Monthly Archives: September 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 3.5 – Audio

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SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

thiruvAimozhi –> thiruvAimozhi 3rd centum

Previous Decad

Meanings

vishnu-12-azhwars

Full rendering

pAsuram 1

pAsuram 2

pAsuram 3

pAsuram 4

pAsuram 5

pAsuram 6

pAsuram 7

pAsuram 8

pAsuram 9

pAsuram 10

pAsuram 11

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 52

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

“You said ‘ennai ALa vandhu ip padiyil piRandadhu’ that emperumAnAr came and incarnated for ruling me which is very hard for anyone to do. Is he such that he can make the impossible possible?”, amudhanAr replies about his smartness of connecting something that seems unconnectable (agaditha gadanA sAmarthyam).

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

“You celebrated his greatness saying ‘ennai ALa vandhu ip padiyil piRandhadhu’, that emperumAnAr came and incarnated for ruling me which is very hard for anyone to do. In this incarnation did he rule only you?” amudhanAr replies “At first he incarnated for ruling me only; but when he incarnated and could not tolerate to see the worlds badly affected by the philosophies that are not based on vEdhas, he then won those philosophies, and by his glory he covered all the places, entered in to the mind of me who is a cruel sinner, destroyed all my sins, and then made me be devoted to the divine feet of periya perumAL; in this way he started with the intention of one act and performed all these acts; in this way do you see the great acts of emperumAnAr!”, and amudhanAr becomes ecstatic.

pArththAn aRu samayangaL padhaippa ip pAr muzhudhum
pOrththAn pugazh koNdu punmaiyinEnidaith thAn pugundhu
theerththAn iru vinay theerththu aranga seyya thAL iNaiyOdu
ArththAn ivai em irAmAnusan seyyum aRpudhamE                   52

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

aRu samayangaL the six philosophies that are not based on true meanings of vEdhas
padhaippap pArththAn – saw them such that they shivered;
pugazh koNdu – by his divine glory
pOrththAn – covered
ip pAr muzhudhum – the whole earth;
punmaiyinEn idai – towards me who has got ignoble qualities as the identification
without my asking for a benefit etc.,
thAn pugundhu – he by himself entered in,
iru vinai theerththAn – and removed such big sins
which can’t be ridden even if experienced until there is concept of time as said in ‘yath brahma kalpa niuthAnubhavEpi anASyam’ (even if the effects of karmas are experienced for the long life time of brahmA, it cannot be exhausted),
theerththu – like so after removing such sins,
ArththAn – he got me to be connected to
seyya – the beautiful
thAL iNaiyOdu – divine feet of
arangan – periya perumAL;
aRpudham ivai – these are the wonders
em irAmAnusan – our emperumAnAr who is our lord
seyyum– perfoms;

aRpudham – smartness of doing the impossible;

vyAkyAnam

pArththAn aRu samayangaL padhaippaaRu samayangaL are the following: bhaudhdha, chArvAka, SAkya, ulUkya, pASupatha, gANApathya; these are the six philosophies that are not truly based on vEdhas (bAhya samayangaL);  Or, aRu – they are very much troublesome to practice;

padhaippap pArththAn – emperumAnAr set his eyes on such bad philosophies such that they would be completely destroyed;  padhaippa -> thudiththu -> shiver.

emperumAnAr_thondanUr_0001Winning other philosophies in thoNdanUr

abhiyukthar too divined: ‘dhik sauthApaththa jaithrathvaja patabhavanaspa athi nir dhUtha thath thath SidhdhAntha sthOma kUla sthapaka vigamana vyaktha  sathvruththaneekA’ (~ Elephants/flags were set in each direction by the other lowly philosphies, and emperumAnAr removed all of them, and raised the flag of philosophy as said by the vEdhas);

ip pAr muzhudhum pOrththAn pugazh koNdu – as he was unparalled in the world, everything was in his hands; in such earth he spanned his glory in all directions such that all including learned and the illiterate would celebrate him;  pOrththAn – he covered all the places;

punmaiyinEn idai – sins that are not acquired from others, but performed by me fully as said in ‘vEmbu muRRak kaippu miguvadhu pOl [Arththi prabandham – 6]’ (like how the bitterness of a neem tree becomes stronger as it grows over time), and as said in ‘pApAnAmvA’ (all being sinners) and ‘thEthvagam bhunjathE pApA:’ (~ instead of performing services as per vEdhas, it is sin for one to do deeds for one’s own benefit), I am being the form of all those sins (punmaiyinEn), towards such extreme sinner that is me,

thAn pugundhueven while I had not done any act as any means, and even while I had not prayed for it, without expecting these two from me,  he by himself came and entered in,

iru vinay –  karmas of two types;  based on good deeds and bad deeds;

Or,  iru ­-> irumai -> perumai -> big ones;

as said in ‘yath brahma kalpa niyatha anubhavEbhya nASyam thath kilpisham srujathi janthuriha kshaNArththE’, (~ even if one experiences the effects of karmAs for the whole life time of brahma, it cannot be exhausted – he performs such sins in half a second),

and, ‘pApAnAm prathamOsmyaham’ (I am the leader of sins), ‘mayithishtathi dhush kruthAm pradhAnE’ (I stand first among the sins),  ‘ahamasamyaparAdha chakravarththi’ (I am the center of all the sins), the sins of mine which cannot be gotten rid of based on experiencing its effects or by amends, or by any great ones;

theerththAn – he very easily wiped those sins like someone could wipe the writings in sand;

as said in ‘vAnO maRi kadalO mArudhamO theeyagamO kAnO orungiRRuk kaNdilamAl [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 54]’ ((after surrendering to emperumAn) I am not able to locate my karmas. Have they vanished in to space? Or in to the sea of riding waves? Or in to the air? Or fire? Or forest? I don’t know where they have vanished into), and as said in ‘summenAdhE kai vittOdith thURugaL pAyndhanavE [periyAzhvAr thirumozhi – 5.4.3]’ (the sins ran away without trace), he removed it with all its trace;

theerththu – in this way after protecting me, then without resting on such laurels,

arangan  – and not resorting to adivising many other ways like go and surrender at the far out paramapadham,  go in the way of yOgam and surrender to antharyAmi, etc., instead – being very easy, and being present in the place of my presence, such periya perumAL’s,

seyya thALiNaiyOdu ArththAn – As said in ‘arangaththammAn thiruk kamala pAdham [amalanAdhipirAn – 1]’ (the lord azhagiya maNavALan who is lying down in kOyil (SrIrangam), his divine lotus feet came by themselves into my eyes, it appears so), being very beautiful to see, the divine feet that have got equals as only each other – he bound my connection to such divine feet of periya perumAL.  He made the relation of the lord and his servant to be very clear to me;  Arththu – binding together.

ivai em irAmAnusan seyyum aRpudhamEall the aforementioned are the wonderful deeds of emperumAnAr  who incarnated for us;

Like chakravarththy thirumagan (SrI rAman) who went to the forest to honor the words of his father,  but he did not stop with that, and destroyed the rAkshasAs, built the divine bridge, and gave their own kingdoms of mAhArAjar and vibheeshaNAzhvAn to them, etc.,

emperumAnAr too started doing one thing and then performed great acts beyond human ability, you see!

Isn’t this the way of great souls? If it were ordinary men, initially at the start they would say many great things that they would do, but when it is time to act they would not do even a small thing with any effort, is the meaning.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

punmaiyinEnidai … ArththAnamudhanAr is talking about how emperumAnAr incarnated in this world and ruled him; as said in ‘annaiyAy aththanAy [kaNNinuN chiruth thAmbu – 4]’ (as a mother and as a father (nammAzhvAr ruled me, says madhurakavi AzhvAr))),  by ‘punmaiyinEn idaith thAn pugundhu’ it shows the kindness of a mother in his ruling me;  by ‘iru vinai theerththu’ it shows the ability of a father in ruling me;

pugundhu ­this is the word used when it is hard to break in; amudhanAr says that his sins are so strong which would try to prevent even emperumAnAr breaking in;

theerththu – shows anishta nivruththi – removal of unwanted ones;

arangan seyya thAL iNaiyOdu ArththAn – shows ishta prApthi – gaining the desired ones;

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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Arththi prabandham – 22

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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thirukkudanthai_aravamudhazhvar_divine_feet

Introduction

In the earlier pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL used the phrase “enna bhayam namakkE” to mean that he does not have any more fear. In this pAsuram, he goes ahead and says that owing to his AchAryan thiruvAimozhip piLLai’s causeless blessings on him, SrI rAmAnuja will take pride about him. This will help him in transgressing the big ocean called samAara (earthly bondage) and ascertain that he reaches the lotus feet of sriman nArAyaNan.

pAsuram 22:

thIdhaRRa gyANam thiruvAimozhippillai sIraruLAl
yEdhaththai mARRum ethirAsar than abhimAnamennum
pOdhaththai yERip pavamAm puNaridhanaik kadandhu
kOdhaRRa mAdhavan pAdhakkaraiyai kuRuguvanE!!!

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Word-by-Word Meanings:

thIdhaRRa – The one without any fault
gyAna – And complete knowledge of the true nature of a soul
thiruvAimozhip piLLai – Is known as  “thiruvAimozhip piLLai” here, through his connection to thiruvAimozhi. thiruvAimozhi is the divine work by nammAzhvAr, who is the poet of SrIman nArAyaNan
sIraruLAl – (He) blesses me causelessly
yEdhathai mARRum – so that my faults like lust and desire are obliterated
ethirAsar tham  – His (thiruvAimozhip piLLai) blessings will help me be in the good graces of rAmAnuja so that I can be assured of a ticket to board the
pOdhaththai yERip – Unfaltering ship similar to “vishNu pOtham” or vishNu’s ship is the one
pavamAm puNaridhanaik kadandhu – that helps travel the big ocean called samsAram
kuRuguvanE! – And certainly attain
kOdhaRRa mAdhavan pAdhakkarayai – the lotus feet of Sriya:pathi SrIman nArAyaNan. the lotus feet is described as “viNNOr pirAnAr mAsil malaradikkIzh”, “thuyaraRu sudaradi”, “one that is diametrically opposite of faults and that which dazzles brilliantly always
kuRuguvanE!!!- will attain it

Simple Translation:

In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL says that he reaching the lotus feet of SrIman nArAyaNa is definite because he is going to be liberated from the earthly bondages with the aid of a ship that is similar to “vishNu pOtham”. This is certain because maNavALa mAmunigaL says that Sri rAmAnuja would help him in getting him aboard the ship. The fact that SrI rAmAnuja would help him in this way is ascertained because of the choicest blessings of his AchAryan , the impeccable thiruvAimozhip piLLai.

Explanation:

The commentator goes ahead and explains the greatness of thiruvAimozhip piLLai. He is someone who is devoid of faults associated with doing activities of any kind not attributed to SrIman nArAyaNan, as expounded by the phrase, “thath gyANam agyANamathOnyadhuktham”, “vidhyAnyAsilapanaipuNam”. He does not sway even a little towards mundane matters as his mind and energy is always towards the spouse of SrI mahAlakshmi, namely SrIman nArAyaNan (“thAmaraiyAL kELvanayE nOkkum uNarvu”, mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 67).  His devotion towards SrIman nArAyaNan stretches out to the extent in which he regards the devotees of SrIman nArAyaNan as his master. He does pay any heed towards other scriptures except those related to SrIman nArAyaNan. In particular, he dwells deep in the divine thiruvAimozhi and its esoteric purports so much that he was started to know in this world as “thiruvAimozhip piLLai”. His love for thiruvAimozhi was so profound that people started to identify him with the work “thiruvAimozhi”. maNavALa mAmunigaL is a Sishya of such a glorious AchArya in thiruvAimozhip piLLai. maNavALa mAmunigaL says that his AchAryan’s blessings will ensure that he gets in the shade of SrI rAmAnuja who would like him very much. SrI rAmAnuja is described as “kAmAdhidhOshaharam (yathirAja vimshathi 1)”.  maNavALa mAmunigaL  continues that the connection with SrI rAmAnuja would help him get liberated the samsAram (earthly bondage) using a srivaishNava ship that is similar to “vishNu pOtham”, that is often described as “idhamhi vaishNavam pOtham samyakAsthE bhavArNavE” or the “one that ensures that a person reaches the lotus feet of sriman nArAyaNan without any trouble”. The samsAra sAgaram is described in our scriptures as a scary ocean that is replete with dangers lurking everywhere, as per the phrase “samsAra sAgaram ghOram anantha klEsa bhAjanam” (jithanthE sthOthram 4). maNavALa mAmunigaL says that the ship will take him to the lotus feet of SrIman nArAyaNan. HIS lotus feet, as described by  “viNNOrpirAnAr malaradikIzh (thiruviruththam 54)” and “thuyar aRu sudaradi” (thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1) are something that is worshipped by the nithyasUris and are the one that remove all the ignorance and sufferings of a person. They are completely devoid of any faults and is diametrically opposite of blemishes, as described by “hEya prathyanIkam”. In addition to it, the lotus feet dazzled brilliantly with divine glow and is something that does not need the help of someone or something else to protect a person. Such impeccable lotus feet of SrIman nArAyaNan is my destination. maNavALa mAmunigaL says that he reaching it is definite.

The term “kOdhaRRa” that means impeccable and would qualify the lotus feet. On the other side, since the phrase is “kOdhaRRa mAdhavan”, this can also be taken to mean “impeccable or faultless mAdhavan”.  The fault that is being alluded here is the fault of sriman nArAyaNan when HE is alone, without HIS divine consort, who is known as “pirAtti”.  This is being resonated by thiruvadi (hanumAn) when he said, “rAmasyalOkathraya nAyakasya sripAdhakUlam manasAjakAma”. The same fact is being told by nammAzhvAr in “mAnei nOkki madavALai mArbil koNdAi mAdhavA” and culminates in “un thEnE malarum thirupAdham vinayEn sErumAru nI aruLAi (thiruvAimozhi 1.5.5)”. Hence, the fault (kOdhu) would surface only when sriman nArAyaNan is seen without pirAtti (thiruvillAdha kOdhu aRRavan). Hence it goes to prove that only sriman nArAyaNan with pirAtti is the final destination, as only HE is the one without any fault.

Translation by santhAna rAmAnuja dhAsan

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शरणागति गद्य – प्रवेश (परिचय खंड)

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श्री: श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नमः

शरणागति गद्य

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namperumal-nachiar_serthiश्रीनम्पेरुमाल और श्रीरंगनाच्चियार – श्रीरंगम

श्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै के व्याख्यान का मुख्य आकर्षण

श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने अपने प्रबंध श्रीभाष्य में मोक्ष (संसार से मुक्ति) प्राप्ति के लिए भक्ति योग की व्याख्या की है। श्रीभाष्य की रचना, कुदृष्टियों (वह जो वेदों का गलत अर्थ करते हैं) के तर्क का विरोध करने के लिए की गयी थी, जिनका मत था कि केवल ज्ञान योग से ही मोक्ष की प्राप्ति हो सकती है। श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी इस बात से चिंतित थे कि श्रीभाष्य में वर्णित निर्णय से उनके अनुयायी और शिष्यजन यही विचार करेंगे कि मात्र भक्ति योग के द्वारा ही इस संसार से मुक्ति (मोक्ष) प्राप्त किया जा सकता है और वे मोक्ष प्राप्ति के लिए उसका ही अनुसरण करेंगे।

शरणागति गद्य में उन्होंने मोक्ष प्राप्ति के लिए शरणागति (भगवान श्रीमन्नारायण के आश्रित होना) के मार्ग पर विशेष ज़ोर दिया है। यहाँ एक प्रश्न मन में उठ सकता है कि जब शरणागति ही मोक्ष का मार्ग है, तब कूदृष्टियों के विरोध में “श्रीभाष्य” ग्रंथ में उन्होंने इस मार्ग की व्याख्या क्यों नहीं की? इसका कारण यह है कि जिस प्रकार एक ब्राह्मण चतुर्थ वर्ण के मनुष्य को वेद नहीं सिखा सकता, उसी प्रकार शरणागति के पवित्र रहस्य अर्थों को सर्वसामान्य में इस प्रकार प्रकट नहीं किया जा सकता।

मोक्ष प्राप्ति के लिए शरणागति, भक्ति योग से किस प्रकार से श्रेष्ठ है?

  • भक्ति, त्रयवर्णिकाओं तक ही सीमित है (प्रथम तीन वर्णों के लिए अर्थात- ब्राहमण, क्षत्रिय और वैश्य और इन तीन वर्णों में भी मात्र पुरुषों के लिए) परंतु शरणागति बिना किसी भेद के किसी भी प्राणी द्वारा की जा सकती है।
  • भक्ति का मार्ग कठिन है यद्यपि शरणागति का मार्ग अत्यंत सुलभ और सुगम है।
  • भक्ति के परिणाम, भक्त को तब प्राप्त होता है, जब उसके सभी प्रारब्ध कर्मों की समाप्ति होती है (कर्म दो प्रकार के होते हैं, संचित और प्रारब्ध :-
  • संचित कर्म उन सभी कर्मों का योग है, जो जीवात्मा ने अगणित जन्मों में उपार्जित किया है।
  • प्रारब्ध कर्म – संचित कर्म की गठरी से एक हिस्से के रूप में बाहर लेकर जीवात्मा को अपने कर्म के अनुसार पाप और पूण्य के रूप में इस संसार में बिताने की सुविधा दिया जाता है।
  • परंतु शरणागति का परिणाम उसी जन्म में प्राप्त होता है, जिस जन्म में आत्मा द्वारा शरणागति की जाती है।
  • भक्ति के मार्ग का अनुसरण करते हुए, भक्त को यह सावधानी रखनी चाहिए कि वेदों में कहे गए निर्देशों का उल्लंघन न हो। यद्यपि शरणागति के मार्ग में ऐसा नहीं है, क्यूंकि शरणागति करना तो अत्यंत सुगम है। भक्ति करने के लिए बहुत से प्रयास करने पड़ते हैं परंतु शरणागति सदा ही अभ्यास हेतु सहज है।
  • भक्ति का मार्ग आत्मा के स्वरुप के अनुरूप नहीं है, यद्यपि शरणागति स्वरुप अनुरूप है। अन्य शब्दों में, आत्मा का स्वरुप श्रीमन्नारायण भगवान के सेवक/ दास (शेषभूत) और उनके आश्रित (परतंत्र) बनकर रहना है और यह सभी शरणागति के मार्ग के अनुसरण से ही पूर्ण हो सकता है, जबकि भक्ति आत्मा द्वारा स्व-प्रयासों से की जाती है, जो आत्मा के स्वरुप के विपरीत है।
  • भक्ति मार्ग के माध्यम से जो परिणाम प्राप्त होता है ( मोक्ष अथवा भगवान के चरण कमल ) वो माध्यम इस परिणाम का लायक नहीं है किन्तु शरणागति माध्यम इस उच्च और श्रेष्ट परिणाम का यथोचित माध्यम है |

वेदांत में भी शरणागति का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है। याग्निकीय उपनिषद् में, जीवात्मा के लिए द्वादश (१२) विशेष गुणों का उल्लेख किया गया है और उन सभी द्वादश गुणों में सबसे उंचा स्थान शरणागति को दिया गया है। शरणागति पूर्वाचार्यों द्वारा अनुसरण की गयी है और भगवान श्रीमन्नारायण को सबसे प्रिय है। इसलिए, वेदांत द्वारा स्वीकृत, जीवात्मा के स्वरुप के अनुरूप, आलवारों और पूर्वाचार्यों द्वारा अनुसरण की जाने वाली और भगवान श्रीमन्नारायण को प्रिय, शरणागति के इन गुणों को जानकार, श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने शरणागति के विषय पर व्याख्या की, जिससे उनके अनुयायी भी शरणागति का लाभ ले सकें।

उन्होंने शरणागति के लिए उत्तर फाल्गुनी के दिन का चयन किया, जिस दिन श्रीनम्पेरुमाल और श्रीरंगनाच्चियार संग में विराजमान होकर दासों को दर्शन देते हैं। उनके मानस में संसार की सभी बाधाओं का सतत विचार चल रहा था और उनसे मुक्ति प्राप्त करने के लिए, उन्होंने दिव्य दंपत्ति के चरणों में शरणागति की। अपने आचार्य श्रीमहापूर्ण स्वामीजी द्वारा समाश्रयण प्राप्त करते हुए भी श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने भगवान के चरणों में शरणागति की थी। जब शरणागति एक ही बार की जाती है, तब श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने पुनः दिव्य दंपत्ति के चरणों में शरणागति क्यों की? संसार के भयानक रूप को जानकार और भगवान से शीघ्रातिशीघ्र मिलने की उत्कट चाहते हुए उन्होंने पुनः शरणागति की। यहाँ तक की आलवारों ने भी बारम्बार शरणागति की है (श्रीशठकोप स्वामीजी ने 5 बार और श्रीपरकाल स्वामीजी ने, 10 बार)। यही आचार्यों ने भी किया है। इसलिए इस संसार से मुक्ति प्राप्त करने के लिए और श्रीवैकुंठ में दिव्य दंपत्ति के कैंकर्य प्राप्ति हेतु, उन्होंने शरणागति की।

अब हम इस प्रबंध की प्रथम चूर्णिका की ओर अग्रसर होते हैं।

– अडियेन भगवती रामानुजदासी

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.5.4 – vambavazhiL kOdhai

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-7-bulls

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fourth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “If after meditating upon emperumAn‘s quality of love which caused him to kill the seven bulls and marry [his divine consort] nappinnaip pirAtti, one remains still, for what purpose were they born in vaishNava family?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

vambavizh kOthai poruttA mAl vidai Ezhum adarththa
sem pavaLath thiraL vAyan sirIdharan thol pugazh pAdik
kumbidu nattam ittAdik kOgukattuNduzhalAdhAr
tham piRappAl payanennE sAdhu sanangaL idaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vambu – having freshness
avizh – blossomed
kOdhai poruttA – considering attaining of nappinnaip pirAtti who is wearing a garland as the only goal
mAl – huge
vidai – bull
Ezhum – seven
adarththa – due to killing them
sem – reddish
pavaLam – like a coral
thiraL – large
vAyan – having gentle smile in the lips
sirIdharan – krishNa who stood having vIraSrI (wealth of valour)
thol – natural
pugazh – qualities
pAdi – sing
kumbidu nattam ittAdi – dancing upside down
kOgu – in chaotic manner
ugattu – noise
uNdu – make
uzhalArthAm – those who do not
piRappAl – having born
sAdhu sanangaL – in sAthvika sangam (assembly of devotees)
idaiyE – amidst
en – what
payan – use?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Considering attaining of nappinnaip pirAtti who is wearing a fresh blossomed garland as the only goal, emperumAn killed the seven huge bulls; due to killing them krishNa who stood having vIraSrI (wealth of valour) and having gentle smile in the large, coral like reddish lips; what is the use of being born amidst sAthvika sangam (assembly of devotees) for those who do not sing the natural qualities of such krishNa, dance upside down and make noise in chaotic manner?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vambavizh kOdhai poruttA – vambu – fragrance. avizhgai – spreading everywhere. kOdhai – garland, it is used to indicate the hair [which has the garland]. It means – one who is wearing [in her hair] a garland, the fragrance of which is spreading everywhere. Presenting the well decorated nappinnaip pirAtti and declared “she will be married to the one who wins over the seven bulls”; looking at her well decorated beauty and beautiful hair, ignoring his own safety, krishNa presented [risked] himself for her as said in “thavAsmi” (I am for you).
  • mAl vidai – huge bulls. Seeing the hugeness, one will naturally take a step back out of fear.
  • Ezhum – seven. As said in “SrEyAmsi bahuvignAni” (even for great persons, when doing noble tasks, there will be many hurdles), not one or two, but seven bulls that are hurdles.
  • adarththa – Since the result of winning them over is nappinnaip pirAtti’s embrace, he crushed the necks of the bulls at once instead of handling them one at a time.
  • sem pavaLath thiraL vAyan – Since the hurdles are eliminated, he smiled. It can also be explained as krishNa smiling, since the seven bulls are no match for his strong shoulders.
  • sirIdharan – He stood with vIra lakshmi (wealth of valour) after killing the bulls. Another explanation – Stood there ready for nappinnaip pirAtti’s embrace as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 30.39 and 30.40  “bharththAram parishasvajE“. [nampiLLai explains this SlOkam beautifully.]
    • tham dhrushtvA – Previously she (sIthA pirAtti) only observed romantic exchanges. Now only she observed “he is capable of those who cause hurdles for such enjoyable exchanges”. Before, when he goes for hunting, she hears from his companions “he killed this beast, that rAkshasa etc”; now she is personally witnessing him taking on the enemies.
    • Sathru hanthAram – one who completely destroyed the enemies instead of just sending them back with cuts and bruises. He did this without himself sweating much.
    • maharshINAm sukhAvaham – Like a man will bring his child along to engage with his wife, SrI rAma killed the rAkshasas who were the enemies of the rishis (sages), and presented himself in front of pirAtti to accept her embrace.
    • babhUva – She was worried seeing the cruelty of the rAkshasas and tenderness of SrI rAma and considered herself to have ceased to exist. Now, after seeing him victorious, she regained her existence.
    • hrushtA – If dharmi (entity) exists, dharmams (attributes and those which are supported by the entity), will also exist.
    • vaidhEhi – sIthA is one who is born in a family which is well aware of bravery [vaidhEhi – daughter of vidhEha (janaka’s ancestor) clan]. Another explanation – My father who gave you in marriage for launching and breaking one bow; what will he do if he saw your valour of killing 14000 rAkshasa single-handed?
    • bharththAram – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 77.26 “dhArA: pithrukruthA:” (given in marriage to you by her father), she loved SrI rAma, since it was her father who arranged the marriage; but, only now, she embraced him considering him to be a “real man”; previously it was sIthA who said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.3 “sthriyam purushavigraham” (you are a woman in the disguise of a man) [when SrI rAma suggests sIthA to not accompany her to the forest].
    • parishasvajE – She comforted SrI rAma, by pressing her divine breasts on the wounds caused in the battle. In the same way, krishNa stood there waiting for nappinnai’s embrace.
  • thol pugazh – Like those who are serving in the private quarters, singing about his qualities of loving affection which is part of his nature; they will sing as in thiruppallANdu 2mangaiyum pallANdu“.
  • kumbidu … – will do praNAmams (worship) and dance. Also explained as – dancing with anjali (folded palms).
  • kOgu kattu – dancing in a chaotic/disorderly manner
  • uNdu – having that as their daily routine
  • uzhalAdhAr – those who don’t conduct this on a daily basis
  • tham piRappAl – having been born amidst those who dance in a disorderly manner, what is the purpose of such birth? What is the purpose of them accepting a body amidst vaishNavas? piLLaip piLLai AzhwAn (a disciple of kUraththAzhwAn) explained “[The presence of such uninterested persons among vaishNavas would be like – when it is raining] When many SrIvaishNavas stand squeezed under a thiruppunnai (a divine tree), if strong village leaders with hairy shoulders and head covered with clothes [like turban] squeeze them further [it will be very uncomfortable]”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 51

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Full Series

<< previous (updhippana uththamar sindhaiyuL)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

amudhanAr says – there is no other reason for emperumAnAr to divine his incarnation in this world than to accept me as his servant.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

Right from their childhood they did not think of Him as their uncle’s son (mAthulEyan), but were having faith considering Him as their protector; they are the pancha pANdavas; krishNan rode chariot for them and destroyed their enemies, and performed various lowly acts for them; SrIvaishNavas that are fully clear in their knowledge about their true nature and who know about these qualities of krishNan – for such SrIvaishNavas emperumAnAr is the ever enjoyable nectar; if one analyses the reason for such emperumAnAr to incarnate in this sinful world, it is confirmed that it is only for ruling me, and that there is no other reason – says amudhanAr.

adiyaith thodarndhu ezhum aivargatkAy anRu bhArathap pOr
mudiyap pari nedun thEr vidum kOnai muzhudhuNarndha
adiyarkku amudham irAmAnusan ennai ALa vandhu ip
padiyil piRandhadhu maRRillai kAraNam pArththidilE                 51

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

adiyaith thodarndhu – As said in ‘krishNASrayA: krishNa balA: krishNa nAthAScha pANdavA: [mahAbhAratham] (they have surrendered to kaNNAn, are having kaNNan as their strength, and they consider kaNNan as their protector), they follow krishNan’s divine feet,
ezhum – and be proud
aivargatkA – for such pancha pANdavas
when all the bad group (of 100 kauravas) were present together and these (five) were here as a separate group,
anRu ­– on that day when they did not have any help than Himself,
bhArathap pOr – in the war of bhAratham,
mudiya – ended the side of the opposing ones;
as said in ‘Adiya mA nedum thEr [thiruvAimozhi – 6.8.3]’,
thEr vidum – (He) drove the chariot
nedum – that is tall and
pari ­– tied with horses,
kOnai – that is the sarvESvaran;
muzhudhu – all his qualities starting with ones like partiality towards His devotees, subservient to His devotees, removal of enemies of His devotees, etc.,
uNarndha – are known
adiyarkku – to the devotees who have lost to each of such nature of emperumAn and as if have agreed to their subservience to Him in writing, for such devotees –
amudham – he is an enjoyable one
iraAmAnusan – that is emperumAnAr;
ippadiyil – in this earth,
vandhu piRandhadhu – (his) coming and incarnating
ennai ALa – is for ruling me;
maRRuk kAraNam illai – there is no other reason,
pArththidil – if analysed.

ezhum – that is, the pious arrogance of thinking that they are of higher state, that ‘we have surrendered to krishNan’.

vyAkyAnam

adiyaith thodarndhu ezhumFrom childhood itself, due to the divine words of vyAsar, kunthI, mArkandEyan, and due to Him protecting them whenever they were in danger, they did not think of krishNan as their uncle’s son, but were having faith about Him as the para thathvam (Supreme being) who protects them;

as said in ‘krishNASrayA: krishNa balA: krushNa nAthAScha pANdavA: [mahAbhAratham] (they have surrendered to kaNNAn, are having kaNNan as their strength, and they consider kaNNan as their protector), they surrendered to His divine feet and won rudhran, indhran, and others, and decimated kAlakEyan, hidimban, jarAsandhan, and others, and having the pious arrogance that there is no one to equal them in the world;

aivargatkA – for such pancha pANdavas named dharman, bheeman, arjunan, nakulan, and sahAdhEvan, five in number;

anRu when due to partiality towards dhuryOdhanan, the bad groups of karNan, salyan, and others were together, and these (five) pANdavas were separated alone, and were not having any help other than Himself,

bhArathap pOr mudiya  – Since in both the groups there were descendants of bharathan, the bad ones were present on both the sides and warred, this war is named as ‘bhAratha yudhdham’. In such two groups as there were a total of eighteen akshauhiNis (army consisting of ten anIkinIs or 21870 elephants, 21870 chariots, 65610 horse and 109350 foot soldiers), except the five pANdavas all their hostile ones were decimated by Him in the war.

pari nedum thEr vidum kOnai – As said in ‘Adiya mA nedum thEr [thiruvAimozhi – 6.8.3]’, the chariot, with white horses, well decorated, the chariot which was obtained by praying to dhEvathas, the big chariot, and for everyone to know about his being the lord of everyone, He drove that chariot.

This meaning is given in ‘thathra pANdavAnAm kuruNancha yudhdhE prArabhdhE bhagavAn purushOththama:, sarvESvara:,  jagath ubakruthi marthya: ASritha vAthsalya vivaSa: pArtham rathinam AthmAnancha sAradhim sarvalOka sAkshikam chakAra [emperumAnAr’s gIthA bhAshyam]

(When the war started between pANdavas and kauravas, emperumAn who possesses all the auspicious qualities, who is chief of everyone, who is the controller of everything and everyone, who is having the mind of helping the world, and so incarnated, and who is kind to His devotees and not sees their mistakes, with arjunan as the chariot rider and Himself as the charioteer, for all the world to witness it ..’, is how emperumAnAr also divines in his gIthA bhAshyam.

(kOn -> king) : Even though this krishNan incarnated in the clan of cowherds,  it is well known that when He went to kuNdinapuram for the bride groom selection by rukmiNi pirAtti, at that time, indhran had sent a throne from his world for krishNan to be seated as a king and inaugurated him as a king; so calling krishNan as king is acceptable here;

About such krishNan,

muzhudhuNarndha adiyavarkku – (they understood very well about such krishNan); That/about –

His true nature, form, qualities, and wealth,

and as said in ‘Esha nArAyaNa SrImAn ksheerArNava nikEthana:, nAgaparyankamuthsrujya hyAgathO mathurAmpureem’ (~ SrIman nArAyaNan descended from the milky ocean and incarnated in mathurA), He incarnated as the supreme lord for everyone, and without reducing any of His qualities;

and as His father (vasudhEvan) prayed to Him as ‘upasamhara sarvAthman rUpamEthath chathur bhujam’ ((as krishNan was born with four shoulders) vasudhEvan prayed to Him to be with two shoulders only, and so He followed his word and was present pretending like other humans of material body),

and His walking across the river yamunA (as His father carried Him),

krishna yamuna

and staying tied by a woman (yasOdha),

M

and killing of the enemies of devotees – like pUthanai, chakatam, yamaLArjunan, arishta, pralambhan, dhEnukan, kALiyan, kEsi, kuvalayApeetam, chANUra, kausala, kamsan, etc.,

krishna-putana

and His blessing akrUrar, mAlAkarar, etc.,

and doing well above human capabilities like lifting of mount gOvardhan, and such acts,

krishna-Govardhan

and as a servant of pANdavas went as a messenger with the message tied to his neck,

krishna-messenger

and being a charioteer who can be directed by the leg of the rider, doing such service,

and showing his full form (viSvarUpam),

krishna-githa-etc

and with arjunan as the front, for helping the world, His releasing of the most important SAsthram (of SrI bhagavath gIthA),

and so on;

The noble ones who have understood these fully,

and having lost to each of such characteristics of emperumAn,

and stayed true to their nature of subservience to emperumAn (as if gave it in writing),

such nobles ones like AzhvAn, ANdAn, piLLAn, embAr, and so on;

for them –

amudham(nectar) – Since he (emperumAnAr) makes such noble ones gain according to their true nature (svarUpa ujjeevanam), he is being enjoyable by those noble ones like having a nectar;

irAmAnusan – (such nectar is) emperumAnAr;

ennai ALa vandhu – When (emperumAnAr as Adhi SEshan is) having complete and full divine experience in paramapadham, he ignored that, and came here only for getting me to serve him;

ip padiyilAs said in ‘bhagavath svarUpa thirOdhAnakareem vipareetha gyAna jananeem svavishayAyAScha bhOgya bhudhdhEr jananeem’ (will hide the true nature of emperumAn, will instigate unwated knowledge, will make everyone to feel itself as enjoyable and experience it), in such material world, in this earth;

piRandhadhu  – As said in ‘SrImAn Avira bhUdhbhUmau’, he incarnated –

ennai ALa – As said in ‘ahamasmi: aparAdha chakravarththy’  (~ I am the head of sinners), and in ‘pApAnAm prathamOsmi aham’ (I am the leader among the sinners), only for the upliftment of me who is of such nature;

maRRillai kAraNam pArththidilE – When further researching for the root cause of his incarnation here, there is no other reason – thus divines amudhanAr.

{Translator’s note:  For those noble ones, emperumAnAr is the amudham (nectar); for emperumAnAr the amudham is one aptly named amudhanAr;  amudhanAr seems to say that emperumAnAr incarnated only for getting this nectar}.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

adiyaith thodarndhu ezhum aivargatkAy  – Since pANdavas followed His divine feet, they rose; other who did not, fell.

mArkANdEyan advised pANdavas as ‘gachchathvamEhanam SaraNam SaraNyam purusharshabhA:’ (Oh the noble men! Surrender to this kaNNan), and they followed that advise as said in ‘dhraupadhyA sahithAs sarvE namaschakrur janArdhanam’ (everyone together with dhraupadhi, offered their respect to kaNNan);

While pANdavas considered themselves as servants of kaNNan, kaNNan was thinking of Himself as their servant (and performed any and all acts to help them get back their kingdom).

thEr vidum kOnai – by ‘thEr vidum’ (driving the chariot), it shows His saulabhyam (easy to relate to); by ‘kOnai´ it shows his parathvam (supremacy).

muzhudhuNarndha … irAmAnusan –By ‘aivargatkAy’ the noble ones know about His partiality towards His devotees; by ‘thEr vidum’ they know about His subservience to His devotees, and by ‘mudiya vidum’ they know about His strength of finishing off the enemies – thus they understand about Him fully;

Understanding the secret of His incarnation, and having lost to the ways of emperumAn, such devotees are enjoying emperumAnAr as nectar. So emperumAnAr (his body) cannot be of material nature; nectar is divine, isn’t it? So the reason for this nectar to be born here is not due to karmas. Then why did this nectar born? It is for ruling me only, says amudhanAr.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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thirumAlai – 10 – nAttinAn dheyvamengum

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dhevas - worshipping-periyaperumal

avathArikai (Introduction)

samsAris told AzhwAr “you had asked us to take refuge under thaN thuzhAy mAlai mArban (paramapadhanAthan or SrIvaikuNtanAthan) in the 5th pAsuram. Since we cannot reach his place, you had told us in the 7th pAsuram that silayinAl ilangai seRRa dhEvanE dhEvan AvAn (the one who destroyed lankA, SrI rAma, is the supreme lord). In the 9th, previous, pAsuram, you had told us kaRRinam mEyththa endhai is krishNa himself, a simple person and asked us to fall at the exalted feet of krishNa. For us, born much after the two incarnations, it is equally difficult to attain SrI rAma and krishNa”. AzhwAr responds to them through this pAsuram, saying “due to differences in place and time, it is not possible to attain paravAsudhEvan (who is in SrIvaikuNtam) and SrI rAma or krishNa. But it is very easy for you all to attain periya perumAL (the mUlavar) who is lying in thiruvarangam. Come and surrender to him. Attaining some other deity to reach mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam) is similar to a person, who is longing for wealth, to wait at the door of mUdhEvi (the Goddess of penury)” First let us enjoy the pAsuram and its meaning.

நாட்டினான் தெய்வம் எங்கும் நல்லதோர் அருள் தன்னாலே
காட்டினான் திருவரங்கம் உய்பவர்க்கு உய்யும் வண்ணம்
கேட்டிரே நம்பிமீர்காள். கெருட வாகனனும் நிற்கச்
சேட்டை தன் மடியகத்துச் செல்வம் பார்த்திருக்கின்றீரே.

nAttinAn dheyvam engum nalladhOr aruL thannAlE
kAttinAn thiruvarangam uybavarkku uyyum vaNNam
kEttIrE nambimIrgAL geruda vAhananum niRkach
chEttai than madiyagaththuch chelvam pArththirukkinRIrE

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word-by-word meaning

engum – at all places
dheyvam –  different types of rAjasa (those who are passionate and short tempered) and thAmasa (those who are ignorant and lazy) deities
nAttinAn – established
uybavarkku – for those interested in living an exalted life
uyyumvaNNam – to find the means
nalladhu Or aruL thannAlE – with his incomparable quality of mercy
thiruvarangam – SrIrangam
kAttinAn – pointed out
nambimIrgAL – those having total dedication (on matters other than those relating to emperumAn)
kEttIrE – did you hear this meaning?
gerudavAhananum niRka – even when emperumAn, who uses garudan as his vehicle, is around
chEttai than madiyagaththu – at the door of mUdhEvi [deity for penury]
selvam pArththu irukkinRirE – waiting, begging for wealth

 vyAkhyAnam (Explanatory Notes)

nAttinAn – empeumAn’s devotees, being endowed with more of sathva guNam (quality of being purely good) would take refuge under him due to the knowledge born out of such sathva guNam. But those who are endowed more with rajO guNam (quality of being passionate/ill tempered etc) and thamO guNam (quality of being ignorant, lazy etc), lacking in such knowledge that is given by sathva guNam will not come directly to emperumAn. Instead of letting them to get engrossed in worldly pleasures fully due to their independence, emperumAn decides to make them approach deities with rAjasa and thAmasa qualities initially. Over a period of time, with awakening of their sAthvika knowledge, these samsAris would know about the auspicious qualities of emperumAn and take refuge under him. It is for this reason that he deployed many deities. nAttinAn means deployed. Another meaning is that being the inner soul of these deities, he established these deities. The subtle meaning here is that without emperumAn, these deities will be like creeper plants without the supporting pole. Just as bean plant needs a short stick initially when it is growing and later on a full-fledged network of sticks, samsAris with rAjasa and thAmasa qualities need the support of other deities initially and once they develop themselves they can latch on to emperumAn who acts like an arbour (pandhal). nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 5.2.8 “niRuththinAn dheyvangaLAga” – deployed as deities.

dheyvam engum – emperumAn created various deities such as ayyan, ezhumUrthty, sapthakannigaigaL, pidAri et al so that samsAris with various qualities, and births based on such qualities, right down to chaNdALan (a birth below the 4th varNa) could approach these deities. In mahAbhAtham it says “vishNurAthmA bhagavathObhavasyAmithathEjasa: I thasmAth dhanurjyAsamsargam sa vishEhE mahESwara: II” – vishNu was the indwelling soul of Siva, due to which only Siva was able to tolerate the difficulty in shooting the arrow after drawing the bow. As nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.5iRaiyavar avaravar vidhi vazhiyadaiya ninRanarE” – emperumAn, by remaining as the indwelling soul of other deities, enabled the followers of these deities to reach their goals as per their deeds. Thus emperumAn, by his quality of dwelling inside the souls of these deities, enabled them to get name and fame. emperumAn wishes that samsAris should reach him and get liberated. It is due to this superior thought that he deploys the other deities and gives vision (vEdhas) to the samsAris. His expectation is that these samsAris, with the help of vEdhas, would know about the inferiority of the other deities and the supremacy of emperumAn and ultimately come to him. Most of the samsAris, because of the excess of pApa (sins) that they have committed, remain dedicated to these deities, showing indifference to emperumAn, just as a beans creeper, instead of going onto the arbour, remains with the short stick, planted initially to support it, and withers over a period of time.

nalladhOr aruL thannAlE – he shows mercy on samsAris so that they will know what is beneficial to them and reach emperumAn. nalladhOr aruL – this is to be seen in three parts: (a) aruL – enabling the samsAris to approach other deities based on their deeds; (b) Or aruL – enabling samsAris to approach him through other deities; (c) nalladhOr aruL – through his causeless mercy, showing himself at thiruvarangam as the path and the goal to be achieved by these samsAris, after seeing their lowly state. Our supreme preceptor, ALavandhAr says in his sthOthra rathnam 58 “aparAdha sahasra bhAjanam pathitham bhIma mahArNavOdharE I agathim SaraNAgatham harE krupayA kEvalam Athma sAthkuru II” – with your causeless mercy, make me as your property – me, who is the embodiment of thousands of evil deeds, who has fallen into the deep ocean called samsAram, who has no other place to go, and who has surrendered unto you. It is this causeless mercy which is showered on samsAris even when they do not realise their lowly state and feel sorry for themselves, that is termed as nalladhOr aruL. Just as he is going to refer to thiruvarangam next because of this mercy, even deploying other deities is due to this mercy, says the AzhwAr.

aruL thannAlE kAttinAn thiruvarangam – showed thiruvarangam out of that mercy. Nobody appealed to emperumAn to show them thiruvarangam. Just as a nursing mother will express milk onto the ground due to excessive pain in her breast, emperumAn shows himself up at thiruvarangam as he would otherwise not be able to thrive. Similar to a person presenting a gem with the wrapper, emperumAn presents himself at thiruvarangam temple. To know the difference between the samsAris (and the deities that they take shelter under) and himself, and for them to realise one day that they are protected by emperumAn, he dwells in thiruvarangam permanently. Who did he show himself up to?…..

uybavarkku –  emperumAn showed himself at thiruvarangam to all those who wanted to live an exalted life. It is enough if samsAris do not think that they will not take shelter under him. Since this is the way to live properly, taking shelter under other deities will only bind the samsAris to the samsAram is the meaning emphasised here.

uyyum vaNNam – To worship emperumAn who is antharyAmi (inner dwelling soul) of other deities through karma (deeds) and upAsana (bhakthi or devotion) is one way of attaining mOksha (liberation) for samsAris. But this path is defined only for samsAris born in the first three varNas (brAhmaNa, kshathriya and vaiSya). Going to thiruvarangam and taking refuge under emperumAn as both the path and the benefit is common to all samsAris irrespective of varNa.

kEttIrE nambImIrgALAzhwAr is asking those samsAris who, forgetting emperumAn, are feeling fully satisfied after their involvement in worldly matters “will you listen to what I am saying now?”. Another meaning to this term is that AzhwAr is asking these samsAris “when emperumAn is around, forgetting him, you people are going after other deities and feeling fully satisfied. Will you now listen to what I am saying?” When people are playing chathurangam (a variant of modern day chess) they will be so involved in the game that they will not look at other things. In the same way, the samsAris, forgetting emperumAn, are busy in worldly matters and other deities. AzhwAr is awakening them by tapping them on their thighs.

gerudavAgananum niRkaemperumAn who is having garuda, considered as vEdhasvarUpan (epitome of vEdhas), as his vehicle is the supreme entity to be reached. Sitting majestically astride garuda, tirelessly holding the discus (sudharSana chakram), having lakshmi, the Goddess of all auspicious things – possessing even one of these three features would identify emperumAn. gerudavAgananum niRka – he urges garuda to take him immediately to anyone who shows even a little bit of affection. Since AzhwAr says “niRka” it shows that he is eagerly waiting for samsAris to get involved with him, similar to how sumanthra, the minister in dhaSaratha chakravarthy’s court was waiting for rAma at the banks of gangA “ASaya yadhi vA rAma...”. Another interpretation is that this indicates that when samsAris reach out to other deities, they have to go past him even as he is waiting close by for them.

chEttaithan madiyagaththuch chelvam pArththu irukkinRIRE – you samsAris are waiting to get money from mUdhEvi (deity for penury).  Expecting mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam) from other deities is similar to expecting money from mUdhEvi. Is it possible to obtain mOksham (from which there is no returning to samsAram) from deities who can offer only lowly benefits, and which bind the samsAris further to samsAram? Begging for dress from a person who himself is not wearing anything is equivalent to killing him. In the same way, asking for mOksham from other deities will lower their esteem. How can one get mOksham, which is reachable only by a person with sathva (purely  good) qualities, from deities who are immersed in rajO and thamO qualities (passion and ignorance respectively)? Is it proper to call deities which have knowledge and strength as mUdhEvi? The answer is that a chakravarthy’s (emperor’s) wife and children will not bother about his servants. In the same way, those who have taken refuge under emperumAn will not value other deities. It is pertinent here to remember that thirumazhisai AzhwAr continued to stitch his vEshti (dhOthi, lower body cloth) even after rudhra and pArvathi were waiting to bless him and grant him boon.

We shall move on to pAsuram 11.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.5.3 – malaiyai eduththu

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-Govardhan

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In third pAsuram – AzhwAr says “Hellish experience is [nothing but] being indifferent after meditating upon the great quality of emperumAn lifting up the gOvardhana hill to eliminate the danger for the cows that cannot even realize the favour done [by emperumAn] and those who are similar to those cows [the cowherds]”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “those who do not get excited on meditating upon emperumAn protecting the cows that were in trouble,  would suffer becoming residents of hell”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram. AzhwAr says “Those who are being indifferent after meditating upon the great quality of emperumAn lifting up the gOvardhana hill to eliminate the danger for the cows that cannot even realize the favour done [by emperumAn] and those who are similar to those cows [the cowherds], will eternally suffer in this material realm”.

pAsuram

malaiyai eduththuk kal mAri kAththup pasu nirai thannaith
tholaivu thavirththa pirAnaich chollich cholli ninReppOdhum
thalaiyinOdAdhanam thattath thadu kuttamAyp paRavAdhAr
alai koL naragaththazhundhik kidandhuzhaikkinRa vambarE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

malaiyai – gOvardhana hill
eduththu – lifted
kal mAri – hail storm (which was caused by indhra since his worship was interrupted)
kAththu – protected
pasu nirai thannai – herd of cows (which don’t even know to request to be protected)
tholaivu – from destruction
thavirththa – averted
pirAnai – one who favoured
chollich cholli – repeatedly saying [praising]
eppOdhum – always
ninRu – staying without break
AdhanaththOdu – ground
thalai – head
thatta – to hit
thadu kuttamAy – doing somersaults
paRavAdhAr – dance with their feet not touching the ground
alai koL – having many sorrows
naragaththu – in the great hell
azhundhi – drowned (so they cannot reach the shore)
kidandhu – staying there
uzhaikkinRa – suffering
vambar – those who never lose their freshness

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

krishNa is the one who favoured the herd of cows (which don’t even know to request to be protected) by lifting up the gOvardhana hill, protecting them and averted their destruction when hailstorm (which was caused by indhra since his worship was interrupted) occurred; those who never lose their freshness, who are not repeatedly saying [praising] such emperumAn, doing somersaults such that their heads hit the ground and dancing with their feet not touching the ground, are drowned (so they cannot reach the shore) in the great hell which is having many sorrows and stay there suffering.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • malaiyai … – indhra would be honoured once a year with great feasts by the cowherd men; seeing their great enthusiasm, krishNa asked them “what are you doing?” and they reply “we offer this feast to indhra to get rains properly”; krishNa thinks “In the land where I am [supreme lord] born and raised, offering something to a dhEvathAtntharam [some demigod other than himself] is like the sweat of the emperor’s wife being attended by some one other than the emperor himself” and said “Why should we offer anything to the resident of sky? should we not be offering this feast to this gOvardhana hill which provides us the vast land to receive the rain and wind, being the shelter for our cows and having lots of greenery and water?” Since they are simple cowherds, they at once agreed to his words. They brought huge quantity of food stuffs and placed them in front of the hill; krishNa then assumed the form of the hill itself as said in “gOvardhanO’smi” (I am this gOvardhana hill) and consumed everything; since indhra who was waiting for the feast did not get it, and due to the anger out of hunger, he started the hailstorm.
  • malaiyai eduththu – He protected by lifting up the hill that was highlighted by him as the shelter previously. Real fighter would use the weapons [strategy] of the enemy when the battle approaches the end. Similarly, kaNNan emperumAn lifted up the hill that was in front of him and protected everyone from the hailstorm. For the mistake committed by indhra, krishNa should have cut off his hands. But he thinks “This idiot is doing this due to anger out of hunger; I cannot treat him like demoniac people; let him give up himself after a while” and patiently kept lifting up the hill for seven days.
  • kal mAri kAththu – [This is bhattar’s interesting perspective] If indhra caused [regular] rain with water, emperumAn would have protected by stopping it with water [but since indhra rained with hail (hard object), krishNa protected with stones].
  • pasu nirai thannai – When we look at the state [intelligence] of cowherds and cows, the elephant (first pAsuram) and samsAris (second pAsuram) look like nithyasUris. Why is it said “pasu nirai thannaith tholaivu thavirththa” (averting the disaster for the herd of cows) [while the cowherds are superior]? That is to identify who is the main target of emperumAn‘s protection [cows would not reject emperumAn’s help unlike cowherds who may reject some times].  Another explanation – that is to identify the ones who realise the protection [and be grateful]; it is the cows that smile when seeing the ignorance of the cowherds. kirAdhArjunIyam chapter 4 “… kruthAnukArAniva gObhirArjavE” (looked like the cows were making fun of the cowherds’ activities).
  • tholaivu thavirththa – protected the cows and cowherds from getting destroyed.
  • pirAnaiAzhwAr thinks that he himself was the one caught in that hailstorm and suffered and he thinks that emperumAn helped for him only.
  • chollich cholli – only when it is said for a particular purpose, it stops with one time [when he is praised for the sake of praising only, such praises never stop].
  • ninRu – Not just stopping after praising once, but also not stopping after repeating the praise many times.
  • eppOdhum – praising always, not just when some one is looking.
  • thalaiyinOdu Adhanam thatta – such that the head hits the ground
  • thadu kuttamAyp paRavAdhArthadu kuttam – irregular movements. That is, doing things in no proper sequence. Those who dance without having their feet touching the ground.
  • alaikoL … – Will suffer by drowning deep in the hell which has waves of sorrows.
  • vambar – For the servants of yama, they will look ever fresh. vambu – pudhumai (new). After torturing one day, when they return the next day, instead of showing mercy thinking “we just tortured this person yesterday”, like receiving a very fragrant fruit which makes them smell it again and again, the servants of yama would say “come on! we are just looking for you” – such freshness.

nampiLLai is now repeating the meaning once more [a SrIvaishNava arrived late to the lecture and nampiLLai is repeating the meanings specifically for him].

  • malaiayai eduththuk kal mAri kAththu – He likes to act for his devotees. Even if he performed the most difficult task, it would feel easy for him [AzhwAr would have used the word “sumandhu”  (holding it with difficulty) otherwise].
  • pasu nirai thannai – While performing difficult task and protecting, one just needs to not reject his help. [By saying “pasu nirai“] it implies that there is no such capability in them.
  • pirAnai – [one who does great favours] it is the nature of emperumAn to exist for helping others, to be like moon, cool breeze, sandalwood paste and water [all of which exist exclusively for the pleasure of others].
  • solli …bhagavAn who is said in chAndhOgya upanishath as “avAkyanAdhara:” (anAdhara: – not caring for anyone since he has no desires left to be fulfilled;  avAkI – he maintains silence considering everything else as unworthy of conversation – this is bhagavAn‘s state in SrIvaikuNtam), places himself for them [cowherds, devotees] and chatters continuously as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 2.1.2 “alavalai vandhu appUchchi kAttuginRAn” (krishNa who is like a chatter box, comes and scares me); similarly, [his devotees too] instead of glorifying mortal humans as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.9.9 “vAykoNdu mAnidam pAdAdhE“, should think “the purpose of having the mouth is fulfilled by praising him” as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.2 “en thanjanE-nanjanE-vanjanE ennum eppOdhumen vAsakam” (my speech will always say ‘my shelter, the one who is like poison for hurdles, mischievous one” ; those who are not like this,
  • alai koLAzhwAr says that they will enter [remain] in the hell of samsAram [material realm]. Another explanation – being not engaged in such dancing and jumping around itself is hell. [Isn’t there a separate place called naraka (hell)?] SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.18 “yasthvayA saha sa svarga: nirayO yasthvayA vinA | ithi jAnan parAm prIthim gachcha rAmamayAsaha ||” (sIthA pirAtti says to SrI rAma – To be with you is heaven for me and to be separated from you is hell for me; knowing this great love of mine towards you, you go along with me to the forest) – svarga and naraka will be different for each individual. Since AzhwAr feels like being in hell when not dancing like that, he says so.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 50

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr talked about emperumAnAr’s love towards the divine feet of periya perumAL, as ‘then arangan kazhal chenni vaiththu thAn adhil mannum’. In this pAsuram – In that context, he thinks about emperumAnAr’s divine feet which is his destiny, and is happy thinking about such character of emperumAnAr.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr talked about emperumAnAr’s love towards the divine feet of periya perumAL, as ‘then arangan kazhal chenni vaiththu thAn adhil mannum’. In this pAsuram – In that context, he thinks about emperumAnAr’s divine feet which is his destiny, and is happy thinking about such character and nature of emperumAnAr.

udhippana uththamar sindhaiyuL onRalar nenjam anjik
kodhiththida mARi nadappana koLLai van kuRRamellAm
padhiththa en pun kavip pAvinam pUNdana pAvu thol seer
ethiththalai nAthan irAmAnsan than iNai adiyE                         50

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

seer – He having auspicious qualities
thol –  since they have been ever present, they are very ancient in existence,
pAvu – which is spread in all the directions, as said in ‘thisai anaiththum ERum guNan’,
thalai  – He is the head of
nAthan – and is the master of
ethi – the yathis (sages/ascetics)
iramAnusan than – such emperumAnAr’s
adi – divine feet
iNai – having the beauty of being together,
sindhaiyuL – is in the divine minds of
uththamar  – the noble ones who are ananya prayOjanar (not seeking any other benefit), and ananyasAdhanar (not using something else as the means (for reaching emperumAnAr/emperumAn),
udhippana – as bright as the sun that has risen, as said in ‘ellaiyil seer iLa gyAyiRu iraNdu pOl [thiruvAimozhi – 8.5.5]((your two divine feet) are rising bright (in my heart) like two young suns);
onRalar – the opposing ones who reject or misinterpret vEdhas
nenjam ­ – heart
anji­ – scared
kodhiththida – and suffer in that fire of fear
mARi nadappana – (such divine feet) is of nature of each of the feet walking one after the other;
koLLai – (I having) abundant
van – and dangerous/powerful
kuRRam ellAm  – blemishes, which are all,
padhiththa – kept pressed together (in me),
en – (such) my
pun kavi  – lowly poetry
pAvinam  – of group of meters
pUNdana – are worn (by those divine feet of emperumAnAr).

Oh what a nature of these divine feet – is the thought here.

Since kaliththuRai (type of poetry of this prabandham) is one of the group, that is also the reason for saying pAvinam.

vyAkyAnam

pAvu thol seer ­– pAvu -> spreading;  As he himself said earlier as ‘thisai anaiththum ERum guNan’, emperumAnAr’s auspicious qualities are spread in all the directions; theose qualities are not something that were artificially acquired but are innate.

ethith thalai nAthan – Starting from aruLALap perumAL emperumAnAr, embAr, for the seven hundred jeeyars,  emperumAnAr is the set master, and advising them the nature, means, and destiny up to their true inner meanings (from thirumanthram; up to service to devotees), and in that way emperumAnAr is the head for them,  and (correcting/helping out) being their lord;

emperumAnAr-embAr

arulalaperumalemperumanar-svptr

irAmAnusan – such emperumAnAr;

than iNai adiyEfor relieving these worldly people from these worldly affairs, and to get them to enjoy the divine feet; if we research to see if there is anyone equal to these divine feet, even sarvESvaran who is having greatness as said in ‘rasOvaisa:  rasamhyEvAyam labhdhvAnandhee bhavathi’ (emperumAn is enjoyable to everyone), ‘kOhyEvAn nyAthvap prANyAth’, ‘yadhESa AkASa AnandhOnabhyAth’, ‘yEshahyEvAnandhayAthi’ (He gives His enjoyability to everyone (thus being their protector), and having auspicious qualities), and ‘aham thvA sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi [SrI bhagavath gIthA] (~ I will liberate you from all sins), thus as said by vEdhas and himself,  it is having to be doubted whether He would give liberation or not as said in ‘sidhdhir bhavathi vA nEthi samsayOchyutha sEvinAm’  (even for those who serve achyuthan it is doubtful whether they achieve him or not’,  and since He went without gracing bharathAzhvAn, it is also not equal to these (divine feet) as the means.

As said in ‘na samsayasthu thadhbhaktha paricharyA rathAthmanA gururEva parA bhakthi: gururEva parA kAma:’,  ‘upAya upEva bhAvEna thamEva SaraNam vraja’, emperumAnAr’s divine feet is of help without having to have any doubts, and is distinct and is having strength as reference, the means (of emperumAnAr’s divine feet) is being great than the aforementioned. So for that greatness only the two divine feet are equal to each other, is the idea.

udhippana uththamar sindhaiyuLuththamar are -> the opposite of the lowly and middle level ones who do not accept vEdhas, and those who follow vEdhas but are focussed on worldly dharmas (SamAnya SAsthram), and their actions; they are the ones who fully follow vEdhas, and who act based on higher levels of the SAsthram (viSesha SAsthram), and who are mumukshus (those who wish to be liberated from this world (and to reach paramapadham)), and who are eminent, and who do not go after any other means, and who do not wish for any other benefits, such highest level followers;

Or, since this prabandham of amudhanAr is the SAsthra related to charama parvam (ultimate state of subservience to AchAryan), this phrase would be about: among mumukshus (who wish for liberation including using other means), EkAnthis (using emperumAn only as the means), and paramaikAnthis (those who consider only AchAryan’s divine feet), here uththamar can be said to refer to paramaikAnthis.

sindhaiyuL – in their divine minds,

udhippana  – As said in ‘ellaiyil seer iLa nAyiRu iraNdu pOl [thiruvAimozhi – 8.5.5]((your two divine feet) are rising bright (in my heart) like two young suns), like two suns rising together in chakravALa parvatham (the usual mountainous place from where the sun rises with his chariot), in the divine minds of noble ones the two divine feet of emperumAnAr would always rise and be present bright;  for the aforementioned ones who do not have faith in them, those divine feet would never be present; it would only appear for those who have the love towards them;

{Translator’s note: For AzhvAr in thiruvAimozhi 8.5.5 above, the two suns that are the divine feet of emperumAn gave trouble only in some way like it does for the nocturnals, whereas emperumAnAr’s two divine feet are life support and enjoyable for those who surrendered to them}.

jeeyar too divined, ‘yatheendhra nAtha | SishtAgragaNya janasEvya bhavath padhAbhjE [yathirAja vimSathi]’.

abhiyukthar too divined, ‘ajadASayOdhayam yathirAja chandhram [yathirAja sapthathi]’.

onRalar nenjam anjik kodhiththida mARi nadappanaonRalar – is the opposing one like those who reject or misinterpret vEdhas; their heart would be afraid like how the nocturnals (like owl/bat/thief) would be afraid of sun rise; the rise of his divine feet as said in ‘kshiptha prathyarthi dhripthi: ’ (one who gives to those who wish for and get satisfied (with the divine feet)) , would create fear in them, like the brightness of sun would make those nocturnals suffer, the brightness of his divine feet would make the opposing ones suffer; like the sun rises as an enemy of those nocturnals and rises in different positions during uththarAyanam and dhakshiNAyanam,  his divine feet is also spread as an enemy in all directions and be of a different way (for the ones opposing).

By this, it talks about: to drive away those who reject or misinterpret vEdhas, how emperumAnAr made divine yAthrAs to vEnkatAchalam (thirumalai), yAdhavAchalam (mElkOte), SAradhA peetam (kAshmiram), etc.

koLLai van kuRRam ellAm padhiththa – As said in ‘nanindhitham karma thadhasthi lOkE sahasrachO yan na mayA vyadhAyi [sthOthra rathnam – 25]’ (there are no sins in this world which I have not committed many times), ’thEbhya: abhyathikAnyahamabhikshuthra: karOmikshaNAth’ (~ I have been accumulating sins for long, He has been incarnating to help me get rid of the sins, but I keep adding to it), ‘yAvachcha yachcha dhuritham, sakalasyajanthO: thAvath thaththadhi gancham Asthi sathyam’ (whatever sins were made by everyone in the world, I have accumulated more sins than the total of them), since the sins were done (by me) at all times in all the ways , they are abundant and powerful/dangerous, and they are combined together into one big bulk (into this prabandham);

en pun kavip pA inam –  Since this poetry of mine who does not have the knowledge, and knowledge about the form of writing poetry, it is being lowly, and not put together well, such group of metrics of my poetry; Or, since the kaliththuRai form of poetry includes multiple metrics, he calls it as ‘pA inam’.

pUNdana  – Without seeing any defect in this poetry thinking that these are the words of this ignorant one, his divine feet decorated themselves with this poetry, like how emperumAn would decorate Himself with the garland that is put together (without seeing what it contains, etc).

You see, he is being happy thinking about such nature of those divine feet.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

onRalar … mARi nadappana-  onRalar – who do not join/are not proper; they are those who reject or misinterpret vEdhas; for winning them, the divine journey of emperumAnAr to thiruvEnkatam etc., is to be thought about here.

It is well known that by the way of his walk, yagya mUrththy got afraid and lost to him.

udhippana -> like rising sun – enjoyability of those divine feet

nadappana -> walking of those feet – protecting nature

pUNdana -> wore my lowly poetry -> divine feet having qualities.

pAvu thol seer Since emperumAnAr’s greatness is spread among the opposing groups also, it is said as ‘pAvu thol seer’.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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