Monthly Archives: August 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 3.5.2 – thaN kadal

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

pt388-rama-ravana-courtesy-crafts-of-india-2

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In  second pAsuram – AzhwAr says that those who are not captivated by Sriya:pathi‘s natural compassion with which he eliminates the hurdles of everyone and protects them, will be born in this samsAram (material realm) to experience great suffering.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. AzhwAr says “If we look at bhagavAn‘s compassion of eliminating the hurdles of samsAris who are unaware that ‘they have sufferings’, his helping of gajEndhrAzhwAn looks like helping of nithyasUris.

pAsuram

thaN kadal vattaththuLLAraith thamakkiraiyAth thadindhuNNum
thiN kazhaRkAl asurarkkuth thIngizhaikkum thirumAlaip
paNgaL thalaik koLLap pAdip paRandhum kuniththuzhalAdhAr
maN koL ulagil piRappAr valvinai mOdha malaindhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thaN – having coolness as a quality
kadal – surrounded by ocean
vattaththu – in earth
uLLArai – the residents
thamakku iraiyA – to merely fulfill their appetite
thadindhu – kill
uNNum – live by eating

(matching such hindrance for the people)
thiN – strong
kazhal – anklet highlighting valour
kAl – having in their feet
asurarkku – for the asuras (demons)
thIngu – hurting (in the form of destroying them)
izhaikkum – caused
thirumAlai – on the one who is being dear to pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) (because of such destruction of demons)
paNgaL – tunes
thalaik koLLa – to be overwhelmed
pAdi – sing
paRandhum – rising into the sky (like flying)
kuniththu – dance
uzhalAdhAr – those who don’t go around everywhere
maN koL – having abundant of soil/land
ulagil – in the world
val – difficult to exhaust
vinai – great sins
malaindhu – being inflicted with
mOdha – to be smashed on the ground
piRappAr – will be born

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

asuras (demons) who have strong anklet in their feet highlighting their valour that help them kill and live by eating the residents of the earth which is surrounded by the cool ocean, merely to fulfill their appetite. emperumAn hurts (in the form of destroying) them and due to that is dear to pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi). Those who don’t overwhelmingly sing tunes, praising emperumAn, rising into the sky (like flying), dance and go around everywhere, will be born in this world which is having abundant of soil/land, to be smashed on the ground, being inflicted with the great sins which are difficult to exhaust.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • thaN kadal – The demons would hurt the creatures and live off that.

What caused the demons to hurt them?

  • thaN kadal vattaththuLLAr – The bondage due to residing in the same place is the only cause for the demons hurting others. The same reason that makes sarvESvaran protect them [because they are staying in the place owned by him] , is causing the demons to hurt them. nampiLLai explains SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 1.20 “thE vayam bhavathA rakshyA:” (we are qualified to be protected by you) here.  “thE vayam bhavathA rakshyA:” – the maharishis in the dhaNdakAraNyam said “We who are suffering is the apt target for the protection of your highness who has vowed to protect the sufferers” and SrI rAma asked them “Why should I protect you? Are you trying to convince me by your upAsanam (worship)?”, the maharishis say “there can be defects in our worship”; “bhavadhvishaya vAsina:” (we are living in your kingdom) – [but] we belong to your kingdom. In this aspect, there is no option to escape [from protecting us]. You may say “this is beyond the boundary of my protection” like it was said in thiruviruththam 33 “ivaRRin puRaththAL enReNNO” (are you thinking that parAnkuSa nAyaki is outside the boundary of your protection?) [in this SlOkam, the maharishis continue to say “both towns and forests, they are all under SrI rAma’s control only]. So, the demons would hurt them just because they live and move around in their vicinity.
  • thamakkiraiyA – to nourish their bodies.
  • thadindhuNNum – living by hurting others.
  • thiN kazhaRkAl asurarkku – The demons who have the anklet of valour in their feet. Like SrI rAma has taken a vow to protect others saying as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 29.10 “…Ethath vratham mama” (this is my vow), they are wearing this anklet highlighting their desire to hurt others. Even if one can escape the vow of SrI rAma’s protection, one cannot escape the vow of the demons to hurt others.
  • thIngizhaikkum thirumAlai – If we consider “these demons were also created by us” and see their [eternal] bondage, our own wealth [people of the world etc] will be destroyed by them. Thinking “How can we protect our world even if it takes to destroy these demons?”, emperumAn would say as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.3 “mithrabhAvEna …” (even if they pretend to be friends, I will protect them) and pirAtti would say as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 58.44 “… bhavEyam SaraNam hi va:” (sIthA pirAtti to the lady-demons who are guarding her – I will protect you all) and thus would discuss/inquire ways to protect the devotees by pulling out the weeds only.
  • thirumAlai – paNgaL thalai koLLap pAdi – [Singing the glories of Sriman nArAyaNan with tunes] Five explanations:
    • Knowing that the devotees are singing about SrIman nArAyaNan, the tunes would come up and say “please use me, please use me”, i.e., singing with abundance of tunes.
    • Singing with importance to tunes.
    • Singing with the best tune.
    • Singing out of devotion, without proper tunes.
    • Singing in a tune which manifests various tunes.
  • paRandhum … – Those who are not dancing in a manner that their feet do not touch the ground and spend their time travelling and doing this only.  Those who are not jumping up and down and dancing as their routine.
  • maN koL … – “valvinai malaindhu mOdha maNkoL ulagil piRappAr” (they will take birth in the world which has land, being forcefully pushed by their sins). Those who remain stiff and indifferent without showing any emotions while experiencing bhagavAn, cannot do anything when they are severely affected by chAthurthikam (a type of deadly fever). Here “piRappu” (birth) is indicated for other sorrows such as old age, disease and death.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.5.1 – moymmAm pUmpozhil

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fifth decad

gajendramoksham

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr says “Worthless are those who remain indifferent even after observing emperumAn‘s vAthsalyam (motherly affection) of mercifully protecting SrI gajEndhrAzhwAn”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr says “Worthless are those who remain indifferent even after observing emperumAn‘s compassion of rushing from [mUnRAm thiruvanthAdhi 51] ‘kalangAp perunagaram‘ (paramapadham which is unshakable) to the banks of the pond where his devotee (gajEndhra the elephant) was in danger”.

pAsuram

moymmAm pUm pozhil poygai mudhalaich chiRaippattu ninRa
kaimmAvukkaruL seydha kArmugil pOl vaNNan kaNNan
emmAnaich chollip pAdi ezhundhum parandhum thuLLAdhAr
thammAl karumam en solleer thaN kadal vattaththuLLIrE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

moy – tightly packed
mA – well-grown
pU – blossomed [flowers]
pozhil – having gardens
poygai – in the pond
mudhalai – by the crocodile
siRaippattu – captured
ninRa – stood (standing still, being unable to reach the shore)
kaimmAvukku – for the elephant
aruL seydha – bestowed his mercy (of accepting the flower from its trunk before it loses its freshness and decorating himself with it)

to be enjoyed by such elephant after having its suffering eliminated,
kAr – pleasant (that which removes the fatigue of the one who sees)
mugil pOl – like a dark cloud
vaNNan – form
kaNNan – saulabhyam (simplicity) (of descending down to help uplift)
emmAnai – having [eternal] relationship (which is the cause for removing the fatigue and helping)
solli – speak with the mouth
pAdi – sing (out of joy)
ezhundhum – instead of being seated
paRandhum – flying high without having the feet touching the ground
thuLLAdhAr – by those who do not jump up and down doing somersaults
en – what
karumam – is the purpose?
thaN – cool
kadal – surrounded by ocean
vattaththu – earth
uLLIrE – those who are residing with the intention to enjoy bhagavAn
solleer – please tell

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn is the one who bestowed his mercy  (of accepting the flower from the elephant’s trunk before it loses its freshness and decorating himself with it) upon the elephant  which stood (standing still, being unable to reach the shore) captured by the crocodile in the pond which is having gardens [around it] which have tightly packed, well-grown, blossomed flowers; (to be enjoyed by such elephant after having its suffering eliminated,) he has pleasant (that which removes the fatigue of the one who sees), dark cloud like form, saulabhyam (simplicity) (of descending down to help uplift) and [eternal] relationship (which is the cause for removing the fatigue and helping). Oh those who are residing in the earth which is surrounded by cool ocean, with the intention to enjoy bhagavAn! please tell, what is the purpose of those who do not speak with the mouth, sing (out of joy), flying high without having the feet touching the ground instead of being seated and jumping up and down doing somersaults?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • moymmAm pUm pozhil – mA – bumble bee. Gardens swarmed by bumble bees. Another explanation. moy – tightly packed – denseness of the garden; that denseness will capture the heart. mA – [two meanings] mango tree, vastness; pUm pozhil – well blossomed garden. If denseness was only taken as meaning previously, here, heart-captivating aspect is explained.
  • poygai … – gajEndhraAzhwAn who wanted to serve the lotus feet of emperumAn with flowers, was worried since he did not find any; he saw the cool garden and blossomed-flower filled pond from a distance and ran in to it without realizing that there is a beast waiting inside; AzhwAr greatly enjoys the garden and pond as enjoyed by gajEndhrAzhwAn  back then; this pond resembles emperumAn as explained in thiruvAimozhi 10.1.8 “thayarathan peRRa maNiththadam” (the precious-gem like pond (SrI rAma) who was the son of dhaSaratha). As explained in thiruvAsiriyam 5 “thAmaraikkAdu malarkkaNNodu kanivAyudaiyadhumAy” (one who is having eyes which resembled a forest of blossomed lotus flowers, reddish fruit like mouth/lips), since these examples resemble emperumAn, AzhwAr enjoys them and becomes captivated. gajEndhrAzhwAn was captured by the crocodile in the pond. Since pond is not a natural habitat for the elephant, it was easily captured by the crocodile. If it was land, elephant would easily defeat the crocodile; the elephant is neither fighting with another elephant nor a lion [both are comparable in strength], but it is fighting with a lowly water worm [a slang for crocodile].
  • siRaippattu ninRa – The crocodile pulled the elephant into the pond and the elephant pulled the crocodile to the shore and it was going on for many years as said in SrI vishNu dharmam 68th chapter “dhivyam varshasaharakam” (1000 dhEva (celestial) years i.e., 360000 human years) and in the same SlOkam “gaja AkarshathE thIrE grAha AkarshathE jalE” (gajEndhrAzhwAn the elephant, pulls towards the banks of the pond and the crocodile pulls towards the water); subsequently, the elephant’s efforts stopped and the crocodile started winning; since water is not the natural habitat, the elephant’s strength will eventually reduce; and since water is the natural habitat and also the crocodile is inching towards victory, it’s strength gets doubled; the crocodile is explained in periya thirumozhi 5.8.3 as “muzhuvali mudhalai” (crocodile with full strength); previously, the crocodile’s strength would have been reduced since achieving it’s desire was not in sight; now that the victory is in sight, it acquires full strength. The crocodile knowing well, caught hold of the foot of the elephant which was not done before. For a long time, the crocodile was thinking “I have not seen an elephant to be relieved of my current condition” [a gandharva was previously cursed to become a crocodile and was told at that time that his relief will come from bhagavAn through an elephant] and held on to the elephant’s foot as soon as it entered the pond.
  • kaimmAvukku – kai means hand, mA means animal. kaimmA means elephant (which has a trunk/hand). Two explanations for using the name kaimmA – a) elephant being a tall/strong animal, would think that even if there is danger for other animals, I cannot be troubled – such elephant suffered here. b) even if there is a danger (in water), the elephant would keep its trunk outside and can breathe for long time – but here, even the trunk almost submerged into the water. As said in periya thiumozhi 2.3.9 “Anaiyin thuyaram” (elephant’s suffering), when an elephant is in danger, it must be really grave danger.
  • aruL seydha – even when the trunk was getting submerged, gajEndhrAzhwAn kept the flower above water to preserve freshness; [the mercy here is] emperumAn accepting such flower without losing its freshness. It can also be explained as emperumAn caringly holding the foot that was caught by the crocodile, with his divine hand and mercifully glancing at the elephant. To ensure that gajEndhrAzhwAn does not think that emperumAn is in a distant abode of paramapadham, emperumAn quickly arrived riding his garuda and accepted the flower from it.
  • aruL seydha – emperumAn broke the shackles from the elephant’s foot. The crocodile was described in periya thirumozhi 5.8.3 as “kodiyavAy vilangu” (animal with cruel mouth, shackle of cruel mouth). [it is the merciful] posture of emperumAn touching the elephant’s foot that was caught by the crocodile, with his divine hand. This is explained in “… grAham chakrENa mAdhava:” (The husband of SrI mahAlakshmi cut the crocodile into two using his chakra). nampiLLai explains nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 3.5 “kAlaik kadhuviduginRa” pAsuram here. When the gOpikAs placed their clothes in the banks of the pond and entered the pond, krishNa grabbed the clothes and climbed a tree on the banks of the pond. The gOpikAs find out about krishNa‘s mischief and request him to return their clothes in many different ways, but they did not succeed. One among them, who knew the secrets of ISwara, said “fishes such as kayal, vALai are biting our feet. emperumAn had rushed to the help of the elephant which had surrendered to him, when the elephant was attacked by the crocodile; why is he not coming to our help when we are suffering? There the elephant was troubled by one crocodile only, here we, who are helpless, are being troubled by both kayal and vALai”. The gOpikA thinks that krishNa would at once hand over the clothes hearing this. Since she was born in vaishNava family [ANdAL who is the daughter of periyAzhwAr, sang this pAsuram] would know the secrets of ISwara – they would know that bhagavAn would come and help on saying certain words.
  • kAr mugil … – The amazing reaction in emperumAn‘s form as well as qualities while helping the elephant. emperumAn let the elephant enjoy him and stood subserviently [by holding it’s foot caringly etc]; it is well known that krishNa means one who becomes subservient to those who enjoy him. emperumAn’s beautiful form and simplicity are the viSalya karaNi (that which heals wounds created by weapons) and sandhAna karaNi (the medicine which will re-fit the limbs which were cut off). He eliminated the sufferings of the elephant by letting the elephant enjoy him when he remained subserviently.
  • emmAnai – Elephant was removed of it’s shackles by his help. AzhwAr became captivated by emperumAn’s such compassion/simplicity. AzhwAr thinks how emperumAn helped SrI gajEndhrAzhwAn which is not of great birth, knowledge or activity, but only having taste [towards serving bhagavAn], and became completely taken over by emperumAn. When bhattar heard up to this line, he asked the reciter to recite the remaining part of the pAsuram [where AzhwAr says one would dance, sing etc] and mercifully said “How much ever emperumAn does, to be indifferent, we are needed; and when there is a danger for us, being emotionally affected and rushing to help us, he is needed”.
  • solli … – Those who are not speaking about the compassion of emperumAn helping the elephant, singing after being overwhelmed by love, standing up unable to stay still, flying high unable to keep the feet on ground and performing somersaults.
  • thammAl karumam en – As emperumAn is supposed to engage them in his service, what is the purpose of emperumAn’s creation [if they are not doing that]? What is the purpose of emperumAn assuming a form and doing this (to protect gajEndhrAzhwAn) [and still these people are not engaging in his service]?
  • thaN kadal vattaththuLLIr solleer – Though you are unlike us [who are knowledgeable], after assuming a [human] form and still not engaging in devotion towards bhagavAn, you being similar to those who are engaged in mundane pleasures – please tell me. In this world that is surrounded by ocean, both wise and unwise people will be present; AzhwAr says that this principle is easy to understand for both wise and unwise people.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 49

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< previous (nigar inRi ninRa en)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In previous two pAsurams amudhanAr talked about his love towards emperumAnAr due to his thinking about emperumAnAr’s great help, emperumAnAr who had won enemies/hurdles in amudhanAr’s mind, and about inability of that love to be unstable.  In this pAsuram, thinking about the abundance of goodness in this world after the incarnation of emperumAnAr, amudhanAr is joyful.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In previous two pAsurams amudhanAr talked about his surging love towards emperumAnAr as he thought about his great help in removing the hurdles to reaching liberation, and how emperumAnAr entered and stayed in his mind; and about how he addressed the one who had doubts whether such love will last long, he explained about the absence of instability of mind; In this pAsuram – after emperumAnAr incarnated, thinking about the growth of vEdham, and the fall of bad philosophies and faults of kali yugam, amudhanAr is joyful.

Anadhu semmai aRa neRi poymmai aRu samayam
pOnadhu ponRi iRandhadhu venkali pUngamalath
thEnadhipAy vayal thennarangan kazhal senni vaiththuth
thAn adhil mannum irAmAnusan iththalaththu udhiththE        49

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

thEn nadhi –  river that is honey
pU – (from the) beautiful
kamalam – lotus flowers
pAy – flowing as water for
vayal – the fields; having such fields
and with divine gardens, divine compound walls, divine gOpurams, and divine homes, due to such beautiful environment,
then – being great to see,
arangan – in such kOyil (SrIrangam) where periya perumAL is in resting pose, His,
kazhal – divine feet
iraAmAnusan –  emperumAnAr
chenni vaiththu – keeps in his head
thAn adhil mannum – and is together with those divine feet every day,
udhiththu  – after (such emperumAnAr) divined his incarnation
ith thalaththu – in this place,
aRa neRi ­– path of dharma
semmai – being proper due to following vEdham,
Anadhu – which was destroyed earlier and now got revived; (which was not followed earlier and now got followed well);
aRu samayam – other philosophies, six in number,
poymmai – that are contradicting to vEdhas and so were unfitly,
ponRip pOnadhu – were ended;
vem kali – the harsh kali yugam where dharma based on vEdhas would go down (due to reduced following), and other philosophies would come up,
iRandhadhu – such kali crushed, as said in ‘kaliyum kedum [thiruvAimozhi – 5.2.1]’

After he incarnated what a great abundance of good has happened – is the thought here.

When recited as ‘ponmai aRu samayam’ ­– those other six philosophies are troublesome due to not following according to vEdhas.

vyAkyAnam

pUngamalath thEn adhi pAy vayal – surrounded by fields in which honey from beautiful lotus flowers flow into like water for irrigation,

periyaperumAL-udayavar

then arangan – kOyil (SrIrangam) which is beautiful to see due to the environment of divine walls, gOpurams, gardens; periya perumAL having such kOyil (SrIrangam) as His place; His –

kazhal chenni vaiththu – divine feet which emperumAnAr kept in his head;   or, like when a kings is to be seated in throne, a crown is kept in his head to show the world that he is the king, emperumAnAr is keeping the crown that is arangan’s divine feet as said in ‘un adik keezh amarndhu pugundhEnE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10]; this indicates to everyone that he got the wealth of owning both the worlds.

thAn adhil mannumlike how He wished to keep his divine feet in emperumAnAr’s divine head (that is why He is lying down and showing his divine feet), emperumAnAr also in the same way with love keeps His divine feet in his head without any separation.

irAmAnusan – (such) emperumAnAr

ith thalaththu udhiththE – as he incarnated in this big world where the six philosophies were spread and kali was ruling such that there was confusion to the dharmas of vEdhAnthams.

Anadhu semmai aRa neRi – the true dharma became well. The path of good dharma specified by vEdhas which was down earlier became well. As said in ‘yadhipurandhara: ukthaya: chiranthana sarasvathi chikura bhandha sairandhrikA: avarOpithavAn aSruthE: apArthAn’ (~ emperumAnAr got from sarasvathi baNdAram and created SrI bhAshyam and won over the other philosophies),

vEdhas that were kept by the lowly ones were straightened up and the dharmas said by the vEdhas became good and well established (prathishtApanam); Isn’t he the vEdha mArgga prathishtApanAchAryar’?

poymmai aRu samayam pOnadhu ponRi – Since they were against the words of vEdhas, those six false philosophies were done with.

When recited as ‘poNmai aRu samayam’, as said in ‘thAmasAnAm mOhanArtham mOha SAsthraNi kAraya’ (~ (bhudhdha SAsthram) for thAmsa people for pushing them into this material world) , those who were untruly to the words of vEdhas and who would bewilder and confuse and bring down, such false philosophies;

iRandhadhu venkali – as said earlier, since it creates darkness (ignorance) such highly cruel kali was decimated; AzhvAr too said ‘kaliyum kedum kaNdu koNmin [thiruvAimozhi – 5.2.1]’.

As said in ‘ASinOthihi SAsthrArthAn AchArAn sthApayathyabhi | svayamAcharathEyasthu sa AchArya udhAhrudha:’ (Should learn SAsthram well; should get it established in the world and make them follow it, and also follow it himself), are attributes of an AchAryan; these identities of an AchAryan are well present in emperumAnAr.

It is said too in ‘puNyAmbhOja vikAsAya pApadhvAntha kshayAyacha | SrImAn Avira bhUthbhUmau rAmAnuja dhivAkara:’ (for the lotus flower that is our knowledge to grow, and for the darkness that is our ignorance to be removed, the sun that is emperumAnAr rose here).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

Anadhu – (became) Implies that it is not hard for emperumAnAr to get vEdhas to be followed well;

iRandhadhu venkali – Since it allowed place for other lowly philosophies and for them to destroy the proper dharma, it is called ‘ven’ kali (cruel). Whereas, in ‘kalau sankeerthya sEvam’ (singing about kESavan in kali yugam), since it gives place for singing His names, it is a naR kali (good), there.

amudhanAr says ‘iRandhadhu’ (died), as if kali is a person having life, because of thinking about the troubles it created.

pUnkamala … mannum irAmAnusan – The fileds in SrIrangam base their life on honey from the flowers there; similarly emperumAnAr living there is basing his life on honey that is the divine feet of periya perumAL.

Says ‘kazhal chenni vaiththu’ , like how a king would place crown on his head whenever he wishes, here too it looks as if thiruvarangan’s divine feet became owned by emperumAnAr, that he could keep them in head whenever he wishes to.

udaiyavar -> yathirAja  (king of ascetics) -> he is the king who wears the divine feet.

iththalaththu thAn adhil mannum –  Like a lotus flower in fire, in this world that gives darkness  he is well set under the divine feet of then arangan.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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thirumAlai – 9 – maRRum Or dheyvam

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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krishna-cattle

avathArikai (Introduction)

After listening to his previous pAsuram, the samsAris, afraid of being despised by the learned AzhwAr, told him “we have not attempted to reach emperumAn, not because of any affection for the other sects such as baudhdham etc. dhEvarIr (your highness) had asked us to reach [dhaSaratha] chakravarthy’s son SrI rAma. But he is dwelling inside a huge palace with many security guards guarding him throughout, not allowing common people like us to approach him. Even if we were to go past these security guards, there are sages such as vaSishta who would not allow ignorant persons such as ourselves to approach him. Hence to us, SrI rAma is very similar to paravAsudhEvan [who is in SrIvaikuNtam] in that we cannot approach either of them. We can approach only that entity who will not mind our lowly nature and our lack of qualification. Show us such a person” AzhwAr says “in that case you have to approach only kaNNan (krishNa) who, unmindful of any qualification or lack of it, falls head over heels on his followers and gives them refuge” in this pAsuram. Let us first look at the pAsuram:

maRRUmOr dheyvam uNdE madhiyilA mAnidangAL
uRRapOdhanRi nIngaL oruvan enRu uNara mAttIr
aRRamEl onRu aRiyIr avanallAl dheyvamillai
kaRRinam mEyththa endhai kazhaliNai paNimin nIRE

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word-by-word meaning

madhiyilA – without vEdhAntha (upanishath) knowledge
mAnidangAL – Oh men!
maRRum – (other than the entity mentioned by me) another
Or dheyvam – (fit to take refuge) a God
uNdE – is there anyone? (No, there is none)
nIngaL – you people
uRRapOdhu anRi – (only at the time when the dhEvathA [other than SrIman nArAyaNan] that you had surrendered to is in) difficult times

(at other times)
oruvan enRu – he is (the supreme) one entity
uNara mAttIr – you will not know
mEl – more than (the meanings given in SAsthram (sacred texts))
aRRam – the hidden entity
onRu aRiyIr – you will not know at all
avan allAl – other than him
dheyvam – Lord (fit to take refuge under)
illai – (there is) no one

(Hence)
kaRRu inam mEyththa – the one who herded cattle
endhai – my swAmy (master) [krishNa’s]
kazahliNai – the two exalted feet
nIr paNimin – you hold on to, as in surrendering
nIr – you

vyAkhyAnam

maRRUmOr dheyvam uNdE – other than the entity that I am talking about, will any other entity be supreme enough to attain? While there may be those who claim “I am the Controller” there is no one who is divine enough and of natural affinity towards us, for us to attain. As said in SrI bhagavath gIthA (9.23) “yE thvanya dhEvathA bhaktha:…” (when the devotees of other dhEvathAs (celestial beings) pray to those dhEvathAs with faith, they pray to me only; but in an improper way) kaNNan makes a distinction between himself and the other dhEvathAs. AzhwAr also points out to a similar disparity.

Or dheyvam – just as people living in abject poverty are counted among the citizenship, these dhEvathAs are also considered as “Gods” even though they will be lacking in the auspicious qualities associated with a God, if one delves deeper.

uNdEAzhwAr is not asking if there is any other dhEvathA who is equal to him. He is emphatically denying that there is anyone else who qualifies to be called as a God. Another interpretation is that he is asking if he is not the only famous protector. As said in thiruvAimozhi 2.2.2, if someone were to ask “Ezhulagum IpAvam seydhu aruLAl aLippArAr?” – in all the worlds, who else is there who will protect the samsAris and remove their sins? Even his enemies will respond saying that it is only he [emperumAn]. He is that famous. That he is the protector of all cannot be denied by anyone.

madhiyilA mAnidangAL – rig vEdha 8.1-12-6 says “thrINi SathA sahasrANyagnIm thrimSachcha dhEvA nava chAsaparyan” (agni claims that three thousand three hundred and thirty nine celestial people did service to me). samsAris, quoting this, ask the AzhwAr, when vEdhas say that there are thousands of such dhEvas  (celestial beings) who are being worshipped, how can he say that no one else has divine qualities? To which Azhwar responds, derisively, “madhiyilA mAnidangAL” – Oh men, without the wealth of vEdhAntha knowledge. The vyAkhyAthA quotes from several pramANams here to establish the supremacy of emperumAn:

  1. From yajur vEdham 3-11-21 “chathurhOthArO yathra sampadham gachchanthi dhEvai:” – various karmas starting with agnihOthra dharSapUrNamAsa karma, derive their pride from various dhEvathAs only because these dhEvathAs form the body of emperumAn who remains their inner soul (antharyAmi) for all.
  2. From SrI bhagavath gIthai 9-24 “aham hi sarvayagyAnAm bhOkthA cha prabhurEva cha” – It is true that for all yagyams (rituals), I remain the bhOkthA (one who enjoys) and one who gives the benefits. Those who attempt to reach other dhEvathAs do not realise this and they slip away from me.
  3. From dhaksha smruthi 355-4  “yE yajanthi pithrUn dhEvAn ….” – those who worship pithrUn (forefathers), celestial people, brAhmaNas and agni, worship vishNu who remains their inner soul.

Thus, those without knowledge of the sacred texts (Sruthi and smruthi) are born as chEthanas (sentient entity) who, by definition, are supposed to be with knowledge and AzhwAr laments on their misfortune. The vyAkhyAthA quotes from thirumangai AzhwAr’s periya thirumozhi 11.7.9  “AnvidayEanRadhARku ALAnArallAdhAr mAnidarallavenRu en manaththE vaiththEnE” – I did not consider as chEthanas those who were not blessed by krishNa and from bhUthaththAzhwAr’s  iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 44 “chengaNmAl nAmam maRandhArai mAnidamA vaiyEn” – I will not consider as chEthanas those who forget the glory of emperumAn. thaiththiriya upnishath also says “asannEva sa bhavathi I asath brahmEthi vEdha chEth I” – one who does not have the credit for knowing brahmam is considered to be non-existent. SrIvishNu purANam 6.5.87 says “thath gyAnamagyAnam anOnyadhuktham” – that is gyAnam which knows the one who is faultless, pure and shining. The rest is agyAnam. poygai AzhwAr says in the mudhal thiruvandhAdhi -67 “oN thAmaraiyAL kELvan oruvanaiyE nOkkum uNarvu” – gyAnam will consider only the lord of mahAlakshmi. Finally the vyAkhyAthA quotes from SrIvishNu purANam 1.19.41 “vidhyAnyA SilpanaipuNam”  – that which is not reason for bondage (to samsAram) is karmam; that which is reason for liberation (mOksham) is knowledge. The rest of the karmas is for looking after the physical body and the rest of knowledge is suited for repairing one’s sandals.

Thus AzhwAr says that samsAris are without knowledge since they have not gained knowledge of the one entity about which they should have gained. Hearing this, the samsAris told him “since we do not have knowledge, you, the knowledgeable, please enlighten us” AzhwAr responds….

uRRapOdhanRi nIngaL oruvan enRu uNaramAttIr – Azhwar says “however much I tell you, until the day of praLayam (deluge) comes and both you and the Gods that you took refuge under go together into the mouth of emperumAn, you will not realise that the supreme being is purushOththaman (emperumAn).

oruvan – non pareil; peerless; without any equal.

uRRapOdhu – when deluge strikes

Another interpretation given is that  “only on that day when the Gods that you took refuge under are troubled by demons such as rAvANa, hiraNya, basmAsura et al and they cry out to emperumAn will you realise that emperumAn is the supreme entity”

oruvan enRu uNaramAttIr – “samsAris like you who are worshipping other dhEvathAs will not even know until the troubled times (as mentioned earlier) come that emperumAn is also a God like the other dhEvathAs” is another interpretation to these words. AzhwAr feels dejected that the samsAris are not having affection towards emperumAn, who can grant mOksham itself, that they are having towards the other dhEvathAs who can fulfil only their insignificant wishes.

aRRamEl onRu aRiyIraRRam – meanings hidden. The reason for samsAris’ ignorance is that in the vEdhas, they know the meanings only superficially but not the inner, deep meanings. In jithanthE slOkam 1.7, it says “vachasAm vAchyamuththamam” – great people would know that you [emperumAn] are the cause behind all the effects, the real, superior meanings of words and the greatest goal to be reached. krishNa, in bhagavath gIthA 15.15 says “vEdhaiScha sarvairahamEva vEdhya:” – it is I who is known by all the vEdhas (sacred texts). SrI bhAgavatham 2.15.15 says “nArAyaNaparA vEdhA:” – vEdhas talk about nArAyaNa, the supreme being. Even when SAsthras praise other deities, it is only their antharyAmi (inner dwelling soul) SrIman nArAyaNan who is praised.

avan(aiy)allAl dheyvamillai  – no one else has total divine quality. AzhwAr is not saying that there are no other deities. As said in thaiththiriya upanishath SIkshAvalli 5.1 “sa AthmA angAnyanya dhEvathA:” – the other dhEvathAs exist as his forms and physical body; he is their soul. When emperumAn with complete, natural divinity is there, it is not proper to take refuge under other dhEvathAs who have only a fraction of his divine qualities, which were also granted only by him. AzhwAr refers to krishNa, who is mentioned next, as “avan

Please identify the person who you are referring to as “avan”, say the samsAris. AzhwAr responds….

kaRRinam mEyththa endhai kazhaliNai paNimin nIrE – Instead of calling him as krishNa, AzhwAr is using the term “kaRRinam mEyththa” – one who herded the cows and calves. This is to emphasise the fact that unlike other deities who are difficult to worship, he is very simple and makes himself available even to cows and calves. “kaRRu” is a modified form of “kanRu” which means calves. Instead of saying “Avinam mEyththa” (herding cows) AzhwAr is using the term “kaRRinam mEyththa” because cows, being grown up, would know where to go for grazing grass and take care of themselves while calves do not know even this. Cows are like nithyasUris to emperumAn who do not need constant care from him while he is more considerate towards calves, who are like samsAris, unable to protect themselves. As nammAzhwAr said in his thiruvAimozhi 10.3.10 “thivaththilum pasunirai mEyppuvaththi” – he takes more immense pleasure in herding calves than in being in SrIvaikuNtam. thirumangai AzhwAr in his thirunedunthANdakam 10 conveyed similar meaning “kanRu mEyththu inidhugandha kALAy” – you were pleased about herding calves.

endhai – father. You can also get attracted to this krishNAvathAram (incarnation of Lord krishNa) just as I got attracted to, says AzhwAr.

kazhaliNai paNimin nIrE – hold on to his two exalted feet. Just as iLaiyaperumAL (lakshmaNan) said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkinthA kANdam 4-12 “ahamasyAvarO bhrAthA guNair dhAsyamupAgatha:” – by his (SrI rAma’s) account, I am his brother. But I am a servitor to his qualities. I fell at the exalted feet of emperumAn seeing how fond he was of calves and cows. You could also hold on to his exalted feet. It is only emperumAn who, even when he takes incarnation in a lowly birth, allows his ASrithars (followers) to enjoy to the same extent whatever he himself experiences. Other deities cannot share this pride as is clear from events that happened in krishNAvathAram (kaRRinam mEyththa) and as seen in ithihAsas and purANas. In mahAbhAratham, there is a story on yayAthi. He was a king who attained the position of Indhra by his sheer puNya (good deeds) and sat on the same throne that Indhra sat on, along with Indhra. Indhra was very jealous of him and wanted to push him out of his place somehow. Very casually, he asked yayAthi as to who, in his time on earth,  was the one who had done greatest puNya? Afraid of telling a lie, yayAthi very truthfully said that people used to say that it was he who had done the greatest puNya. Indhra thundered that he had indulged in vanity and said that such a person was unfit to sit on his throne and toppled him from his seat. nanjIyar, one of our pUrvAchAryas, told his AchArya, SrI parASara bhattar that the purpose of this incident in mahAbhArath was not clear to him. bhattar responded saying that this was quoted to explain that other deities (such as indhra) cannot bear others coming anywhere near them and partaking in their enjoyment and that only emperumAn allows that and hence only he is fit to be surrendered to and not the other deities.

We shall move on to the next (10th) pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.5 – moymmA

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Previous Decad

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vishnu-12-azhwars

Highlights from thirukkurukaip pirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

moymmAm pUmpozhilAzhwAr speaks about a) the glories of those who enjoy [as explained in previous decad] emperumAn‘s auspicious qualities such as ASritha vAthsalyam (motherly affection towards his devotees) etc, speaking about such qualities after becoming greatly blissful after enjoying in such manner, entered many towns and dancing in glorification of such names in spite of being laughed at, and enthusiastically dancing around and b) the invalidity of those who don’t engage in such activities.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fifth decad – AzhwAr who enjoyed bhagavAn‘s qualities like those monkey devotees headed by hanumAn entered the madhuvanam [a garden which was belonging to sugrIva was ransacked in joy by the monkey army after hanumAn spotted sIthA in lankA, while they were heading back to sugrIva to inform about their success], like emperumAn himself mercifully explained the classification of dhEvas (saintly persons) and asuras (demoniac persons) in [16th chapter of] SrI bhagavath gIthA and condemned the demoniac people and glorified the saintly people, AzhwAr too condemns those ignorant ones, those who are inspired by those who are following rituals mechanically without understanding their relationship with bhagavAn, prideful ones, those who have not heard from many [authentic] sources, those who take shelter of emperumAn yet seek out worldly pleasures, demoniac personalities, those who don’t dance/sing on hearing the qualities of emperumAn even from demoniac people and glorifies those who become emotional on just hearing about bhagavAn’s qualities saying that their nature cannot be comprehended. How is it that AzhwAr who is best among saintly persons glorify some and condemn others [shouldn’t he be neutral]? SAsthram tells that “one should not be prideful due to enjoying worldly matters and not condemn anyone unless there is particular reason”; while having joy due to engaging in spiritual matters and condemning those who are not engaged spiritually is not contrary to SAsthram, this can be understood from the lives of mukthas (liberated souls) and SrI nAradha bhagavAn and is said to be acceptable.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth decad – after acquiring great taste in the servitude in context of everything being prakAra (form/attribute) of bhagavAn, AzhwAr being delighted highlights the following aspects:

  1. emperumAn‘s [who is the recipient of such servitude] quality of protecting when [his devotees are] in danger
  2. his ability to destroy demoniac persons
  3. his saving of those who are suffering
  4. his ability to eliminate the hurdles of one’s desires
  5. the purpose of his incarnations
  6. his extremely enjoyable aspect
  7. his partiality towards his devotees
  8. the simplicity of archAvathAram (deity form)
  9. his being the lord of ubhaya vibhUthi (spiritual and material realm)
  10. his being with distinguished forms

AzhwAr explains the great taste of servitude by meditating upon these aspects, out of great love; AzhwAr condemns those who do not become related to bhagavAn and glorifies those who are joyful [in thinking about bhagavAn], sing and dance his glories.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

After enjoying bhagavAn in “pugazhunalloruvan“, being joyful out of the great delight acquired by that, condemning those who don’t have that joy and glorifying those who have that is explained in “moymmAm pUmpozhil“. Only if one can understand his extreme sorrow which he felt in “munnIr gyAlam” after observing the connection with this material realm and the attachment towards worldly matters, one can understand his extreme joy that was acquired after enjoying bhagavAn; when asked “if AzhwAr is also engaged in bhagavath vishayam and we too are engaged in that, why is he like this [with extreme joy/sorrow in relation to bhagavAn] and why are we not like that?”, that is because we only know sorrow/joy in gain and loss of worldly matters which should be hidden from everyone, which in rejected in SAsthram in unison, difficult to acquire, more difficult to retain even if acquired, subsequently will lead to naraka (hell) and cause further damage.

Now, how is AzhwAr who is devoid of desire/hatred and is the best among saintly persons, subject to sorrow and joy which are rejected in SAsthram? His [sorrow/joy] are not the ones that are rejected by SAsthram. His joy is the result of experiencing sarvESvaran who is the abode of all auspicious qualities. His sorrow is due to thinking “such apt bhagavAn is lost since time eternal and we are engaged in worldly pleasures”.  Though SAsthram rejects kAma (mundane love), it also ordains bhagavath kAma (love for bhagavAn) as said in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “nidhidhyAsithavya:” (to be constantly meditated upon); Even mukthas (liberated souls) due to experiencing bhagavAn would joyfully say “aham annam aham annam aham annam” (I am the food that is enjoyed by bhagavAn (emphasised 3 times)); even nAradha et al would dance and sing in front of bhagavAn as said in mahAbhAratham rAjasUya parvam “… sarvasamSaya nirmukthO nAradhassarvadharmavith” (nAradha who has no doubts in any principles and who knows all dharmas (principles) well, happily shook his tree-bark clothes); even thiruvadi (hanumAn) who is the best among renunciates, ordered his monkey army to ransack and enjoy the madhuvanam; he said to them that he will take care of dhadhimuka et al who are safeguarding the garden in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam  63.15 “… ahamAvArayishyAmi yushmAkam paripanthina:” (I will stop your enemies); when [sugrIva] mahArAja was informed that his garden was destroyed [by the monkey army headed by hanumAn], sugrIva thought “though the time given to them has lapsed and knowing well that ‘I will punish severely’, they have destroyed my garden; this means they must have seen sIthA and worshipped her” as said in the same SlOkam “naishAmakruthakruthyAnAm IdhruSassyAdhupakrama:” (unless they have accomplished their task, they would not dare starting such activity [of destroying the garden]), he in turn became very joyful and slapped his tail on the peak of rushyamuka hill. Lucky that there was a garden in between which absorbed the great joy of the monkeys. Otherwise, they would have all patted on the back of princes [SrI rAma and lakshmaNa] which would have caused great ache [there were many many monkey soldiers in the group that had gone in search of sIthA down south]. If some one who consumes nice betel leaves/nuts cannot control his joy, what to speak of AzhwAr who fully consumed/enjoyed bhagavAn who is considered as a nectar for those who unite with him, who is sweeter than the nectar and who is like a sweet kalpa tharu (desire fulfilling tree).

AzhwAr speaks out of such great bliss acquired from experiencing bhagavAn, AzhwAr first condemns these following types of people:

  1. first about those who are ignorant in these spiritual matters
  2. those who have knowledge about these matters, yet being interested in other worldly matters
  3. those who are attached to ritualistic personalities/leaders and are saying “during the time of anushtAnams (vEdhic rituals), one cannot engage in bhagavAn’s festivals/celebrations”
  4. those who have knowledge, having learned the principles superficially and saying “both spiritual and ritualistic aspects are the same”
  5. those who consider themselves as Asthika (one who is faithful to SAsthram), yet acting outside the boundary of such SAsthram
  6. those who seek out mundane results which lead to rise of rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance)
  7. those who worship thAmasa dhEvathAs (demi-gods of ignorant nature)

Though these people may have some good qualities, if they don’t become emotionally charged on thinking about bhagavAn, AzhwAr condemns them considering them to be non-existent.

On the other hand, AzhwAr says “even if one is not great by birth [born in good families etc], activities, knowledge etc., if one becomes emotionally charged experiencing bhagavAn, I am his servant”.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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शरणागति गद्य- तनियन

श्री:  श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः  श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः  श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नमः

शरणागति गद्य
ramanujar-periyavachanpillai

श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजीश्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै

श्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै की तनियन (उनके अद्भुत व्याख्यान के प्रति कृतज्ञता प्रदर्शित करने के लिए यह तनियन प्रस्तुत की गयी है) –

श्रीमत कृष्ण समाह्वाय नमो यामुन शूनवे|
यत कटाक्षैक लक्ष्याणम् सुलभ: श्रीधरस्सदा ||

अर्थात: मैं श्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै स्वामीजी के चरणों की आराधना करता हूँ, जो श्रीयामुन के सुपुत्र है और जिनकी कृपाकटाक्ष से अत्यंत ही सुलभता से भगवान श्रीमन्नारायण की कृपा प्राप्त होती है।

शरणागति गद्य की तनियन –

वन्दे वेदांत कर्पूर चामीकर करंडकम
रामनुजार्यमार्याणाम चूड़ामणिमहर्निषम्

अर्थात: मैं, दिन-रात श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी की आराधना करता हूँ, जो सभी आचार्यों के मुकुटमणि के समान है, और जो उस स्वर्णिम कोष के समान है- जो कपूर जैसी सुगंध वाले वेदांत की रक्षा करते है।

– अडियेन भगवती रामानुजदासी

आधार – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/11/saranagathi-gadyam-thaniyans/

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शरणागति गद्य

श्री: श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नमः

भगवद श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने नौ उत्कृष्ट ग्रंथों की रचना की– श्रीभाष्य, वेदांत सारम, वेदांत दीपम, वेदार्थ संग्रहम, गीता भाष्यम, नित्य ग्रंथ, शरणागति गद्यम, श्रीरंग गद्यम और श्रीवैकुंठ गद्यम।

प्रथम तीन ग्रंथ, ब्रह्म सूत्र से सम्बंधित है, चतुर्थ ग्रंथ, वेदांत के कुछ विशिष्ट छंदों से संबंधित है, पंचम ग्रंथ, भगवद गीता पर रचित व्याख्यान है और नित्य ग्रंथ, श्रीवैष्णवों द्वारा किये जाने वाले दैनिक अनुष्ठानों (विशेषतः तिरुवाराधन) से संबंधित है।

अंतिम तीन ग्रंथ हमारे सिद्धांत की जीवनरेखा हैं– यह शरणागति के स्वरुप और उसे कैसे अनुसरण किया जाता है, उस विषय में अत्यंत सुंदर वर्णन प्रदान करता है। गद्य अर्थात छंदरहित और त्रय अर्थात तीन। क्यूंकि इस श्रृंखला में त्रय/ तीन गद्य हैं, इसलिए एक रूप में इसे गद्य त्रय भी कहा जाता है। हमारे पूर्वाचार्यों ने इन गद्य त्रय को अत्यधिक महत्त्व प्रदान किया है। यही कारण है कि जिनमें अन्य दिव्य संप्रदाय ग्रंथों के सार को आत्मसात करने का सामर्थ्य नहीं है, वे भी अपने आचार्य की कृपा से इन तीन ग्रंथों का ज्ञान प्राप्त कर सकते हैं। आज की अत्यंत तेज जीवनशैली में, कभी-कभी आचार्य के लिए अपने अनुयायियों को इनके समस्त अर्थों का ज्ञान प्रदान करना कठिन हो जाता है। इसलिए इन तीन गद्यों की विशेषता को लेखों की श्रृंखला द्वारा समझाने का यह एक छोटा सा प्रयास है।

namperumal-nachiyar-serthiश्रीरंगनाच्चियार और श्रीरंगनाथ भगवान– श्रीरंगमramanuja-srirangam श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी – श्रीरंगम

श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने श्रीरंगम में पेरिय पिराट्टियार के तिरुनक्षत्र दिवस, उत्तर-फाल्गुन का चयन कर, उस दिन दिव्य दंपत्ति के श्रीचरणों में शरणागति की और अपने अनुयायियों को भी अनुकरणीय मार्ग दर्शाया। इस दिन श्रीरंगम में श्रीरंगनाथ भगवान और श्रीरंगनाच्चियार दोनों एक ही सिंहासन पर विराजमान होकर अपने दासों पर कृपा करते हैं। यह वर्ष का एकमात्र दिवस है, जब दिव्य दंपत्ति एक साथ विराजते हैं। श्रीरंगनाच्चियार के साथ विराजे भगवान श्रीरंगनाथ अपना सख्त स्वरुप त्यागकर, अपने दासों पर दया करते हैं। इसलिए श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने इस दिन का चयन किया।

सर्वप्रथम उन्होंने पेरिय पिराट्टीयार के श्रीचरणों में शरणागति की, और तद्पश्चात नम्पेरुमाल के श्रीचरणों में। शरणागति गद्य में इसी की व्याख्या की गयी है। फिर उन्होंने श्रीरंग गद्य की रचना की, जो विशेषतः श्रीरंगम में विराजे नम्पेरुमाल के प्रति समर्पित है। तृतीय गद्य (श्रीवैकुंठ गद्य) में श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी, श्रीवैकुंठ की विशेषताओं का वर्णन करते हैं, जिससे प्रपन्न (वह प्राणी जो प्रपत्ति अथवा शरणागति करता है) उस स्थान के महत्त्व को समझ सके जहाँ मोक्ष (लौकिक संसार से, जन्म मरण के चक्र से मुक्ति) प्राप्ति पर उन्हें जाना है।

periyavachan-pillaiश्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै

इस गद्य के अर्थों का प्रयास, परमकरुणाकर श्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै के व्याख्यान पर आधारित है। शरणागति गद्य में 23 चूर्णिकायें हैं (एक चूर्णिका लगभग एक परिच्छेद के समान है)। सर्वप्रथम प्रत्येक चूर्णिका के शब्दों का अर्थ समझाया गया है और फिर श्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै के व्याख्यान के माध्यम से श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी द्वारा प्रकट किये गए सार को समझाया गया है। हम श्रीवेलुक्कुड़ी श्री उ.वे. कृष्णन स्वामीजी के आभारी हैं, जिनके कालक्षेप के द्वारा श्रीपेरियवाच्चान पिल्लै के अद्भुत व्याख्यान को समझने में सहायता प्राप्त हुई।

अब हम इस अद्भुत ग्रंथ के हिंदी अनुवाद को प्रारंभ करेंगे।

– अडियेन भगवती रामानुजदासी

अंग्रेजी संस्करण – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/11/saranagathi-gadhyam/

प्रमेय (लक्ष्य) – http://koyil.org
प्रमाण (शास्त्र) – http://granthams.koyil.org
प्रमाता (आचार्य) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
श्रीवैष्णव शिक्षा/बालकों का पोर्टल – http://pillai.koyil.org

आर्ति प्रबंधं – तनियन (आवाहन )

श्री:  श्रीमते शठकोपाय नम:  श्रीमते रामानुजाय नम:  श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नम:

आर्ति प्रबंध

bhagavad_ramanuja_2011_may-624x907

तनियन १

तेन पयिलुम थारान एतिरासन सेवडी मेल *
तान परमपत्ति तलैयेडुथ्थु *
मानदर्क्कु उणवाग आर्तियुडन ओण्डमिळ्गळ सेईदान *
मणवाळ मामुनिवन वंदु *

शब्धार्थ :

मणवाळ मामुनिवन – पेरिय जीयर , जो मणवाळ मामुनिगळ नाम से भी जाने जाते हैं।
वंदु – इस संसार में अवतार किये
तान – इस अवतार के समय
परमपत्ति- भक्ति की सर्वश्रेष्ठ रूप
तलैयेडुथ्थु – के प्रति अनुग्रहित
थारान – मालाधार
पयिलुम- के संग बहता
तेन – मधु
एतिरासन – रामानुजाचार्य, जो एतिरासन के नाम से भी जाने जाते हैं।
सेवडी मेल- (मणवाळ मामुनिगळ) एतिरासन के चरण कमल के विषय में लिखें
सेईदान – “आर्ति प्रबंध” नामक ग्रंथ
ओण – अति सुंदर (परम भोग्य वस्तु )
तमिळ्गळ – द्राविड़ भाषा में(तमिळ में )
आर्तियुडन- उनके शोक दशा को देख , दया के कारण, हित मात्र , सुधारने के लिए
मानदर्क्कु – अज्ञानियों केलिए है यह ग्रंथ
उणवाग – उनके सोच के प्रति भोजन है।

सरल अनुवाद :

पेरिय जीयर नाम से भी पहचाने जाने वाले मणवाळ मामुनिगळ इस संसार में अवतार किये। इस समय, उनको स्वयं यतिराज, जो मधु बहने वाले मालाधारी हैं, के अनुग्रह से परम भक्ति प्राप्त हुई। मणवाळ मामुनि अत्यंत दिलचस्पी (आर्ति ) संग, यतिराज के चरण कमल के महत्वपूर्णता के बारे में सुंदर तमिळ में लिखें , और यहि आर्ति प्रबंध नाम से प्रसिद्ध है। यह ग्रंथ अज्ञानियों के लिए है और उनके ज्ञान के लिए भोजन के समान है।

तनियन २

वम्बविळ तार वण्मै मणवाळ मामुनिगळ *
अम्बुवियिल काल पोरुन्दा आर्तियिनाल * उम्बर तोळुम
विण्णुलगिल चेल्ल विरैन्दु एतिरासन पदम्गळ
नण्णि उरैत्तार नमक्कु

शब्धार्थ :
मणवाळ मामुनिगळ – पेरिय जीयर , जो मणवाळ मामुनिगळ नाम से भी जाने जाते हैं।
उरैत्तार – आशीर्वाद के रूप में दिए
नमक्कु – हमें (आर्ति प्रबंध नामक के ग्रंथ से )
वण्मै – अत्यंत औदार्य प्रकट होते हैं
तार – सुंदर फूलों के माला से अलंकृत
वम्बविळ – उस क्षण में खिले फूल
आर्तियिनाल – (मणवाळ मामुनिगळ ) यह एहसास होने पर शोक में, कि
काल – उनके दिव्य चरण कमल
पोरुन्दा – अनुचित इस
अम – सुंदर
पुवियिल – संसार, इस कारण
विरैन्द – शीघ्र करने के प्रयत्न किये
चेल्ल – आरोहण
विण्णुलगिल – परमपद (श्रीमन नारायण के नित्य वास, जो सर्वश्रेष्ठ है )
तोळुम – पूज्नीय है
उम्बर – नित्य सूरियों से (श्रीमन नारायण के नित्य दास )
नण्णि – यह संभव था दृढ़ और अटल विश्वास
पदम्गळ – चरण कमल
एतिरासन – एतिरासन के

सरल अनुवाद :
नव, मुकुल फूलों के माला धारित मणवाळ मामुनिगळ ने आर्ति प्रबंध नामक ग्रंथ से हमें आशीर्वाद किए। अपने चरण कमल को इस संसार की अनुचित मान वे नित्य सूरियों से पूज्नीय परमपद पधारने केलिए उताव्ले हुए। एम्बेरुमानार के आशीर्वाद के कारण ही मणवाळ मामुनिगळ को यह संभव हुआ।

– अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासि

आधार – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2016/06/arththi-prabandham-thaniyans/

संगृहीत- http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

प्रमेय (लक्ष्य) – http://koyil.org
प्रमाण (शास्त्र) – http://granthams.koyil.org
प्रमाता (आचार्य) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
श्रीवैष्णव शिक्षा/बालकों का पोर्टल – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.11 – kUdi vaNdaRaiyum

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

nammazhwar-art

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end – AzhwAr says “those who learn this decad, will attain eternal service and be liked by nithyasUris (eternally free souls of paramapadham)”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully explains uninterrupted experience of bhagavAn as the result of this decad.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kUdi vaNdaRaiyum thaNdAr koNdalpOl vaNNan thannai
mAdalar pozhil kurugUr vaN SatakOpan sonna
pAdal Or AyiraththuL ivaiyum oru paththum vallAr
vIdila bOgam eydhi virumbuvar amarar moyththE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vaNdu – bumble bees
kUdi – grouped
aRaiyum – buzzing (due to the joy of drinking honey)
thaN – cool
thAr – wearing divine garland
koNdal pOl – like a black cloud
vaNNan thannai – being the one with such complexion
mAdu – on all sides
alar – blossomed
pozhil – having gardens
kurugUr – leader of AzhwArthirunagari
vaN SatakOpan – nammAzhwAr
sonna – mercifully spoke
pAdal – with music
Or – distinguished
AyiraththuL – in the thousand pAsurams
oru – distinguished
ivaiyum paththum – this decad also (which explained bhagavAn having all worlds as his wealth like having distinguished form)
vallAr – those who can practice
vIdila – uninterrupted
bOgam – experience of bhagavAn
eydhi – attain
amarar – nithyasUris
moyththu – surround
virumbuvar – be desired

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nammAzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which is having gardens that are filled on all sides with blossomed flowers, mercifully spoke with music in this distinguished decad (which explained bhagavAn having all worlds as his wealth like having distinguished form) in the distinguished thousand pAsurams about emperumAn who is the one with black cloud like complexion and wearing cool divine garland that has groups of bumble bees buzzing (due to the joy of drinking honey); those who can practice this decad [which has such greatness] will attain uninterrupted experience of bhagavAn and will be surrounded and desired by nithyasUris.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kUdi vaNdaRaiyum … – Here AzhwAr is explaining the matching beauty of emperumAn‘s shoulders and the garland which decorates them, similar to his wealth which was explained in detail previously. AzhwAr praised sarvESvaran who is having a pleasant cloud like form and a pleasant garland which is entered by bumble bees as a group like it is done while stepping into a flowing river [when entering a flowing river, usually people would enter as a group to secure each other] and which are buzzing after drinking the honey.
  • mAdalar … – Mercifully sung by the most magnanimous nammAzhwAr who is the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which has well blossomed [flower bearing] gardens.
  • pAdal Or Ayiram … – Those who can practice this thousand pAsurams with music which resembles a flower which blossoms with fragrance.
  • vIdila bOgam eydhi – attaining the blissful liberation where there is no question of break.
  • virumbuvar amarar moyththE – Will be greatly desired by nithyasUris. [Why would nithyasUris desire for those who practice these pAsurams?] Since nithyasUris consider the material realm as owned by bhagavAn and since they lovingly and greatly admire AzhwAr thinking “whatever we enjoy being in this spiritual realm [which is favourable for bhagavath vishayam], AzhwAr being in material realm [which is unfavourable for bhagavath vishayam], having acquired this pristine knowledge and enjoying the same experience”, they would approach and greatly enjoy those who recite such AzhwAr’s prabandhams even at the expense of not enjoying sarvESvaran [This is in context of nithyasUris desiring those who practice these pAsurams even in this material realm].

Finally, nampiLLai summarizes the contents of this decad briefly.

  • In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr explained briefly in this pAsuram, the principle that was explained in detail in this decad.
  • In the second pAsuram,  he spoke about the effect/result of [pancha] bhUthams (5 great elements) in order.
  • In the third pAsuram, he enjoyed emperumAn being the sustainer of entire universe and his distinguished form together.
  • In the fourth pAsuram, he said “emperumAn is the owner of radiant precious gems such as ruby etc”.
  • In the fifth pAsuram,  he mercifully spoke about emperumAn having tasteful objects as wealth.
  • In the sixth pAsuram, he said “emperumAn is the owner of varieties of sounds in the form of prose and music/tune such as vEdham”.
  • In the seventh pAsuram, he said “emperumAn is the owner of purushArthams (goals) such as aiSwarya (worldly wealth) etc”.
  • In the eighth pAsuram, he said “emperumAn is the owner of primary entities of the material realm such as brahmA, rudhra et al”.
  • In the ninth pAsuram, he briefly spoke about emperumAn having chEthana and achEthana as wealth, since his vast wealth cannot be spoken about individually.
  • In the tenth pAsuram, he said “though he pervades all of these [chEthana and achEthana], he is unaffected by their defects”.
  • In the end, he explains the result for those who learned this decad and concludes the same.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.10 – yAvaiyum yavarum

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

antharyami

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “though bhagavAn is pervading all chEthana (sentient entities) and achEthana (insentient objects), their defects do not touch him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

yAvaiyum yavarum thAnAy avar avar samayam thORum
thOyvilan pulan aindhukkum solappadAn uNarvin mUrththi
Avi sEr uyirin uLLAl Adhum Or paRRilAdha
bAvanai adhanaik kUdil avanaiyum kUdalAmE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

yAvaiyum – all achEthana (insentient objects)
yavarum – all chEthana (sentient entities)
thAnAy – being himself
avar avar – those sentient entity’s
samayam thORum – in their various situations [bodies] such as being dhEva (celestial) et al (when united with achith (matter))
thOyvilan – has no binding unlike them
pulan aindhukkum – through the five sensory organs
solappadAn – is not spoken [understood]
uNarvin mUrththi – one who is naturally self-illuminating;

Hence,
Avi – body which is the abode of prANa (vital air)
sEr – together with
uyirin – AthmA’s
uL – in the nature
Adhum – qualities such as jadathva (being inanimate), pariNAmithva (changes) etc
Or – in any one
paRRu – attachment
ilAdha – not applicable
bAvanai – aspect
adhanai – that true nature,
kUdil – if affected
AdhumOr paRRilAdha – the aspect of not being affected (in the attributes of all chEthana and achEthana)
avanaiyum – Iswara (who was spoken about previously and is explained as self-illuminating)
kUdalAm – will be applicable
E – certainly

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

bhagavAn is the one who is himself being all achEthana (insentient objects) and chEthana (sentient entities); though he is [present along with the souls] in various situations [bodies] such as being dhEva (celestial) et al (when united with achith (matter)), he has no binding unlike those souls; he is is not spoken [understood] through the five sensory organs and is naturally self-illuminating; Hence, it is certain that, if the true nature of AthmA that is  together with body which is the abode of prANa (vital air), is not affected by qualities such as jadathva (being inanimate), pariNAmithva (changes) etc which are not attached to it [the true nature of the AthmA], the aspect of Iswara (who was spoken about previously and is explained as self-illuminating) not being affected (in the attributes of all chEthana and achEthana) will be applicable.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yAvaiyum yavarum thAnAybhagavAn being prakAri (entity) and all chEthana and achEthana being prakAra (attribute/form), such that they are contained in the word “thAn” (I – bhagavAn) [bhagavAn means the paramAthmA who has the entire spiritual realm and material realm, as his body].
  • avar avar … – “avar avar” implies the plurality of jIvAthmAs. Since previously both sentient and insentient are identified as “yAvaiyum [plurality of insentient] and yavarum [plurality of sentient]”, here too “avai avai” should be assumed to be implicitly present, since this is reinforcing previous phrase. But why is not explicitly stated? That is because achEthana is not as important as chEthana and also since in the context of what is being discussed, it is automatically implied [so need to explicitly state it]. samayam means vyavasthA [states]. This highlights the ever changing nature of achEthana and the feeling of joy and sorrow in chEthana.
  • thOyvilan – Though chEthana and achEthana are so inseparable from him that they are identified by the word “thAn” (I – bhagavAn), still, their faults which do not affect him. Though chEthanas (souls) do not have the defect of pariNAma (change/transformation) etc., which are natural for achith, yet the souls acquire joy and sorrow due to being together with achith; so, when bhagavAn is pervaded in all these chEthana and achEthana, would their defects not affect him? No, they would not affect him. Though there is no joy/sorrow for AthmA independently, only because of AthmA being together with achith, he acquires joy/sorrow. Would that same principle be applicable for bhagavAn too? No, that principle cannot be applied to him. That is due to the reason for the presence of bhagavAn and AthmA within achith [any particular body]. bhagavAn is not present inside a body due to his karma unlike a jIvAthmA; instead he is present due to his mercy [to sustain the body, since nothing exists without bhagavAn’s presence and to help/guide the jIvAthmA by accompanying him everywhere]. In a prison, both the prisoner and the prince (of the kingdom) are present. Since the prisoner entered the prison due to his karma (unlawful activity) he is suffering. But since the prince entered the prison out of his own desire, it is joyful for him. This principle is explained in rig vEdham “dhvA suparNA sayujA sakhAyA samAnam vruksham parishasvajAthE | thayOranya: pippalam svAdhvaththi anaSnannanyO abichAkaSIthi ||” (There are two related (servant and master) birds (jIvAthmA and paramAthmA) residing in a tree (body). One bird (jIvAthmA) enjoys the fruits of its actions (karma) and the other one (paramAthmA) being detached is radiantly witnessing that).
  • pulan aindhukkum solappadAn – He cannot be comprehended by the five sensory organs starting with ears etc. Alternatively explained as – only if we can think about him, we can go on to explain. He cannot be comprehended by such thoughts.

Then, what is his nature?

  • uNarvin mUrththi – He is the embodiment of radiance.

But since the connection between these [chEthana and achEthana] and bhagavAn is real, how is that their defects do not affect him?

  • Avi sEr … – Avi – body which is the abode of prANa (vital air), is present. uyir – AthmA (soul), that is connected to the body is also present, When it is considered that the childhood, youth, old age etc that are related to the body, are unrelated to the AthmA, there is nothing wrong in applying similar principle to bhagavAn [being unaffected by the defects of chith and achith].

Beyond this, two other explanations are given for the second half of the pAsuram.

  • If one has devotion towards bhagavAn, one can attain him.
  • If one gives up all other means and fully surrender unto him, one can attain him.

Another explanation is also given – if one meditates upon him during his final moments, one  can attain him.

emperumAnAr heard these different explanations and said “Since previously emperumAn‘s all pervading nature is explained, this must be explained in the context of the defects of the pervaded entities not affecting emperumAn who is pervading them all; so, this should be the best explanation”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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