேசிற்றே பேசலல்லால் பெருமை ஒன்று உணரலாகாது
ஆசற்றார் தங்கட்கல்லால் அறியல் அவனுமல்லன்
மாசற்றார் மனத்துளானை வணங்கி நாம் இருப்பதல்லால்
பேசத்தான் ஆவதுண்டோ பேதை நெஞ்சே! நீ சொல்லாய்

pEsiRRE pEsalallAl perumai onRu uNaralAgAdhu
AsaRRAr thangatkallAl aRiyal AvAnumallan
mAsaRRAr manaththuLAnai vaNangi nAm iruppadhallAl
pEsaththAn AvadhuNdO pEdhai nenjE! nI sollAy

Listen

Word-for-Word Meaning

pEdhai nenjE! – Oh, ignorant mind!
pEsiRRE – whatever had been set out for speaking (by vEdhas and vaidhika purushas – those who follow vEdhas)
pEsal allAl – instead of speaking only that (by us)
perumai –in (emperumAn’s) greatness
onRu – even one
uNaral AgAdhu – it is not possible to know
Asu aRRAr thangatku allAl – other than blemishless persons (blemish is reaching out to other upAyams (as a means to attain emperumAn))
aRiyal AvAnum allan – he can not be perceived

(Hence)
mAsu aRRAr manaththu uLAnai – residing permanently in the minds of those blemishless persons (who have left aside other benefits)
nAm vaNangi iruppadhu allAl – other than whatever has been enjoyed by us (who have surrendered totally to him)
pEsa than Avadhu uNdO – is it possible to speak through hymns (his greatness)?
nI sollAy – you please tell

vyAkhyAnam (Explanatory Notes)

Aren’t prAkrutha matters (worldly issues) spoken by the mouth? Why then, can’t this (relating to bhagavath issues) be spoken? Worldly matters are limited to certain boundaries. But that is not the case with bhagavath vishayam which is unbounded and hence it is not possible. vishNu dharmam 1.13 says “sA jihvA yA harim sthauthi” – whatever praises hari is tongue. If the tongue is not going to speak about bhagavAn, should we leave it at that? …

pEsiRRE pEsal allAl – We can repeat only whatever the vEdhas (scriptures) and vaidhikars (those who follow vEdhas) had spoken about emperumAn’s greatness earlier. It is not possible to recite new hymns appropriate to this supreme entity. What is it that the vEdhas and those who followed these vEdhas spoke earlier?

  • nArAyaNavalli 11 says “thasya madhyE vahniSikA aNiyOrdhvA vyavasthitha: I neelathOyadha madhyasthA vidhyullEkEva bhAsvarA II” – paramAthmA’s (emperumAn’s) divine, auspicious form, agni Sika, is located in the middle of the lotus shaped heart, like a miniscule, turned upwards. It is luminous like a lightning amidst blue coloured clouds.
  • thiruviruththam 29 says “neelamuNda minnanna mEni” – his divine physical body is like lightning which has swallowed blue colour [for the flash of blue].
  • mahAbhAtham SAnthi parvam 46.118 says “athasIpushpasankASam pIthavAsasamuchyatham I yE namasyanthi gOvindham na thEshAm sidhyathE bhayam II” –  there is no fear for those who worship gOvindha, who does not ever let go of his followers, who is of the colour of kAyAmpU (purple coloured flower)  and one wears yellow coloured silken dress.
  • chAndhOgya upanishath 1.6.6 says “ya EshO’ntharAdhithyE hiraNmaya: purushO dhruSyathE I hiraNyaSmaSrur hiraNyakESa ApraNakhAth sarva Eva suvarNa: II thasya yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkamEvamakshiNI” – the parama purushan (supreme entity) who is seen in the middile of the sun, has a divine form which appears like gold, has golden moustache, has golden locks and upto his nails has golden hue. He has two divine eyes looking like lotus, just blossomed by sun.
  • manu smruhti 12.122 says “prASIthAram sarvEshAmaNIyAm samaNIyasAm I rukmAbham svapnadhIgamyam vidhyAththu purusham param II´- it should be understood that paramapurushan controls all entities, has the radiance of melted gold, can be perceived by wondrous knowledge such as svapna budhdhi [intelligence gathered through dreams]
  • thiruvAimozhi 3.1.2 says “sutturaiththa nanpon un thirumEni oLi ovvAdhu” – even purified, melted gold will not come anywhere near the radiance of your divine form.

In all the cases mentioned above, they had to use prAkrutha vasthus (materials in this world) as similes for comparing emperumAn’s physical form. But aren’t these worldly materials too lowly for such a comparison? Why should these be taken for comparison? For defining entities which are not visible to the sensory organ of eye, one has to consider only those entities which the eye has seen. This does not mean that they were able to speak fully about emperumAn.

pEsiRRe pEsal allAl – other than quoting from vEdhas, it is well nigh impossible for us to recite even one hymn about emperumAn. How did they speak about him? thaiththiriya upanishath Anandhavalli 9.1 says “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE aprApya manaSa saha: I Anandham brahmaNO vidhvAn na bibhEthi kuthaSchanEthi II´- emperumAn’s Anandham (joy) is such that words and mind cannot fathom it and return empty handed. One who knows this does not fear anyone. Thus the vEdhas confirmed that it is not possible to speak fully about emperumAn. We can also say that it is not possible to speak about him and say that he cannot be spoken about in any other way. This is another interpretation for these words. What is the reason for this?

perumai onRu uNaralAgAdhu – not even one of his greatness can be perceived. It is not possible to point out an equivalent for emperumAn related matter. It is not possible to measure its greatness either. For other worldly matters, one may show a simile – for example, one can say that the face is like the moon. In such cases, the subject of comparison [face] will not come anywhere near the object that it is compared with [moon]. In emperumAn related issues, the object that is compared with will not come anywhere near the subject of comparison. For example, if one says that emperumAn’s eyes are like lotus, the lotus can never equal the eyes in any of the parameters of assessment. By saying onRu uNaralAgAdhu, AzhwAr emphasises that emperumAn’s svarUpam (his nature), guNas (his qualities), his vigraham (physical beauty), his vibhUthi (his wealth) can not be perceived or measured. In that case, can no one know about this entity?

AsaRRAr thangatkallAl aRiyalAvAnumallan – he cannot be known by anyone other than those who are without blemish. Even though the word Asu mentioned here and the word mAsu appearing in the next line have the same meaning, blemish, we should consider that they refer to different types of blemish in the two places. Here, the word Asu refers to the blemish relating to upAyam (the means of attaining emperumAn).  The chEthana (sentient entity) instead of being completely dependent on emperumAn (athyantha parathanthran), thinks that he could indulge in some other means (path), to attain emperumAn out of his ego, in keeping with his strengths. When the chEthana tries to attain emperumAn through other means, these other means will have to look upto emperumAn’s grace for granting the desired result as they don’t have the power within themselves to grant it. When emperumAn is himself the means to attain him, he does not have to look upto anyone else or anything else. Thus it is not possible to know about [perceive] emperumAn except for those who approach emperumAn only through him.

mAsaRRAr – those without blemish. mAsu is also a blemish of the mind. Due to the effect of sins committed, going after other goals such as aiSvarya (wealth), kaivalya (AthmA enjoying itself) is called as blemish of the mind. Those who go after only emperumAn as fruit [or target or goal] of attaining him are referred to as mAsaRRAr.

manaththuLAnai – being in the minds of. Living in the minds of those who, leaving aside all other means [of attaining emperumAn] and all other goals to enjoy [except himself], leaving aside the materialistic realm, reaching paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) and thinking of enjoying emperumAn, leaving the responsibility of their protection with him, admitting that they have nothing in them for this. Since AzhwAr says manaththu uLAnai (being inside the mind) he indicates that emperumAn considers areas outside the minds of his followers as unfit to stay, as if a forest fire is raging. Just like fish cannot sustain itself if removed from water, emperumAn also cannot sustain himself if he is not inside the minds of such people. The purpose of emperumAn staying in all the dhivya dhESams (divine temples which have been sung by AzhwArs) is only in expectation of such a person who does not have Asu and mAsu [blemish of reaching emperumAn through other means and blemish of reaching out to other goals respectively]. Just as thirumazhisai AzhwAr sang in thiruchchandha viruththam 65 “ennilAdha munnelAm”, emperumAn has taken positions [such as standing, sitting, lying down] in various dhivya dhESams to wait for such a person.

vaNangi nAm iruppadhu allAlAzhwAr says that there is nothing else for us, who have left the responsibility of our lives to him, to do, except to enjoy him and pay our obeisance to him, once he has decided to stay put in the mind. Paying obeisance here is indicative of enjoying him through all three channels of mind, speech and action.

pEsaththAnAvadhuNdO – when one thinks of emperumAn’s greatness, was it such that one could recite a hymn about it?

pEdhai nenjEAzhwAr asks his mind [heart] whether it can talk about emperumAn the same way that it has been used to talking about worthless worldly matters  all these ages due to its ignorance.

nI sollAy – AzhwAr as imploring his mind to talk about this as it seemed to be too anxious and desirous to speak about emperumAn.

We shall next enjoy the 23rd pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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