Monthly Archives: August 2016

rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 48

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As amudhanAr said that there is no equal to him, emperumAnAr looks at him and says – if you get interested in some matter other than me, or if I liked some matter other than you, then your happiness would not be long lasting. amudhanAr replies – for my lowliness, your kindness is there, and, for your kindness, my lowliness is there; so what reason would be there for us to unnecessarily leave each other?.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

As amudhanAr said that emperumAnAr entered his mind and is present day and night, and there is no equal to himself, emperumAnAr looks at him and says – if you leave me and wish for something else over time, and if I leave you and support some other matter, then this happiness would not last long isn’t it? amudhanAr replies – for my lowliness, your kindness is there, and, for your kindness, my lowliness is there as the only shelter; so what reason would be there for us to unnecessarily leave each other and become engaged with some other matter?

nigar inRi ninRa en neesadhaikku un aruLin kaN anRip
pugal onRum illai arutkum ahdhE pugal punmaiyilOr
pagarum perumai irAmAnusA ini nAm pazhudhE
agalum poruL en payan iruvOmukkum Ana pinnE              48

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

nigar inRi ninRa– In this world if you analyzed each one separately, that is those not having noble qualities (Athma guNam) and having plenty of ignoble qualities, there is no one like me who does not have an iota of noble qualities and is complete in ignoble qualities – in this way it stands that there is no one comparable to –
en neesadhaikku – me; for such lowness of me;
un – your highness who accepts that lowness itself as my offering, your –
aruLin kaN anRi – other than under (your) kindness
pugal onRum illai – there is no shadow to shelter under;
arutkum – for that kindness (of yours) too
ahdhE – only such very lowly ones
pugal – are the most suitable receivers; so there is no shelter (for your kindness) other than my lowliness;
irAmAnusA – Oh emperumAnAr!
perumai – You having the greatness
punmaiyilOr pagarum – which is talked about by those not having any blemishes,
(your taking me up) being the gain for my true nature, and the gain for your qualities, in this way,
iruvOmukku – for us both
payan Ana pin – this has been beneficial; there after
nAm – for us who have understood this,
poruL en – what reason would be there
ini – in the future
pazhudhE agalum – in unnecessarily leaving (each other).

That is, there is no reason to leave.

vyAkyAnam

nigar inRi ninRa en neesadhaikku – As said in ‘neesanEn niRaivu onRum ilEn [thiruvAimozhi – 3.3.4]’ (in the matter me who am the lowliest and not having any good qualities), and ‘ahamasmi aparAdhAnAm Alaya:’(I am the abode of all mistakes), and, ‘adhyApi vanchanapara:’ (am not being truthful in any ways), etc., even if you analyzed each individual who are low in noble qualities and are rich in ignoble qualities in this world, no one could be found matching me in complete absence of noble qualities and saturation of ignoble qualities, so, as said in ‘kOnyOsthi sadhruSOmayA’ (there is no one equal to me), for my state of lowness of me which does not have another example;

un aruLin kaN anRiAs said in ‘vyasanEshu manushyANam bhruSam bhavathi dhu:kitha: [SrI rAmAyaNam] (if any ones is sad in His kingdom He gets sad first, and if any one is happy then like a father He becomes very happy (people of ayOdhyA about SrI rAman)), other than your kindness which would not be able to tolerate when seeing the sorrows of others,

pugal onRum illai – there is no other shelter (for my lowness). That is, there is no shelter other than your kindness which considers such lowliness itself as the offering to accept.

Like vEdhAnthAchAryar said in ‘aparAdha gaNai: apUrNa kukshi: kamalAkAntha dhayE katham bhavithree’ (When I am here who has done innumerable sins among the sinners, you are avoiding me and looking for those who have done fewer sins, and so your stomach would not be fed well, so I wonder what would happen to you Oh the kind one who is the wife of the lover of kamalA!), one goes around on the look out for complete mistakes to do to satiate his hunger (for committing such mistakes), and where sarvESvaran corrected kAkAsuran who was a worst sinner, and where He said ‘yadhivA rAvaNassvayam [SrI rAmAyaNam]’ (even if one who has come is rAvaNan (bring him to me if he is here to surrender/to become a friend)), it is done such that if He protects the sinners then that would fit His glorious esteem, and since the sins of devotees are target of kindness of the lord,  it is apt for amudhanAr to say that for his lowliness there is no shelter other than emperumAnAr’s kindness.

arutkum ahdhE pugal – For the quality of kindness of your highness, my bad ways only would be the target. Since there is no use of the quality of kindness when applied to those who do not have any blemishes/sins, and since only those who are having blemishes can be the target of it, and since there is no sinner equal to me, it is only my lowliness is the shelter for your kindness.

thiruvarangathu-amudhanar.emperumAnAr-at-heartshelter for emperumAnA’s kindness

As ALavandhAr said in “nimajjatha: anantha bhavArNa vAntha: chirAyamE kUlam iva adhi labdha:’ (I was immersed in the sea (that is this material world) and could not find the shore, for a long time; I got you like finding the shore); ‘thvayAbhi labdha: bhagavan idhAneem anuththamam pAthram idham dhayAyA:’ (~ I was obtained by you also – as you were looking to save someone from the sea; now, bhagavAn! (being the one who knows everything), for your kindness I being the lowly target for saving), bhagavan -> you are the know-all, should I have to tell you; thvayAbhi -> in this way for you who got us, idhAneem -> for this day now; dhayAyA: for the kindness of yours; anuththamam pAthramidham -> I am the correct receiver (of your kindness) as I am the lowly one;

and as vEdhAnthAchAryar said in ‘mayithistathi dhushkruthAm pradhAnE mitha dhOshAnitharAn vichinvathee thvam | aparAdha ghaNairapUrNa kukshi: kamalAkAnthadhayE! katham bhavithree ||’ (I being the lowly target for saving; I am the complete target, for you I was available and you were able to attain the unattainable (me)); and ‘aparAdha chakravarthee’, and ‘pApAnAm prathamOsmyaham’, (I am the foremost of sins), that I being the full target of your kindness, I was obtained for you, like how one wishes to obtain something which is most difficult to obtain.

As ALavandhAr said in ‘anantha bhavArNa vAntha:’ it is possible to count the known oceans, but there is no end to the count of seas that is my samsAram (material world);

Since time is also eternal, births are also many, karmas (sins) are also new and incomprehensible, and since they are so many, this material world is having no end;

In such big ocean whose depth cannot be determined, ‘nimajjatha:’ -> I am immersed;

sirAya -> As said in ‘kEvalam svEchchayaivAham prEkshE kanchith kadhAchana [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’ (~ Due to your interest only I should be protected), for the time that is eternal;

mE -> for adiyEn (me the servant)

kUlamiva -> like the shore

labhdhOhi -> It is well known that if someone drowns in a sea then within a few hours sea would leave the body in its shore; In this material world, I was immersed, and was like ‘asannEva’ (~ like non-existent), for a long time, and you made me something significant (made me understand my true nature), and you brought me to the shore.

abhiyukthar (madhurakavi AzhvAr) too said that it was beneficial for both, as in ‘kaNdu koNdu ennaik kAri mARap pirAn paNdai val vinai pARRi aruLinAn [kaNNinuN chiruth thAmbu – 7]’ (koNdu is good for me; kaNdu is good for nammAzhvAr; also, paNdai val vinai pARRI aruLi  is good for me, kaNdu kONdu  is good for him);

nammAzhvAr too said, ‘andho adiyEn una pAdham agalakillEn iRaiyumE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.9]’ (I cannot be separated from your divine feet even for a second), and ‘pugal onRillA adiyEn un adikkeezh amarndhu pugundhEnE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10]’ (I who does not have any other shelter has surrendered under your divine feet and am well settled there).

It is said too as ’parama kAruNika: na bhavath para: parama sOchyathamO nahi math para:’ (you who is very kind, there is no one above you in such kindness; there is no one above me in lowliness);

punmaisource of blemishes, that is the material world, the samsAram that is in the form of eternal ill-knowledge, trace of karmas, taste of them, connection with material world;

ilOr(those not having the aforementioned blemishes) – this cannot be about those in this world who have vowed to be tied to material relations; and even though mukthas reached the shore (paramapadham) as said in ‘karai kaNdOr’, and are immersed in the qualities of emperumAn after living in this world and were tied in to this material world for some time, since this word (ilOr) is saying it in absolute terms, it cannot be about mukthas either; now, as said in ‘parisEshAth’, and ‘yathra pUrvE sAdhyAs santhi dhEvA:’ (they worship emperumAn eternally), and ‘thathviprAsO vipanyavO jAgurvaham sassamindhathE’ (the nithyasUris who are always awake and worshiping Him), ilOr is about nithyasUris who do not have any touch of this material world.

pagarum perumai – Since they live in the same place there, and since they are involved in enjoying the same One, since time eternal they fully know emperumAnAr’s greatness (as AdhSEshan), that greatness of emperumAnAr who is praised by such nithyasUris;

irAmAnusA – Oh emperumAnAr!

payan iruvOmukkum Ana pinnE – for your highness, and me the servant, the two of us, after attaining the ultimate benefit of being true nature and attaining the benefit of qualities; as this (your taking me up and entering into my heart) is being of use for both of us; then,

ini nAm pazhudhE agalum poruL en – for us who have understood the above, what would be the reason for us to unnecessarily leave each other in the future?  nAm -> us -> himself and emperumAnAr; Or, since it is sound of multi-plural, it implies nAm -> us -> emperumAnAr and all those related to him and those related to them and so on, every one of them (All, together with emperumAnAr).

nAm pazhudhE agalum poruL en – As said in ‘poruL allAdha ennaip poruL Akki adimai koNdAy [thiruvAimozhi – 5.7.3] (You took me as your servant and made me create thiruvAimozhi, I who was a nothing, You made me understand my true nature), and in ‘ennaith thee manam keduththAy [thiruvAimozhi – 2.7.8]’ (You made me have the mind that does not have anything bad), ‘maruvith thozhum manamE thandhAy [thiruvAimozhi – 2.7.7]’ (You gave me the mind that would focus and do services to You), ‘aRiyAdhana aRiviththa aththA nee seydhana adiyEn aRiyEnE [thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.2]’ (You helped me as an AchAryan, and I cannot measure the level of your help), (so) instead of being thankful to you, is there is any purpose for us in moving away from you?

As maNavALa mAmunigaL said in ‘pAvaththAl yAn piRappEnElum ini endhai ethirAsan thAn piRakkum ennai uyppadhA [Arththi prabandham – 9]’ (~ even if I am born again due to my karma, my lord emperumAnAr would also be born at each such time to save me), since moving away would be lowly for you, and since you are taking us up like attaining the unattainable, other than accepting us as your shadow and keeping under your feet, other than keeping us to be dedicated only for you, is there any benefit in your leaving us – is what is conveyed here.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

arutkum ahdhE pugal – there is no greatness in accepting those who do not have blemishes; it is great for your kindness when you accept those having blemishes;

rAman saying that he would accept even if it was rAvaNan (instead of vibhIshaNan who had come to surrender), shows the greatness of His kindness; seethA pirAtti who forgave and saved the servant women of rAvaNan– Her kindness is even greater.

Unlike the lowly ones like rAvaNan, I who do not have any one equal in lowliness was accepted by you – so the greatness of your kindness is the best.

So there is equivalence in my being the greatest in my sins and your being the greatest in your kindness; so why can’t these two be together?

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.9 – kaNNanai mAyan

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Lord-Vishnu

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “His vast wealth cannot be individually spoken about; we can only briefly speak about his wealth as chEthana (sentient) and achEthana (insentient) in the form of cause and effect respectively”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “Not just those which have been spoken thus far, I am unable to comprehend bhagavAn‘s nature of being all sentient and insentient beings”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaNNanai mAyan thannai kadal kadaindhu amudham koNda
aNNalai achchudhanai ananthanai ananthan than mEl
naNNi nanguRaiginRAnai gyAlam uNdumizhndha mAlai
eNNumARu aRiya mAttEn yAvaiyum yavarum thAnE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

yAvaiyum – all achEthana (insentient objects)
yavarum – all chEthana (sentient entities)
thAn – being himself
kaNNanai – being easily approachable for his devotees
mAyan thannai – one who is identified by his amazing qualities and activities

(for those who are looking for ulterior favours)
kadal – ocean
kadaindhu – churned
amudham koNda – work for them
aNNalai – being sarvaswAmy (lord of all)
achchudhanai – being the one who never leaves his devotees
ananthanai – being the one with unlimited glories in his true nature etc
ananthan thanmEl – on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) (who is capable of securing everything inside him)
naNNi – fitting well
nangu – happily
uRaiginRAnai – one who is resting
gyAlam – when there is danger for the world that is protected by him
uNdu – protecting by placing it in his stomach
umizhndha – and then let it out free [when safe to do so]
mAlai – one who is having vAthsalyam (motherly affection)
eNNumARu – to (comprehensively) think
aRiya mAttEn – I don’t know

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

I don’t know how to (comprehensively) think about emperumAn who is himself being all achEthana (insentient objects) and chEthana (sentient entities), being easily approachable for his devotees, being the one who is identified by his amazing qualities and activities, being the sarvaswAmy (lord of all) who churned the ocean and worked (even for those  who are looking for ulterior goals), being the one who never leaves his devotees, being the one with unlimited glories in his true nature etc and the the one who is happily fitting well on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) (who is capable of securing everything inside him) and resting there, who would with motherly affection, protect the world when there is danger by placing it in his stomach and would then let it out free [when safe to do so].

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaNNanai mAyan thannai – krishNa whose qualities and activities amaze everyone as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1eththiRam” (how is it possible?).
  • kadal …emperumAn, who is the lord of all, who would take pains in churning the ocean even for those who have ulterior goals [the goal of dhEvas is not to serve emperumAn, but immortality to enjoy worldly pleasures].
  • achchudhanaiemperumAn who has the natural quality of protecting those who are surrendered to him, always without fail.
  • ananthan … – emperumAn rests on AdhiSEshan comfortably, not waking up even when his divine consorts engage with him by pressing their breasts on him. [Would there be two entities with the quality of anantha (unlimited)? emperumAn and AdhiSEsha both are called anantha] Since AdhiSEshan is situated in ultimate servitude, he even secures the supreme lord within him out of great love.
  • gyAlam uNdu umizhndha mAlai – [He is of such kind nature that ] When there are people in danger, he cannot comfortably rest in there [he would immediately rush to their help].
  • eNNumARu aRiya mAttEn – Even he (krishNa) when elaborating his vibhUthi yOga (his great wealth), said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.19 “nAsthyanthO vistharasya mE” (there is no limit to my wealth); similarly, AzhwAr too is saying “I don’t know how to speak about him” after highlighting certain aspects previously.

When asked “can that be explained briefly?”, AzhwAr says,

  • yAvaiyum yavarum thAnEbhagavAn is the prakAri (underlying entity) and all chEthana and achEthana (sentient and insentient objects) are his prakAram (form/attribute).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 8 – veRuppodu samaNar

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srirangam golden vimana history

avathArikai (Introduction)

AzhwAr wonders that despite clearly stating that only SrI rAma is to be taken refuge under, the samsAris are going about their ways, eating and making merry as well as talking ill of emperumAn, instead of seeking him. He concludes that this must be due to the deep involvement that they have with puRachchamayIs (other sects) and tells emperumAn that these purachchamayIs should be eliminated.

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meaning:

வெறுப்பொடு சமணர் முண்டர் விதியில் சாக்கியர்கள் நின்பால்
பொறுப்பரியனகள் பேசிற் போவதே நோய தாகிக்
குறிப்பெனக்கு அடையுமாகில் கூடுமேல் தலையை ஆங்கே
அறுப்பதே கருமம் கண்டாய் அரங்கமாநகர் உளானே.

veRuppodu samaNar muNdar vidhiyil sAkkiyargaL ninpAl
poRuppariyanagaL pEsiR pOvadhE nOya dhAkik
kuRippenaku adaiyumAgil kUdumEl thalaiyay AngE
aRuppadhE karumam kandAy arngamAnagar uLAnE

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Word-by-word meaning

arangamAnagar uLAnE – Oh, thiruvarangA! The dweller of SrIrangam!
veRuppodu – (unable to listen to anything good about emperumAn) full of hatred
samaNar – the jainas
muNdar – the Saivas
vidhi il – the unfortunate (for they cannot attain emperumAn)
sAkkiyargaL – bhauddhas
nin pAl – in matters relating to you (who is the sarvESvaran, the Lord of all)
poRuppu ariyanagaL – the intolerable matters
pEsil – had they spoken
adhuvE nOyAgi – such abuses would become disease
pOvadhu – ending in demise (which would have been the best)

instead of that
enakku – to me (the one who cannot take such abuses about emperumAn)
kuRippu adaiyum Agil – should I get an opportunity
kUdumEl – if I have (the strength too)
AngE – at the same place (where they had abused emperumAn)
thalaiyai aRuppadhE – beheading such persons
karumam kandAy – is the just deed

vyAkhyAnam (Explanatory Notes)

veRuppodu  samaNar muNdar – with hatred, jainas and Saivas. These people, displaying their hatred,  become red in their faces without any reason, on hearing auspicious details about emperumAn. The glories that vEdhas speak about and the torture that animals are subjected to during conduct of jyOthishtOma yAga (a ritual conducted for a person to reach indhra lOkam (svargam or heaven)) may be intolerable for the jainas and Saivas. Saivas would hang themselves when emperumAn comes out of temples in a procession or bang their heads when they hear the thiruchchinnam  (bugle) blowing.

muNdar – this refers to Saivas. As said in thiruchchandha viruththam (71) “mundan nIRan…” Siva’s disciples are like him with tonsured heads. Or it could be taken as samaNar muNdar together, which would refer to the tonsured jainas.

vidhiyil sAkkiyargaL – the bhaudhdhas who are not fortunate enough to know about the greatness of emperumAn and to attain and enjoy him.

ninpAl poRuppariyanagaL pEsil – if they utter anything that will be unbearable, about you – who is greater than everyone else and who is the leader among those with auspicious qualities. The jainas deny the existence of ISvaran and his paramapadham. Saivas elevate a jIvAthmA, Siva, as paramAthmA and have a habit of talking ill of paramAthmA (SrIman nArAyaNan). These acts are naturally unbearable for vaidhikas. AzhwAr, unable to repeat the crude words that such people utter, mentions these as “poRuppariyanagaL” (those which are unbearable). These AzhwArs feel shy even to bring themselves to repeating the cruel thoughts and words of such people about emperumAn – example, “thAn thIngu ninantha” in thiruppAvai, “anRinnAdhana sey sisupAlanum…” in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi. An incident is quoted here by vyAkhyAthA – mahAbali, the grandson of prahlAdhAzhwAn, approached prahlAdhAzhWan and told him that his empire was shrinking and wanted to know the reason for this. prahlAdhAzhwAn told him  “you are troubling the dhEvas (celestial people) to please asuras (demons) and dhEvas have complained to SrIman nArAyaNan in thiruppARkdal (the milky ocean – where emperumAn resides to hear the issues of celestial people). SrIman nArAyaNan has promised to redeem their lost possessions and has taken incarnation as son of adhithi. You can take it that your possession is as good as lost” Upon hearing this, mahAbali started abusing SrIman nArAyaNan. SrI prahlAdhan plugged his ears and told mahAbali “You are lost. You abused SrIman nArAyaNan in my presence. Instead of this you could have done me a favour by beheading me. As a result of your abusing emperumAn, may you lose all your possession” and cursed him, says purANas. nanjIyar, one of our preceptors, asked his AchAryan SrI parAsara bhattar “prahlAdhan is an ascetic. Is it correct on his part to consider an empire as desirable and curse mahAbali that he would lose his kingdom?” bhattar responded saying that denying food that it craves for is the way of punishing a dog. In the same way, denying the kingdom that he values most is the punishment that can be meted out to mahAbali. Denying sandalwood paste and betel to a prince is the just punishment, says the vyAKhyAthA.

pOvadhE nOyadhAgi – if the person who hears the abuses about emperumAn were like piLLai thirunaRaiyUraiyar (who gave up his life on seeing emperumAn’s vigraham set afire by miscreants at thottiyam thirunArAyaNapuram near SrIrangam), he would give up his life. Or else, instead of remaining at the place where emperumAn is being abused and looking at the abusers, he should leave the place immediately. “gurOr yathra parivAdhO nindhAvApi pravarththathE I karNau thathra pidhAthavyau ganthavyam vA thathOnyatha: II” This is from manu smrithi which says where one’s AchAryan is being abused or spoken ill of, one should plug his ears or leave the place.

kuRippenakku adaiyumAgil – if instead of ending one’s life or leaving that place as mentioned in the previous paragraph, opportunity is available to destroy the enemy. kuRiththal – thinking about carrying out a task and opportunity being available to execute it.

kUdumEl – if possible. Instead of getting caught by the enemy and getting killed, if it is possible to catch hold of the enemy and destroy him. AzhwAr uses the condition “El” (if) to emphasise that it is not easy to carry out this task (of eliminating the enemy).

thalaiyai AngE aRuppadhE karumam – it is proper and justified to behead the person who had indulged in abusing emperumAn at the same place where the abuse took place. It is one’s duty. It is a good deed for the one who carries out beheading because he doesn’t have to hear the abuse anymore.  It is also a good deed for the abuser because it prevents him from further abusing emperumAn and earning emperumAn’s wrath more and more.  In agnishOmIya yAgam (a ritual) in which an animal is sacrificed, SAsthram says that both the animal which is killed and the yajamAna (one who carries out the ritual) who kills the animal reach svargam (heaven). In the same way, it benefits both the person who is beheaded and the person who beheads in maRumai (after death).

kaNdAyAzhwAr says that he is appealing to emperumAn who, as SrI rAma, removed the enemies (rAvaNa et al) of rushis (sages) in dhaNdakAraNyam (forest near madhya pradhEsh) as only he could carry out such a task.

aranga mAnagar uLAnE – The purpose of adopting a lying posture at SrIrangam is to exterminate the enemies of followers who came after his rAmAvathAram, says the AzhwAr. It is your duty to put an end to the jainas, bhaudhdhas and Saivas who speak ill of you is the message conveyed here.

An AzhwAr such as thoNdardippodi, who is full of mercy, who always goes in the path of righteousness and who is always at peace – how is it that he is talking of killing someone? More so, when vEdhas (sacred texts) forbid cruelty to others. (yajur vEdha says “na himsyAth sarvA bhUthAni” – no living creature should be harmed). Just as the same vEdha says elsewhere that it is alright to sacrifice an animal in yAgam (ritual) such as agnishOmIyam, this AzhwAr also asks for killing the abuser to save him from committing further sins. There is no friendship between the person who is deeply involved with the auspicious qualities of emperumAn and the person who abuses emperumAn (vyAkhyAthA quotes from thirumangai AzhwAr’s periya thirumozhi 11.5.7 “eNNAdha mAnidaththai eNNAdha pOdhellAm iniyavARE” – it is always pleasant not to think of those who do not think of emperumAn).

We shall go on to the 9th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.8 – oLi maNivaNNan

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-butter

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In eighth pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about emperumAn having primary personalities such as brahmA, rudhra etc, as his wealth.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

oLi maNivaNNan enkO oruvan enREththa ninRa
naLir madhich chadaiyan enkO nAnmugak kadavuL enkO
aLi magizhndhulagam ellAm padaiththavai Eththa ninRa
kaLi malarth thuLavan emmAn kaNNanai mAyanaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

aLi – for the favour of protecting
magizhndhu – having joy
ulagam ellAm – all the worlds
padaiththu – created

(out of gratefulness)
avai – those [worlds]
Eththa – praise
ninRa – standing (feeling accomplished)
kaLi – with flowing honey
malar – blossomed flower
thuLavan – due to the beauty of the thuLasi garland
emmAn – one who completely won over me
mAyanai – one who carried out amazing activities such as stealing butter etc
kaNNanai – krishNa

as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.7.1 “Ayar kozhundhAy avarAl pudaiyuNNum mAyappirAnai en mANikkach chOdhiyai” (my amazing ruby like radiant lord who was born in the cowherd clan and was beaten by them),
maNi – like a ruby (which is polished well)
oLi – best due to its radiance
vaNNan – having complexion

as said in yajur vEdham “Eka Eva rudhra:” (he is the only supreme) by his dependents,
oruvan enRu – that he is the one
Eththa – being praised
ninRa – one who is standing
thaLir – cool
madhi – due to having crescent moon
sadaiyan – due to having matted hair, rudhra who is engaged in enjoyment (having cool crescent moon) as well as penance (having matted hair)
nAnmugan – four headed brahmA (who is worshipped by all dhEvathAs)
enkO – Should I call him?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

What should I call krishNa who completely won over me by his beauty of wearing blossomed thuLasi flower garland that has flowing honey, who carried out amazing activities such as stealing butter etc and who is standing (feeling accomplished) being joyfully praised by all worlds which he created to do the favour of protecting them? As said in thiruvAimozhi 1.7.1 “Ayar kozhundhAy avarAl pudaiyuNNum mAyappirAnai en mANikkach chOdhiyai” (my amazing ruby like radiant lord who was born in the cowherd clan and was beaten by them), should I call him as the one who is having the complexion like the ruby (which is polished well) which is the best due to its radiance? Should I call him as rudhra who is standing being praised as the one (as said in yajur vEdham “Eka Eva rudhra:” (he is the only supreme) by his dependents), who is engaged in in enjoyment due to having cool crescent moon as well as in penance due to having matted hair? Should I call him as four headed brahmA (who is worshipped by all dhEvathAs)?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • oLi maNi vaNNan enkOAzhwAr is recollecting the beauty of emperumAn which he described in previous pAsuram.
  • oruvan … – Should I call him as rudhra who is considered as the primordial lord by ignorant people, who is having cool crescent moon [on his head] and matted hair?
  • naLir madhich chadaiyan enkO … – Should I call him as the one who is having the best knowledge? [Double meaning – Here, madhi is explained as knowledge (thalaiyAna madhi – best knowledge); thalaiyAna madhi also means crescent moon on his head]. If ignorance of his followers were removed, he would have nothing great.  Should I call him as brahmA who is the father of such rudhra?
  • aLi magizhndhu – He created the worlds only to protect them and in turn they praise him. He stood satisfied after the purpose of his creation got fulfilled.
  • kaLi malar … – kaLi – honey; malar – flower. emperumAn who is wearing a thuLasi garland which has both honey and flowers, and capturing me fully by manifesting that beautiful garland, being easily approachable by me and having amazing qualities and activities.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.7 – vAnavar Adhi

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-dark

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In seventh pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about emperumAn being the owner of purushArthams (goals) such as aiSwaryam etc.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully explains bhagavAn‘s wealth of worldly enjoyment and liberation.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

vAnavar Adhi enkO  vAnavar dheyvam enkO
vAnavar bOgam enkO vAnavar muRRum enkO
Unamil selvam enkO Unamil suvarggam enkO
Unamil mOkkam enkO oLi maNivaNNanaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

oLi – radiant
maNi – like a ruby
vaNNanai – having form
vAnavar – dhEvas (who are engaged in enjoyment)
Adhi – creator
vAnavar – their
dheyvam – worshippable god
vAnavar – their
bOgam – enjoyment (which is the result of their worship)
vAnavar – their
muRRum – all types of protection
Unamil – perennial
selvam – wealth
Unamil – that which lasts till the end of world
suvarggam – heavenly abode
Unamil – vast (unlike kaivalyam which is limited)
mOkkam – blissful mOksham (liberation)
enkO – should I say/call?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

What should I call that emperumAn who has a radiant ruby like form? Should I call him the creator of dhEvas (who are engaged in enjoyment)? Should I call him their worshippable god? Should I call him their enjoyment (which is the result of their worship)? Should I call him their all types of protection? Should I call him the perennial wealth? Should I call him the heavenly abode which lasts till the end of world? Should I call him the vast (unlike kaivalyam which is limited) blissful mOksham (liberation)? Some explain vAnavar as nithyasUris also.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vAnavar Adhi enkO – In previous pAsuram, “vAnavar Adhi” was explained as creator of brahmA et al; here it is explained as the controller of nithyasUris (eternally free souls of paramapadham) and bhagavAn being the cause of their existence etc. While the words are same, why is it explained differently in the two pAsurams? For brahmA et al, he helps them during their creation and subsequently lets them go and do their activities; but for nithyasUris, as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.7.1 “ellAm kaNNan” (everything is krishNa), he remains everything for them. They too consider krishNa as everything as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.19 “vAsudhEvassarvam” (vAsudhEva is everything).
  • vAnavar Adhi enkO – Should I call him the saththAhEthu (cause for the existence) of nithyasUris? What does it mean to be the cause for their existence? Are they not eternal already? Whether they are eternal or not, it is only his eternal desire that makes them eternal; if that desire changes, even those nithyasUris’ eternity will be lost. As said in nAnmugan thiruvanthAdhi 38 “eththEvar vAlAttum evvARu seygaiyum appodhu ozhiyum” (any dhEva’s pride or existence will be destroyed when he ignores them), if he changes his desire, then their existence will also be in jeopardy.
  • vAnavar dheyvam enkO – Should I call him as the refuge for them?
  • vAnavar bOgam enkO – Should I call him as [as in thiruvAimozhi 6.7.1] “uNNum sORu parugunIr thinnum veRRilai ellAm [Anavan]” (one who is food (which gives nutrition), water (which sustains) and betel leaves (which give enjoyment))?
  • vAnavar muRRum enkO – Is he everything that are not identified here so far, for them?
  • Unamil selvam enkO – Should I call him as perennial wealth instead of temporary wealth which disappears after a while?
  • Unamil suvarggam enkO – Should I call him as eternal heavenly abode unlike the worldly heaven where a person will be kicked out once his accumulated pious karma is exhausted? Are these defective heaven etc also not his wealth? Why is he specifically spelling out real heaven that has no defects here? It is similar to krishNa specifically highlighting in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.41 “SrImadhUrjithamEva vA” (anything that is auspicious, they are a miniscule part of my radiance).
  • Unamil mOkkam enkO – Should I call him as parama purushArtha lakshaNa mOksham (ultimate liberation of engaging in loving devotional service in paramapadham) which is going upto the prakAri (bhagavAn – entity) instead of stopping at AthmAnubhavam (enjoying oneself) which is at the level of prakAram (jIvAthmA – attribute, aspect)?
  • oLi maNivaNNanaiyE – The aforementioned aspects look similar to the distinguished form of bhagavAn.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 47

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Full Series

<< previous (kURum samayangaL)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr said ‘madhiyiliyEn thERumpadi en manam pugundhAn’ (~ he entered the illiterate me for my upliftment); in this pAsuram, he thinks about emperumAnAr who advises to the people of the world about the stand of truth (thathvam), and creates interest in them for surrendering to emperumAn; since such emperumAnAr has specially taken him up, amudhanAr says that there is no equal to himself who has been taken up in this way by emperumAnAr.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram, amudhanAr said that emperumAnAr entered his mind and was shining and we bowed to him; in this pAsuram he says – emperumAnAr who helped the people of the world by teaching them the top most dharma, that is, to surrender to emperumAn who has made Himself present in the kOyil (SrIrangam) to whom everyone could surrender to, such emperumAnAr destroyed my sins, and settled in my heart day and night, with the thought that there is no place equal to this (my heart); after this, there is no one equal to me.

iRainjappadum paran eesan arangan enRu ivvulagaththu
aRam cheppum aNNal irAmAnusan en aru vinaiyin
thiRam cheRRu iRavum pagalum vidAdhu endhan sindhaiyuLLE
niRaindhu oppaRa irundhAn enakku Arum nigar illaiyE                47

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

iRainja –  He whom everyone could surrender to
padum – as popularly said in vEdhAnthams
paran – who is the lord for everyone (sarvasmAthparan)
eesan – with ananthAzhAn (Adhi SEshan) etc., He came clearly as the supreme one
arangan enRu – and is lying down in kOyil (SrIrangam); that is, periya perumAL;
irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr,
aNNal – who is having the relationship with us such that he considers the joys and sorrows of us devotees as his,
aRam cheppum – advises about the true dharmam
ivvulagaththu – to this world which follows adharma (non-virtuous ways);
seRRu – he destroyed
en vinaiyin thiRam –  many clusters of my sins which have been accumulated which cannot be forgiven by anyone,
aru – and which are hard to remove by penances or amends,
and, as said in ‘allum nan pagalum idai veedinRi [thiruvAimozhi – 1.10.8]’ (through day and night, without any break),
pagalum iravum – without regard to day or night
vidAdhu – without any break / without leaving
endhan sindhaiyuLLE – inside my heart
irundhAn – and present
niRaindhu – as full
oppaRa – such that it could be said that there is no place equal to this;
enakku – for me who is the target of being taken up fully (by emperumAnAr)
Arum nigarillai – there is no equal.
thiRam – samUham – groups / clusters.

vyAkyAnam

iRainjappadum – As said in ‘samsArArNava magnAnAm vishayAthkrAntha chEthasAm vishNu pOdham vinAnAnyath kinchithasthi parAyaNam (~ those who have immersed in the big sea that is samsAram (material world), who are having the mind pulled by attractions towards everything of this world, there is no shelter other than emperumAn who is the boat that can save them),

and as said in ‘sarva lOka SaraNyAya rAghavAya mahAthmanE [vibhIshaNan in SrI rAmAyaNam]’ (~please inform rAman, that is, the one who can be surrendered to by everyone in the world),

and as said in ‘SaraNya: SaraNam sukruth’ (He is worshipped by everyone, He is the shelter, He thinks good for everyone);

and as said in ‘SaraNya: sarva lOkAnAm pithA mAthAcha mAdhava:’ (He is worshipped by everyone in all the worlds, he is the father, and mother, that is (because) He is the husband of pirAtti),

(thus it shows that He is worshipped by everyone who wishes for liberation),

and as said in ‘ezhuvAr vidai koLvAr een thuzhAyAnai, vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu vaigal thozhuvAr [mudhal thiruvanthAdhi – 26]’ ((not only by such people who wish for liberation but also by those who wish for wealth, etc.) some worship for wealth and go away; some worship for kaivalyam (getting liberation but enjoying own AthmA) and ask for permission to leave; some worship for getting emperumAn himself, to be with Him)), all these three types worship ranganAthan),

and as said in ‘muzhu Ezhulagukkum nAyakan [thiruvAimozhi – 6.4.11]’ (controls all the worlds),

in that way He is being surrendered to by all types of people, and is famous in this world for everyone;

paran – As said in ‘para:parANAm’ being the lord of all the lords;

eesansarvESvaran – who controls everything

arangan enRu – that it is periya perumAL who is in lying position along with ananthan (Adhi SEshan) etc., at kOyil (SrIrangam);

Or,

iRainjappadum – He whom everyone could surrender to

eesan – lord for everyone

eesan – as said in SthOthra rathnam ‘svAbhAvika anavadhika adhisaya eechidhruthvam nArAyaNathvayiramrushyathi vaidhika:ka:’(natural unending greatness that is your controlling of everyone, Oh nArAyaNa is there any vaidhika (follower of vEdhas) who does not accept this), He is the lord for everyone.

If asked who is the One having these greatness –

arangan – such lord is not being in some unreachable place; today He is being easily approachable and is present in the kOyil (SrIrangam), that is, thiruvarangach chelvanAr (SrI ranganAthan).

enRu – that He is of such nature, (says emperumAnAr)

ivvulagaththu  – In this world which goes behind adharma, people in this earth that creates darkness (ignorance about truth);

ARam cheppum – (emperumAnAr) divines the true dharma (that is SrI ranganAthan); Or, he says to the people that they surrender to such SrI ranganAthan, thus advising about escaping from this material world;

(OR),

Forms of SrIman nArAyaNan

Forms of SrIman nArAyaNan

1) iRainjappadum – If there is a trouble for the species of dhEvas, for them to go as a group along with brahmA and call Him; in order to hear their calls He is lying down on (Adhi SEshan) in the divine milky ocean, and He who is worshipped by them; thus this talks about vUyham.

2) paran – He is the head of immortals (nithyasUris), as said in ‘ayaRvaRum amarargaL adhipathi [thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.1]; (this talks about the One in SrIvaikuNtam).

3) eesan – As said in ‘antha:pravishtaSSAsthA janAnAm’, to control/direct everyone He is present inside everyone; so this talks about his being an antharyAmi.

4) arangan – As said in ‘archchayas sarva sahishNu: archaka parAdheena akilAthma sthithi:’ (in the form of archai (deity) He tolerates all the sins, and is under control of archakar), being in such deities and (in SrIrangam) as the important one; thus this talks about his archAvathAram.

5) aRam -> dharmam – As said in ‘rAmOvigrahavAn dharma:’ (dharmam is in the form of rAman itself), and, ‘yEchavEdhavidhO viprA: yEcha adhyAthma vidhOjanA: | thEvadhanthi mahAthmAnam krishNam dharmam sanAthanam’  (vEdhas, and those who learned vEdhas, the mahAthmAs say that krishNan is the dharmam), thus aRam (dharmam) is about the vibhavam (incarnations), based on the words about SrI rAma and krishNa who are the foremost in His incarnations; (aRam refers to rAman, krishNan)

enRu – reading the aforementioned phrases together along with ‘ivvulagaththu cheppum’, it shows that nArAyaNan who is in these five categories, is the means and the goal to surrender to (as mentioned as available for everyone (including dhEvas, nithyasUris, etc,.)); (says emperumAnAr).

aNNal – as said in ‘sAvidhyAtha:tham janayathi thath SrEshtam janma’, (~AchAryan who gives us education gets us to have (second) birth which is the best), and, ‘gurur mAthA guru: pithA:’, (AchAryan is the mother and the father); through these instructions, emperumAnAr is all types of relatives, and is having the unbreakable relationship such that he considers their losses and gains as his own (so he acts to correct them, rejoice for them);

irAmAnusan – such emperumAnAr;

en aru vinaiyin thiRam cheRRu – As said in ‘ahamasmi aparAdhAnAm Alaya:’ (I am the abode of all mistakes), and, ‘amaryAdha: kshudhra: chalamathi:’ (list of my mistakes, like not having respect for vEdhas, wishing for lowly matters, unstable mind, etc.), and, ‘pApAnAm prathmOsmyaham’, (I am the foremost of sins), and ‘nanindhitham karma thadhasthi lOkE sahasrachO yan na mayA vyadhAyi [sthOthra rathnam – 25]’ (there are no sins in this world which I have not committed many times), and ‘ahamasmi aparAdha chakravarthi’ (I am at the center of the circle of all mistakes), and, ‘yAvachcha yachcha dhuritham sakalasyajanthO: thAvachcha thaththadhadhigam cha mamAsthi sathyam’, (all the sins committed by all the people in the world for how many ever times, sins above that level are truly present in me), the sins that were done by me without leaving anything, and which cannot be removed by experiencing its effects or by penances, such groups of my sins;  emperumAnAr destroyed them without trace as said in ‘vAnO maRi kadalO [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 54]’ ((after surrendering to emperumAn) I am not able to locate my karmas. Have they vanished in to space? Or in to the sea of riding waves? Or in to the air? Or fire? Or forest? I don’t know where they have vanished into).  thiRam -> samUham (groups).

iravum pagalum vidAdhu – As said in ‘allum pagalum idai veedinRi [thiruvAimozhi – 1.10.8]’ (through day and night, without any break), – without break, whether day or night,

endhan sindhai uLLE – in my heart which had gone after other wishes and affections, which has now got emperumAnAr taking me up;

niRaindhu – not just in some superficial way (not like thottum thodAmalum as they say in thamizh), but with his auspicious qualities and his divine form, and with settling in, he entered in the  complete way; you see, like how sarvESvaran with his nature, form, and places/wealth is present without any limit having entered fully into the AthmA that is of tiny/atomic size, emperumAnAr also has entered fully in to amudhanAr’s very atomic (athi sUkshmam) heart without any limit;

oppu aRa irundhAn – emperumAnAr is present (in my heart), such that there is no equal to such affection of his; emperumAnAr is present in amudhanAr’s heart strongly well established.

enakku – to me who got emperumAnAr pursuing me,

Arum nigar illaiyE – how much ever great they may be, would not equal me.

As said in ‘avidhyAnthargathA: sarvE dhEhi samsaragOcharA:’ (~ immersed in ignorance in the material world and asking for other things), will such people equal me?

It is said ‘thruNIkrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: rAmAnuja padhAmbhOja samASrayaNa sAlina [prArthanA panchakam – by kUraththAzhvAn]’ (One who is dedicated to rAmAnujar’s lotus feet would ignore all the worlds (of leelA vibhUthi) as grass/dust);

 

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

en sindhai uLLE niRaindhu oppu aRa irundhAn – in my mind which was the place for affections toward other things, he came and established himself with affection; not only he is present with affection and without any disgust, but he is present with his wish fulfilled; like there is no other goal for his incarnation than to get amudhanAr for himself.

niRaindhu irundhAn– without any place in my mind regarding emperumAn, emperumAnAr himself is fully present in my mind; whereas nammAzhvAr said ‘thirumAl vandhu en nenju niRaiyap pugundhAn [thiruvAimozhi – 10.8.1]’ (~without any space for thoughts about worldly things, emperumAn came and fully occupied my mind) where there is no place for AzhvAr for worldy matters, here for amudhanAr there is no place for emperumAn himself.

enakkArum nigar illaiemperumAnAr is unparalleled in giving his grace; I am unparalleled in receiving his grace.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.6 – pAlenkO

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-messenger

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In sixth pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about emperumAn having the wealth of all sound forms, be it prose or musical poetry, starting with vEdham.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pAl enkO nAngu vEdhap payan enkO samaya nIdhi
nUl enkO nudangu kELvi isai enkO ivaRRuL nalla
mEl enkO vinaiyin mikka payan enkO kaNNan enkO
mAl enkO mAyan enkO vAnavar AdhiyaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vAnavar – for all dhEvas
Adhiyai – one who is the cause for their existence etc
nAngu vEdham – vEdhams’
pAl – classifications such as SAkA (branch) etc
nAngu vEdham – such four vEdhams’
payan – result
samayam – establishing the meanings
nIdhi – explaining logic
nUl – mImAmsA SAsthram
nudangu – engaging (the listeners)
kELvi – having sounds
isai – songs/tunes
ivaRRuL – in these (which have been discussed)
nalla – distinguished
mEl – unlimited, wondrous enjoyment
vinaiyil – not matching the effort
mikka – great
payan – result
kaNNan – krishNa (who is blissful, in the form of such result)
mAl – who enjoys (those who enjoy him) with great love
mAyan – having matching amazing activities
enkO – should I call?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

What should I call emperumAn who is the cause for existence etc of all dhEvas? Should I call him as classifications such as SAkA (branch) etc of vEdhams? Should I call him as the result of such four vEdhams? Should I call him as mImAmsA SAsthram which explains logic and establishes the meanings? Should I call him as songs/tunes that are having sounds that engage (the listeners)? Should I call him as the distinguished unlimited, wondrous enjoyment in these (which have been discussed)? Should I call him as the great result that does not match the [minimal] effort? Should I call him as krishNa (who is blissful, in the form of such result) who enjoys (those who enjoy him) with great love and has matching amazing activities?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pAl enkO – Reminded of the taste that was discussed in the previous pAsuram.
  • nAngu vEdhap payan enkO – Should I call him as vEdham which is the essence of all authentic scriptures? Only if there is a portion of vEdham which glorifies any one else, it should be said “result of four vEdhams”. Since that is not there, AzhwAr is saying “the result of vEdham which has four different aspects”. Alternatively, it is explained as – since emperumAn is fully explained while explaining the nature of worship and the object of worship, since there is nothing except him in vEdham in all four corners of it, he says so. emperumAn himself said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 15.15 “vEdhaiScha sarvair ahamEva vEdhya:” (In all of vEdhams, I am only fully explained).
  • samaya nIdhi nUl enkO – Should I call him as the ithihAsas (epics) and purANas (ancient history) which establish the principles of vaidhika samayam (vEdhic religion)? It is said in bArhaspathya smruthi “ithihAsapurANAbhyAm vEdham samupabrumhayEth” (vEdham should be explained through ithihAsams and purANams).
  • nudangu kELvi isai enkO – Should I call him as tunes/songs having sounds which mesmerize those who heard them?
  • ivaRRuL nalla mEl enkO – Should I call him as something that is beyond these great aspects that have been highlighted? He should tell about all, but will not do so [since he is going to explain further that he is greater than the means that help achieve him].
  • vinaiyil mikka payan enkO – Should I call him as many great results which are accomplished by insignificant efforts? Like planting a handful of paddy seeds and reaping a huge harvest as result. [As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.3] In this side [of jIvAthmA], there is “mithra bhAva” (pretending to be friend) and in that side [of bhagavAn], there is “na thyajEyam” (I will never leave you).
  • kaNNan enkO – Should I call him as krishNa who said “I am there for you”, as in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66 “mA sucha:” (do not grieve)? krishNa is the one who tells “All you need to do is to not reject what I provide you and accept the same. I will be there for you”.
  • mAl enkO – Should I call him as totally mad for his devotees? While reciting this SlOkam (SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66), he did not say before “idham thE nAthapaskAya” (Do not reveal this to those who are not austere … – SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.67). Like he warned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.1 “idham thu thE guhya thamam pravakshyAmi” (I am speaking to you this most confidential knowledge about bhakthi yOgam) [before instructing bhakthi yOgam], it should have been proper to speak “idham thE nAthapaskAya” before revealing it [i.e., the principle of surrender in charama SlOkam, that is SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66]. Instead, he first spoke about surrender and then said “idham thE nAthapaskAya” after that. When nanjIyar asked bhattar “Why did he do like this?”, bhattar mercifully explained “Unable to bear witnessing dhraupathi’s untied hair [she vowed to knot her hair only after the kauravas were killed and it is generally considered inauspicious to have the hair left untied. Also dhraupathi is so very dear to krishNa that he could not bear her grief at all], wanting to have it tied, without knowing what to do, he brought out the great principle in the open battle field; after doing so, he contemplated about the confidentiality of the principle, and thought ‘who is qualified to hear this? I have thrown a priceless gem in the ocean’ and said ‘pathaN pathaN’ [a phrase that identifies he worried greatly]”.
  • mAyan enkO – Should I call him as some one who performs amazing activities for his devotees such as going as messenger and being their charioteer? mahAbhAratham udhyOka parvam “kruthArthA bhunjathE dhUthA:” (krishNa to dhuryOdhana – Messenger will eat in the home and accept the worship (of the host) after completing their task. If you fulfill my desire, I will accept your food/worship).
  • vAnavar AdhiyaiyE – What can I say about emperumAn who is the cause for existence etc of brahmA et al, who considers me as the cause for his existence etc?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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yathirAja vimSathi – 20

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Vijnapanam yadidamadya tu mamakeenam
angeekurushva Yatiraja dayamburase /
ajnoyamatmagunalesa vivarjitascha
tasmadnanyasaranow bhavatiti matva //

(w to w) dayamburase  – ocean like grace,  which means restlessness towards other’s trouble, Yatiraja  – Yatiraja!, adya – now, mamakeenam  – of myself, yad vijnapanam  – what I requested from the third Sloka to the earlier Sloka, edam – that request, ajnaha ayam  – he, who has no good knowledge, atmagunalesa vivarjitascha – not even possessing the attributes of nature of soul like control of senses, organ of senses etc., tasmat – Hence, ananya saranaha bhavati  – “He has no refugee than myself”, iti matva – feel, angeekurushva –  to accept me.

(Commentary)   In this Sloka, Mamunigal completes that as requested earlier for the reason that he has no refugee other than Sri Ramanuja. Hence, he composed the word daymburase which means the grace like ocean that never dries out. The grace of Yatiraja is not emerged for any reason and it is everlasting. Sri Ramanuja is called krupamatraprasannacharya  (which means that Sri Ramanuja is an Acharya who by his spontaneous grace preaches with pure mind to attain liberation) as mentioned in the Slokas, dayaikasindo (6), ramanujarya karunaiva tu (14), Yatindra karunaiva tu (15), bhavatdayaya (16), karunaprinama (19), dayamburase (20).

In the first Sloka of this Stotra, the line, sri Madhavangri jalajatvaya nityaseva premavilasaya Parakusa pada bhaktam reminds the first two lines (Poo mannu madhu………uyndavan) in the first hymn of Ramanusa Nootrandadi.   It is to be noticed that  the last but one Sloka in this Stotra (Sriman Yatindra tava divya padabjasevam vivarththaya) which speaks about  Mamunigal’s request in doing service to be sustained towards Sri Ramanuja’s servants, is in parallel with Ramanuja Nootrandadi where the last but one hymn speaks of the same cause (Ramanusa un tondargatke anbuththirukkumbadi yennai angu atpadutte).

Hence, like Sri Ramanuja who was pleased with the recitation of Ramanusa Nootrandadi, there is no doubt that by recitation of this Yathiraaja Vimsati, he will be pleased.

Emberumanar Tiruvadikale saranam

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-slokam-20/

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yathirAja vimSathi – 19

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Sriman Yathindra tava divya padabjasevam
Srisailanatha karunaparinamadattam /
Thamanvaham mama vivardhaya natha tasyaha
Kamam viruddamakilancha nevartaya tvam /

(w to w) Sriman Yathindra  – Yathiraja, who possesses everlasting wealth of  granting liberation to His Acharyas and His disciples, tvam – Yourself, me – for myself,  karunaparinamadattam  – given by the mercy of my Acharya Tirumalai Azhawar otherwise called Tiruvoymozhippillai,  tham –such great, tava divya padabjasevam  – to perform service at Your feet, anvaham – daily, vivardhaya  – to be flourished. This means that the descendents of Sri Ramanuja’s servants lineage has to perform this service till the end – that is to be flourished by him.  natha  -Yathiraja!, tasyaha  – for such service, viruddam akilam-  all obstacles, kamam  nevartaya  – should be eradicated.

(Commentary) In this Sloka, Mamunigal completes the prayer for doing service to Sri Ramanuja’s disciples and Sri Ramanuja, which he began in Slokas 3 and 4 respectively. The word sevam vardhaya means the sustenance of service to Sri Ramanuja is requested. The prefix in the word vivardhaya, ’ vi’  means that the upkeep of service to Sri Ramanuja’s disciples is requested. With this, it is considered that accepting the service by Sri Ramanuja is that he is the means to eradicate the obstacles for that service and nourish the same. Mamunigal’s awareness about Sri Ramanuja was only by Thiruvaymozhipillai which is to be noted here. The obstacles for the service to Sri Ramanuja are as follows – experience of worldly matters and enjoyment of swarga etc., experience of soul, doing service for their enjoyment to the Lord and not for the sake of Sri Ramanuja.

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-slokam-19/

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yathirAja vimSathi – 18

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Kalatreyepi karanthraya nirmitathi
papakriyasya saranam bhagavatkshamaiva /
sa cha thvayaiva kamalaramanerthata yath
kshemassa eva hi Yatindra bhavatsrutanam //

(w to w) He Yathindra – Come Yathiraja!, Kalatreyepi  – by the past, present and future, karanthraya nirmita  – done by body, mind and action of three instruments, Bhagavan, athi papakriyasya  – unable to tolerate even by the God who tolerates the extreme extent of sins committed by a human, saranam  – a means to wipe out the sins, bhagavatkshamaiva  – God, whose tolerance will redeem  mistakes and the tolerance is the origin of His all other attributes.  Such tolerance is, thvaya eva  – even to order the Bhagavan by your goodself, kamalaramane –Goddess Sriranganachchiyar, the Consort who instigate the real quality of mercy and perseverance of Lord Sri Ranganatha, arthita yithi –  has requested in Saranagati Gadya,  sa eva – such request itself, bhavath sruthanam  – to be in the fold of yourself, who are taken by your goodself, kshemaha – such is the means for attaining liberation.

(Commentary) In the last Sloka, Sri Ranganatha is controlled by Sri Ramanuja. In this Sloka, Mamunigal requests Sri Ramanuja that he be blessed with no need to pray Lord Ranganatha, for washing off his sins. When Sri Ramanuja prayed in Gadyam beginning the Sloka manovakkayai and krithan kriyamanan aseshata kshamasva prayed that the sins done earlier, being done now and going to done in future – all without any trace should be wiped out. Such prayer will lead us to liberation.

There are three reasons in which Mamunigal establishes the greatness of Sri Ramanuja in the line kshemassa eva hi Yatindra bhavatsrutanam.   (1) In the Gadyam mentioned above, there is no clear mention about the prayer made by Sri Ramanuja for his servants. (2) Sri Ramanuja prostrated before Nammalvar, who on behalf of all subjects, prayed the Lord in Tiruviruttam first poem. (3) Actually, the magnitude of mercy is more in Sri Ramanuja than in Lord, as it can be noticed when Sri Ramanuja learnt the meaning of Charama Sloka at the feet of Tirukkotiyur Nambi, and he voluntarily propagated to all those who were  really longing to know. Such is the greatness of Sri Ramanuja. Hence, believing that Sri Ramanuja prayed Lord Ranganatha in Gadyam for the sake of all subjects in the world who approached him is underlined by the above line of Mamunigal. Although there is no word mama in the above Gadya, it is to be implied as he prays Lord to exonerate all mistakes done by all of us.

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-slokam-18/

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