Monthly Archives: July 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 3.1.10 – maRaiyAya

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Previous pAsuram

kallalagar-5

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “For you who is known only through vEdham and the lord of all, is it surprising that brahmA et al, who are created and bestowed knowledge by you, know you as “Iswara” (lord) and praise you?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “Even those who consider themselves to be the lords, since it is apt for them, knowing your lordship and taking shelter of you is not at all surprising”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

maRaiyAya nAl vEdhaththuL ninRa malarch chudarE
muRaiyAl ivvulagellAm  padaiththidandhuNdumizhndhaLandhAy
piRai ERu sadaiyAnum nAnmuganum indhiranum
iRai Adhal aRindhEththa vIRRiruththal idhu viyappE?

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

maRaiyAya – that which conceals (its meanings for those who are filled with rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance))
nAl vEdhaththu – vEdhams which are four-fold (starting with rig vEdham etc which reveals its meaning to those who are situated in sathvam (goodness))
uL ninRa – being the intrinsic essence
malar – having blossomed
sudarE! – being in the form of a radiant light
muRaiyAl – at every (creation) cycle
i – indha – this
ulagellAm – worlds
padaiththu – created
idandhu  – lifting them up (by entering into the causal ocean)
uNdu – consuming them (during total deluge)
umizhndhu – spitting them out again
aLandhAy – oh one who measured them (so that others cannot claim ownership)!
iRaiyAdhal – being the lord (being revealed by vEdham only and engaging in creation etc)
aRindhu – knowing thus (about you)
piRai ERu sadaiyAnum – rudhra who is engaged in enjoyment and austerity due to having chandrakalA (crescent moon) in his head and having matted hair respectively,
nAnmuganum – brahmA (who has all the abilities to engage in creation)
indhiranum – indhra (who is the lord of 3 worlds namely svarga lOka, bhuvar lOka and bhUlOka)
Eththa – to take shelter of you (by praising you)
vIRu – being great/distinct (since he is the one who gives shelter to all)
iruththal idhu – such stature
viyappE – is it surprising?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who is in the form of a blossomed radiant light, being the intrinsic essence of vEdhams which conceal (its meanings for those who are filled with rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance)) and which are being four-fold (starting with rig vEdham etc which reveals its meaning to those who are situated in sathvam (goodness))! Oh one who time and again creates the worlds,  lifts them up (by entering into the causal ocean), consumes them (during total deluge), spits them out again, and measures them (so others cannot claim ownership)! In such case, is it surprising to see such stature of being the great shelter (since he is the one who gives shelter to all) for rudhra who is engaged in enjoyment and austerity due to having chandrakalA (crescent moon) in his head and having matted hair respectively, brahmA (who has all the abilities to engage in creation), indhra (who is the lord of 3 worlds namely svarga lOka, bhuvar lOka and bhUlOka) et al and being praised by them knowing that you are the lord.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • maRaiyAya – SrI rangarAja sthavam 1.19 “Adhau vEdhA: pramANam smruthirupakuruthE sEthihAsai: purANair nyAyaissArdham thvadharchAvidhimupari parikshIyathE pUrvabhAga: | UrdhvO bhAgasthvadhIhAguNavibhavaparigyApanaisthvathpadhApthau vEdhyO vEdhaiScha sarvairahamithi bhagavan! svEna cha vyAchakartha: ||” (Oh bhagavAn! vEdhams are primary pramANam (authentic source of knowledge, without need for external validation). manu smruthi is helping along with ithihAsams and purANams, pUrva and uththara mImAmsA. The karma kANda (pUrva bhAgam) reveals everything about how to worship you. The glorious uththara kANda (Urdhva bhAgam) leads to your divine feet by revealing your activities such as creation etc, the qualities that are required for such activities, the realms that are under your control etc. Also, you yourself have revealed [in bhagavath gIthA etc] that you are only known through vEdham which is divided in to pUrva and uththara kANdam). Here vEdham is highlighted by two words – maRai (one that conceals) and vEdham (one that reveals) – this is because, for those who are outside vEdham without any faith in it, it hides itself and for those who are faithful, it reveals its meanings. pUrvA bhAgam (karma kANdam) explains the process of worship and uththara bhAgam (uththara kANdam) explains the nature of the object of worship (bhagavAn). The lustre acquired due to being revealed by all of vEdham as said in bhagavath gIthA 15.15 “vEdhaiScha sarvair ahamEva vEdhya:“. Oh one who is shining in the vEdhams as the lord of everyone and has unsurpassed sweetness.
  • muRaiyAl … – vEdhams explain that he is the protector of all.
  • muRaiyAl – two meanings – 1) relationship – due to him being the lord, 2) repeatedly in every cycle of creation. During deluge, when the AthmA was devoid of karaNa (body) and kaLEbara (senses) and without any means to enjoyment in this world or for liberation, emperumAn creates them [i.e., gives the body, senses, ability to act etc], assuming the form of mahAvarAham (great wild-boar/pig) and rescued the created world that was consumed by the causal ocean, protecting the world by keeping it safely in his stomach when there is a deluge again, then spitting it out again, when people like mahAbali steals (claims) bhagavAn‘s wealth like an eagle plucking its prey, emperumAn rescues the world from him by measuring it up to the boundary. Oh one who is protecting in so many ways like this! [Here a question arises, is this not the karma which leads an AthmA into a particular birth? why are these actions highlighted as favours to the AthmA?] The karma of the chEthana is the viSEsha kAraNam (special cause) that leads to the variegated bodies one may acquire. yaugapadhyam anugraha kAryam [But, the whole universe(s) is created at once out of bhagavAn‘s mercy on seeing the plight of jIvAthmAs without any body/senses] – bhagavAn is thus the sAmAnya kAraNam (common cause) for whole of creation.
  • piRai ERu sadaiyAnum … – rudhra who is having matted hair in the form of doing penance, yet, having the [cool] crescent moon on his head and being the prime enjoyer; brahmA who is the father of such rudhra; indhra who is [having greatness to be] counted along with those two; by them glorifying you and you manifesting your distinct nature due to that, is there anything great for you? Like a person making a doll, decorating it to look great, keeping his feet on its head and pridefully claiming “it worshipped me”, like it is said in thiruvAimozhi 7.5.4 “nanmaip punal paNNi nAnmuganaip paNNi” (creating the good causal ocean and creating the brahmA), if brahmA who was created by you and these other dhEvathAs who are created by brahmA praise you and if you become proud about that, is there any greatness in it? would you not be a laughing-stock by doing this?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 32

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

When they saw amudhanAr become joyous saying ‘irAmAnusanaip porundhinamE’ in the previous pAsuram, they said, ‘when we also try to get this one (emperumAnAr), we realize that we are not having the noble qualities like you’; amudhanAr replies that for those who reach emperumAnAr, they would acquire such qualities naturally.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

When they saw amudhanAr become joyous saying ‘irAmAnusanaip porundhinamE’ in the previous pAsuram, they said, ‘when we also try to get this one (emperumAnAr), we realize that we are not having the noble qualities like you’; amudhanAr replies that for those who reach emperumAnAr, they would acquire such qualities naturally.

porundhiya thEsum poRaiyum thiRalum pugazhum nalla
thirundhiya gyAnamum selvamum sErum seRu kaliyAl
varundhiya gyAlaththai vaNmaiyinAl vandheduththaLiththa
arundhavan engaL irAmAnusanai adaibavarkkE                         32

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

seRu – the prevailing
kaliyAl – defects of kali yugam [4th in the yuga cycle of sath, thrEthA, dhvApara and kali]; due to that,
varundhiya – being miserable
gyAlaththai – that is this earth;
without any prayer/request from our side,
vaNmaiyinAl vandhu  – (he) came just due to his generosity, and
eduththu – lifted the downtrodden
aLiththa – and protected us (from the samsAram)
arum – since he (emperumAnAr) is the head of prapannas,
as said in ‘thasmAnnyAsa mEshAmthapasAm athirikthamAhu:’, being very rare among the types of asceticisms (thapas), that is,
thavan – SaraNAgathy, he (emperumAnAr) having that asceticism (thapas)
engaL irAmAnusanai – that is emperumAnAr, who gave himself fully to us  (so ‘our’ emperumAnAr);
adaibavarkkufor those who reach him, (will be reached by)
porundhiya thEsum – splendor that is according to the true nature of beings (that is, being a devotee),  (which is made possible by)
poRaiyum – patience and calmness in the face of troubles and happiness, (which is made possible by)
thiRalum – control of senses which helps in winning others (for sampradhAyam)
pugazhum – by state of good virtues, fame,
nalla – having the knowledge of truth, ways, and goal, and due to understanding its true nature, it is being distinct,
thirundhiya gyAnamum – that is, the knowledge; knowledge which is gained by way of learning from and as per the words of the preceptors;
selvamum – wealth that is devotion, which is the result of such knowledge; like the SlOka ‘rathir mathi’, etc., where for those who get the glance of pirAtti that wealth would come by itself,  to them (who reached emperumAnAr) without asking for anything,
sErum – the aforementioned would come to them.

vyAkyAnam

seRu kaliyAl varundhiya gyAlaththai (Here, a lot are quoted about how things would deteriorate in kali yugam; and how there would be suffering due to not gaining the true knowledge etc.) – in such ways the kali yugam that is prevailing; due to which it is miserable; that is, about the sentient who live in this world, the world that gives ill knowledge;

vaNmaiyinAl (vandhu) As said in ‘dhurlabhO mAnushO dhEhOdhEhinAm kshaNabhangura: | thathrApi dhurlabhammannyE vaikuNtapriya dharSanam ||’ (it is very rare to be born as a human being, even rarer to be born without blemishes in the body, and rarest is to be a prapannan wishing to reach SrIvaikuNtam), due to lack of true knowledge while we do not have any consideration/asking for it, he (emperumAnAr) came here by his magnanimity due to his intolerance when seeing the suffering of others; came from paramapadham as a krupAmAthra prasannAchArya; this is as said in ‘puNyAmbOjavikAsAya pApadhvAnthakshayAyacha | SrImAn AvirabhUthbhUmau rAmAnuja dhivAkara:’ (for the knowledge of jeevAthmAs to flourish, for the effects of our evil deeds to be destroyed, the one having the wealth of SrIvaishNavam, appeared in this world, that is the sun rAmAnujar). Like it is said in ‘veRidhE aruL seyvar [thiruvAimozhi – 8.7.8]’ (without any means from us, He would grace us happily), emperumAnAr divined his appearing here without any request/prayer from us.

emperumAnAr_avathAramDivine incarnation of emperumAnAr

eduththu aLiththaAs said in ‘sAkshAn nArAyaNO dhEva: kruthvAmarthyamayeem thanUm | magnAn udhdharathE lOkAn kAruNyAch chAsthra pANinA’ (~ like nArAyaNan himself, he himself took up a human body, to uplift those who are immersed born in this world, using the SAsthram in his hands, by his kindness), emperumAnAr incarnated without anyone asking, to uplift everyone from the immersion of worldly affairs, and gave knowledge, SrIvaikuNtam, etc., and so protected everyone;

aLiththa – thirukkOshtiyUr nambi after putting emperumAnAr through many conditions, gave the meanings of charama SlOkam, which emperumAnAr gave to everyone interested; and in the presence of SrIranga nAchchiyAr, he performed prapaththi to azhagiya maNavALan emperumAn (for us), and in such ways emperumAnAr protected everyone, is well known.

arum thavan(emperumAnAr having strength of thapas which is..)  as said in ‘thasmAn nyAsamEshAm thapasAm athirikthamAhu:’ (~ the best of thapas is nyAsam (SaraNAgathy)); and as said in ‘sath karma nirathASSudhdhAssAmkya  yOgavithasthadhA | nArhanthi charaNasthasya kalAmkOtithameemapi | yadhyEna kAma kAmEna nasAdhyam sAdhanAntharai: | mumukshUNayayath sAkyairnayOgEna cha bhakthidha: || thEnathEnabhyathE thath thath nyAsEnaiva mAhAmunE’ (~ Those who do their karmas with faith, having clean thought, speech, and actions,  those who are in the path of knowledge about AthmA – even such people are not able to easily reach the divine feet of emperumAn; they think that what we wish for is not going to be reached; they do SaraNAgathi to be able to reach emperumAn), SaraNAgathi is the best among thapas, and it is hard to do for those who are used to doing something with their own efforts as the means, and ‘prapathEranyan namE kalpakOti sahasrENApi sAdhanamstheethimanvAna: [gadhya thrayam]’ (even if several thousands of years go, I would only resort to prapaththi) by which he  (emperumAnAr) ascertained about it; he having such thapas in the form of SaraNAgathi;

engaLour svAmi; he who gave himself fully to us; protecting of the world was just a front, his intention to come here is to take and give himself to us!

Or, emperumAn saying ‘vinASAyachadhuskruthAm’ in plural and decimated many enemies, but in every incarnation it is the hiraNyan, kamsan, etc., who were the main ones to be killed; likewise, even though emperumAnAr incarnated to uplift everyone in the world, amudhanAr’s thinking is that he incarnated for uplifting him only;

adaibavarkkEto those who surrendered to

irAmAnusanai –  such emperumAnAr, (through pancha samskAram); it is as said in ‘kshEmassa Eva hi yatheendhra bhavachchrithAnAm [yathirAja vimSathi – 18] (prosperity is the reaching of emperumAnAr’s divine feet),

(after surrendering to emperumAnAr, following will come to them)

porundhiya thEsum – smartness as per the true nature, by which to win over others;

emperumAnAr won over by way of debates etc., the mAyAvAdhis at sarasvathee bhaNdAram, the bhauththas at thirunArAyaNapuram,  yAdhava prakAsan, yagya mUrththy and similar others; our smartness would be similar to that.

porundhiyawould reach us; that would be as in line with our true nature;

poRaiyumhow much ever sorrows or happiness come our way, we won’t sulk or rejoice;  as said in ‘vipadhi dhairyam athAbhudhayE kshamA’ (boldness during times of danger, is the character of bearing/patience), such character;

thiRalum – in the matters related to emperumAn, devotees, and AchAryas, as said in ‘aham sarvam karishyAmi’ (I shall do all kinds of services), having the mental strength to do and complete all sorts of services to them;

pugazhum – qualities of controlling inner and outer senses; (due to such qualities), reputation/fame in all directions;

nalla thirundhiya gyAnamum

gyAnam’ is present in all sentient, which is the knowledge of what is good and bad in this and the other world, and what would give those things;  on the other hand,  

‘nalla gyAnam’ is surrendering to AchAryan, by staying in guru’s place, doing all kinds of services to him to make the AchAryan happy, and getting the inner knowledge about truth, ways, and goals (that is, doing service to devotees is the goal);

‘thirundhiya’ gyAnam – as said in ‘thadh vidhdhi praNipAthEna pari praSNEna sEvayA, upadhEkshanthi thE gyAnam gyAninas thathva dharSina: [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’  (~submissively approach an AchArya, and render service to him with humility and ask him questions submissively; the AchArya will teach that knowledge as he has understood the real truth (that is bhagavAn)), and ‘maithrEya: paripaprachha praNipadhyAbhivAdhyacha’ (~ maithrEyar keeps being around the guru and repeatedly asks for clarifications and gains knowledge), and ‘Etha gyAnamithi prOktham’, and ‘seyal nanRAgath thiruththip paNi koLvAn [kaNNinuN chiruththAmbu – 10]’ (by his (nammAzhvAr‘s) deeds he reformed through strong instructions and engaged them in service),

by the blessing of AchAryan by whose instructions and corrections we get the true and clarified knowledge (in alignment with the teachings of the preceptors);

selvamum – as said in ‘sAhi Sreer amruthAsathAm’, that is the wealth of brahma gyAnam (knowing of emperumAn), and the wealth of kainkaryam as said in ‘lakshmaNO lakshmi sampanna:’ (iLaiyAzhvAr who got the wealth (of kainkaryam); and as said in ‘nalla padhaththAl mania vAzhvar koNda peNdir makkaL [thiruvAimozhi – 8.10.11](~ with the family as a family would get to live with the greatness including subservience to Him), the wealth here that is suitable for doing services here;

Thus, all the above will come competing with each other and reach (those who surrender their every thing to emperumAnAr).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

thiral -> poRai -> porundhia thEsuHaving the smartness to control the senses gives rise to mind that is neutral to sorrows and happiness, which leads to suitable smartness;

selvamum sErum –  Devotion that is the result of true knowledge, is said as the wealth. poigai AzhvAr too said, ‘dhanamAya thAnE kai kUdum [mudhal thiruvanthAdhi -43]’ (~ such wealth would be in reach automatically).

One does not have to search for the qualities; for those who have surrendered to emperumAnAr those things would be in reach automatically.

gyAlaththai vandhu eduththu aLiththaOther incarnations (emperumAn’s) had to be prayed and begged for by the dhEvas, but emperumAnAr’s incarnation here happened due to his kindness and he did not expect any act on our part; other AchAryas uplift us by giving their hand that is true knowledge.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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Arththi Prabandham – 13

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Azhwars

Introduction

maNavALa mAmunigaL thus far, requested SrI rAmAnuja to bless him with several things. SrI rAmAnuja’s ease of accessibility is such that he blessed all those wishes to turn true. Already being vowed by SrI rAmAnuja’s ease of accessibility, maNavALa mAmunigaL in this pAsuram falls for the beauty of SrI rAmAnuja and sings mangaLAsAsanam (glories) to it. He does not just stop with singing mangaLams to only SrI rAmAnuja but goes ahead and sings mangaLams to all those who have the connection with SrI rAmAnuja.

pAsuram 13

ethirAsan vAzhi ethirAsan vAzhi
ethirAsan vAzhi enREnREthich chadhirAga
vAzhvArgaL thALiNaikkIzh vAzhvArgaL peRRiduvar
AzhvArgaL thangaL aruL

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Word-by-Word Meanings

vAzhvArgaL – Those who lives
thALiNaikkIzh – at the lotus feet of
vAzhvArgaL – those who live
chadhirAga – in an intelligent fashion
Ethich – by singing praises (glories / mangalams) such as
ethirAsan vAzhi – “mangaLams (glories) to ethirAsan”
ethirAsan vAzhi – “mangaLams (glories) to ethirAsan”
ethirAsan vAzhi – “mangaLams (glories) to ethirAsan”
enREnRu – for a long time
peRRiduvar – will beget the
aruL – blessings of
AzhvArgaL thangaL – all AzhvArs

Simple Explanation

In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL describes that some people will get the blessings of all AzhwArs. These people are none other than those who fall at other great people who hail and singing for a long time, the glories of SrI rAmAnuja such as “long live ethirAsa, long live ethirAsa, long live ethirAsa

Explanation

periyAzhvAr sang thirupallANdu in which he sang mangaLams to SrIman nArAyaNan in multiple dimensions. While periyAzhvAr sang mangaLams to bhagavAn, maNavALa mAmunigaL is singing mangaLams to bhAgavathas. maNavALa mAmunigaL recognizes that there are some people who stand in “charama parva nishtai”, as revealed by “adiyEn sadhirthEn inRE (kaNNinun chiRuth thAmbu 5). “charama parva nishtai” is the condition in which people regard their AchAryan (guru) as their everything. SrI rAmAnuja’s devotees who are in this state, always sing, “long live ethirAsa, long live ethirAsa, long live ethirAsa”. They sing this forever. Let us call this group “Group A”. There is another group of people (Group B) who live under the lotus feet of those people who sing “long live ethirAsa, long live ethirAsa, long live ethirAsa”, just like how a child is under the protective shadow of its mother.  Group B people recognize the purport of the phrase “nin thALiNAik kIzh vAzhchchi (thiruvAimozhi 3.2.4)” and live in the shadow of the lotus feet of Group A people. The blessings that are being showered upon the Group B people is being discussed in the latter half of the pAsuram. AzhvArgaL are counted as ten in number. madhurakavi AzhvAr and AndAL are counted within nammAzhvAr and periyAzhvAr respectively. These AzhvArs who are being celebrated as “mayaRvaRa madhinalam aruLappeRRavargaL (thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1) . In other words, they are the recipients of the causeless mercy of SrIman nArAyaNan, as a result of which their ignorance got vanished completely and knowledge about and bhakthi (devotion) towards SrIman nArAyaNan started to grow profoundly. These AzhvArs did not stop their devotion to just SrIman nArAyaNan. Rather they extended their devotion to the devotees of SrIman nArAyaNan as seen in the phrase “ellaiyil adimaith thiRaththinil enRumEvumanaththanarAi” (perumAL thirumozhi 2.10). People in Group B get all the blessings showered upon them from all the 10 AzhwArs. It is because of their blessings that these people in group B have steadfast belief in charama parva nishtai and will continue to be there forever. It behooves us to take cognizance of the fact that in the first pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL described these people as those who will be revered by the nithyasUris (ayaRvarum amarargaL (thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1)). In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL celebrates that these people in group B will be celebrated by AzhvArs who are described as “mayaRvara madhinalam aruLa“peRRavargaL (thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1) .

adiyEn santhAna rAmAnuja dAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.1.9 – mazhungAdha

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Full series >> Third Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

kallalagar-garuda-sevai

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

Subsequently, since AzhwAr cannot sustain himself without praising emperumAn, he highlights emperumAn’s qualities and praises him.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram – AzhwAr explains emperumAn‘s vAthsalyam (motherly affection) towards his devotees, with an example.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, your supremacy of protecting your devotees just with your will is inferior when compared to the great motherly affection you have towards your devotees.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram – AzhwAr mercifully explains emperumAn‘s motherly affection that easily wins over his supremacy [that was explained in previous pAsurams].

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Ninth pAsuram. AzhwAr says “If we say that your supremacy cannot be explained, does it mean that your simplicity is within the boundary of words?”.

pAsuram

mazhungAdha vainnudhiya chakkara nal valaththaiyAy
thozhum kAdhal kaLirRaLippAn puLLUrndhu thOnRinaiyE
mazhungAdha gyAnamE padaiyAga – malarulagil
thozhumbAyArkku aLiththAl un sudarch chOdhi maRaiyAdhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

mazhungAdha – not blunt
vai – having sharpness
nudhiya – having mouth
chakkaram – divine disc (sudharSana chakra)
nal – beautiful
valaththaiyAy – one who is having it in his right [hand]
thozhum – due to rendering service
kAdhal – having attachment
kaLiRu – elephant
aLippAn – to protect
puL – periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr)
Urndhu – rode him with great urgency
thOnRinaiyE – you appeared in front of that elephant

(in such situation)
mazhungAdha – unfailing
gyAnamE – gyAnam (knowledge) in the form of sankalpam (divine will)
padaiyAga – as entourage
malar – blossomed/expanded
ulagil – in the world
thozhumbAyArkku – to those who worship (you)
aLiththAl – if you helped them

(one who urgently arrived at the banks of the pond to protect his devotee)
un – your
sudar – greatly radiant
sOdhi – lustre
maRaiyAdhE – will it not be reduced?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

You appeared in front of the elephant (gajEndhrAzhwAn) that is having attachment due to rendering services, to protect it by riding the garudAzhwAr with great urgency, having the beautiful sudharSana chakra (disc) which has sharpness and does not become blunt and has a sharp mouth, in your right hand. In such case, for those who worship you in this blossomed/expanded world, if you helped them with unfailing gyAnam (knowledge) in the form of sankalpam (divine will) as your entourage, would that not reduce your greatly radiant lustre (of urgently arriving at the banks of the pond to protect his devotee)?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mazhungAdha … – As it hits the bodies of the enemies, like a knife which gets sharpness/shining by being touched by knife-sharpener, the divine sudharSana chakra becomes sharper and more radiant. Instead of being blunt, the divine chakra with sharp edges, having such chakra in your right side as said in thiruppallANdu 2vadivAr sOdhi valaththuraiyum sudarAzhiyum pallANdu“.
  • nal valaththaiyAy … thOnRinaiyEemperumAn forgot that he had his divine chakra in his hand; had he remembered, he would have sent that and finished the job right from where he was. As soon as he heard the sorrowful cry of his devotee, he forgot himself. But, even if he realized his position, he could not remove the sorrows right from where he is; because the elephant is “thozhum kAdhal kaLiRu” (elephant that has great attachment due to rendering services) – gajEndra is such an elephant who had the desire to see emperumAn with his divine chakra in the hand.
  • kAdhal kaLiRu – Like airAvatha is known as “chathurdhanthi” (elephant with 4 tusks), gajEndhra is called as “the loving elephant” – where love for emperumAn is his identity.
  • aLippAn – To accept the flower held by the elephant before it loses its freshness at his lotus feet [this is explained as the cause of sorrow for gajEndhra – he wants to offer the lotus flower at emperumAn‘s lotus feet before it loses its freshness].
  • puL Urndhu thOnRinaiyE – garudAzhwAr’s speed is usually faster than emperumAn‘s sankalpam (divine will); but this time, even such speed was not enough for emperumAn, so he tucked garudAzhwAr under his arm (carrying him all along) and jumped at the banks of the pond.
  • thOnRinaiyE – it looks like not gajEndhra, but AzhwAr was himself suffering – AzhwAr is saying as if emperumAn appeared in front of him!
  • mazhungAdha gyAnamE padaiyAga … – To explain that he forgot the presence of his own divine chakra. Is he thinking about his knowledge in the form of his divine will which is even closer to him than his chakra? Even if his knowledge is used in many activities, instead of losing its quality, it gains lustre – having such divine will as entourage.
  • malarulagil thozhumbAyArkku aLiththAl un sudarch chOdhi maRaiyAdhEthozhumbAyArkkum – those who are SEshabhUthas (servitors). Those who are his servitors in this samsAram (material realm) which has the lotus flower in his navel as the base.  If you protect those devotees from wherever you are using your divine will, you will not be known for great lustre as in “one who urgently jumped without caring for his appearance, clothes etc., at the banks of the pond where the elephant was caught in trouble”.
  • maRaiyAdhE – When this was recited, an AchArya named siRRAtkoNdAn screamed “maRaiyum, maRaiyum” [Yes, if he does not physically appear to protect the elephant, his lustre will be reduced].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.1.8 – mAsUNA

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Full series >> Third Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

kallalagar-4

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth pAsuram – AzhwAr considers brahmA who has ubhaya bhAvanA [both karma bhAvanA – engaging in worldly activities and brahma bhAvanA – engaging in meditation etc upon bhagavAn] as good as vanaspathi (plant) and says “if there were a greatly wise brahmA who has ultimate intelligence and even if he praises you, that will only conceal your greatness”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “even if brahmA becomes reformed to have ultimate knowledge and starts praising you, would your radiance not be concealed [by that]?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Eighth pAsuram. Some explain this as – In previous pAsuram, AzhwAr said that “those dhEvathAs starting with rudhra cannot praise emperumAn” and in this pAsuram, he says “even if brahmA who is the father of rudhra praised you, that will only cause you disgrace”. bhattar mercifully explains this as –  Even brahmA was included in previous pAsuram. Here, AzhwAr is saying “instead of this brahmA who has ubhaya bhAvanA, if there is a brahmA who is fully engaged with brahma bhAvanA alone, even his praising will lead to blemish for your highness”.

pAsuram

mAsUNAch chudar udambAy malarAdhu kuviyAdhu
mAsUNA gyAnamAy muzhudhumAy muzhudhiyanRAy
mAsUNA vAn kOlaththu amarar kOn vazhippattAl
mAsUNA una pAdha malarch chOdhi mazhungAdhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

mAsUNA – without a trace of blemish
sudar – in the form of radiant light
udambAy – having divine form
malarAdhu kuviyAdhu – without expansion and contraction
mAsUNA – devoid of blemishes such as doubt, error etc
gyAnamAy – having such knowledge as a natural quality
muzhudhumAy – having all qualities and wealth/realms as attributes
muzhudhu – all of those
iyanRAy – oh one who is the abode for all of them to exist on you!
mAsUNA – devoid of blemishes
vAn kOlaththu – being decorated with great knowledge etc
amarar kOn – brahmA who is served by the dhEvathAs
vazhip pattAl – if he engages in serving you in the form of praising your greatness
mAsUNA – being the opposite of all defects
un – your
pAdha malar – divine lotus feet’s
sOdhi – radiance
mazhungAdhE – will it not be reduced?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who has a divine form which is devoid of any blemishes and that is in the form of a radiant light, who has knowledge that does not expand/contract and has no blemishes such as doubt, error etc., as a natural quality, who has all qualities and wealth/realms as attributes and being the abode for all of them to exist on you! [Considering that there is a] brahmA who is decorated with great knowledge etc which is devoid of any blemishes and who is being served by dhEvathAs, if he engages in serving you in the form of praising your greatness, will that not reduce the radiance of your divine lotus feet that is the opposite of all defects? It is implied that brahmA who is a created being (with acquired good qualities) approaching naturally radiant divine feet, is not of great value [for the divine feet].

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mAsUNAch chudar udambAy – Since you are being the opposite of defects, being in the mode of sudhdha sathva (pure goodness), you are having infinitely radiant divine form.
  • malarAdhu kuviyAdhu – He is as said in periya thirumozhi 7.10.1 “arumbinai alarai” (sprouting flower); As said in “yuvAkumAra:” (youth and adolescent), he would manifest both states at the same time. Also explained as said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.2.1 “sadhaikarUparUpAya” (having a divine form which matches his divine nature), he would neither have growth or decay.
  • mAsUNA gyAnamAy – You who is having knowledge which cannot become blemished due to a particular reason [karma]. malarAdhu kuviyAdhu (expansion/contraction) is applicable to both his divine form (before the phrase) and his knowledge (after the phrase). His divine form does not acquire expansion/contraction as in the case of the changes that manifest in the bodies of samsAris (bound souls) which are acquired by their karma [bodies -> achith – matter – goes through changes to its nature itself]; nor his knowledge goes through changes like in the case of samsAris whose knowledge expands/contracts [chith – souls – does not change itself, but its knowledge expands/contracts] [Thus, it is established that bhagavAn is changeless both in his nature and qualities and hence he is different from both chith and achith].
  • muzhudhumAy – having all other qualities which are not explicitly highlighted here.
  • muzhudhumAy – his state of being the soul of the entire creation.
  • muzhudhu iyanRAy – This is re-establishing the same concept that was highlighted in  thiruvAimozhi 3.1.5varambinRi muzhudhiyanRAy“, one who controls everything [by being the antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul].
  • mAsUNA … – As said in varAha purANam “chathurmukAyu: …” (If there is some one who has the life span of brahmA with crores of faces and very pure mind, we are not sure if he can explain 1/10000th of your qualities. Oh supreme among Gods! kindly show your mercy”, even if there is such a brahmA who is the leader of dhEvathAs, his praises would also cause blemish only to you. Only AzhwArs perform mangaLASAsanam knowing his greatness. A brahmA who has no blemishes should be created. This is what is implied by “uthprEkshithanAna brahmA” (an invented brahmA). Here, for the brahmA, at the end of his life, his knowledge will end too; for this [invented] brahmA, there should be no such defect. Since “kOla” (decoration) is seen as an adjective for “vazhippadugai” (praising/worshipping), it relates to the knowledge [that is used to praise]. If such brahmA praises you, the radiance of your divine feet that does not get reduced by the touch of anything else, will that not become minimized when considered “are his divine feet only as great as explained by brahmA [instead of knowing their unlimited greatness]?”. Due to his nature of servitude, AzhwAr is saying “una pAdham” (your feet) instead of “un thirumEni” (your divine form).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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Arththi prabandham – 12

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emperumAnAr-thiruvAimozhippiLLai-mAmunigaLemperumAnArthiruvAimozhip piLLaimAmunigaL

Introduction

In the previous pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL requested SrI rAmAnuja to bless him with the state of vaduga nambi. sri rAmAnuja asked him, “Oh!!! maNavALa mAmunigaL! You are asking me to bless you with vaduga nambi‘s state. In order for me to do that, what is the relationship that you and I have? Is there a relationship in the first place between you and me?” maNavALa mAmunigaL replies to this imaginary question that he posed himself and says “Oh! emperumAnArE!!! Yes. There is a relationship between you and me. The relationship is established via adiyen’s AchAryan thiruvAimozhip piLLai.

pAsuram 12
thesam thigazhum thiruvAimozhip piLLai
mAsil thirumalaiyAzhvAr ennai
nEsaththAl eppadiyE eNNi ninbAl sErththAr
ethirAsA appadiyE nI seydharuL

Listen


Word-by-Word Meanings:

thesam – All the worlds
thigazhum – bright and sparkling with glories
thiruvAimozhip piLLai – thiruvAimozhip piLLAi, whose very existence and sustenance is by means of thiruvAimozhi, as revealed by his name
mAsil – the one who is devoid of blemishes that stems from regarding oneself as AchAryan
thirumalaiyAzhvAr – who is also known as SriSailanAtha
ennai – me, who is recipient of his infinite compassion
nEsaththAl – out of his mercy
eppadiyE eNNi – he thought of how will I be liberated
ninbAl – at your divine lotus feet  that is the sole refuge of all
sErththAr – how he got me at your lotus feet
ethirAsA – emperumAnArE
appadiyE nI seydharuL – You also should bless me and get me liberated
 

Simple Translation

In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL requests SrI rAmAnuja to liberate him by his divine blessings. maNavALa mAmunigaL raises an imaginary question in mind in which SrI rAmAnuja asks him the reason / relationship that he shares with him in order for him to bless. maNavALa mAmunigaL answers that the relationship between him and SrI rAmAnuja has been established by thiruvAimozhippiLLai, the AchAryan of maNavALa mAmunigaL. He says that it was thiruvAimozhippiLLai who showed mercy upon him and thought of an idea to liberate him. Subsequently, he showed maNavALa mAmunigaL the lotus feet of SrI rAmAnuja and take them as the sole refuge in order to get liberated.

Explanation

maNavALa mAmunigaL in the first two lines of this pAsuram, explains the glories of his beloved AchAryan thiruvAimozhip piLLai. He says to emperumAnAr, “Oh! emperumAnArE! adiyEn’s AchAryan thiruvAimozhip piLLai surrendered at the lotus feet of nammAzhvAr. Subsequently, he surrendered at your lotus feet. He did not take refuge at any other person who is  not regarded as “SEshi” or master, that includes SrIvaishNava pUrvAchAryas only. He was a person who was replete with knowledge, devotion towards spiritual matters and hatred in mundane materialistic pleasures. His fame and glory was not confined to just one place but it spread across all directions in the world. As could be evinced from his name, his very sustenance and existence was through thiruvAimozhi. If thiruvAimozhi was removed, he would not live any more. He did not have any blemish including the likes of proclaiming himself as an AchAryan which is considered as a cruel deed. He, who is also known as “SailanAtha”, who showed extreme mercy and compassion towards me and thought of ways to liberate me. Subsequently, he was very happy and showed me your lotus feet in order to get liberated. adiyEn requests you to kindly show mercy upon me and liberate me from the bondage of this materialistic place.

adiyEn santhAna rAmAnuja dAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.1.7 – vAzhththuvAr palarAga

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Full series >> Third Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

vyuhavasudevan

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the seventh pAsuram – when asked “What if everyone praises you together, or if most intelligent rudhra et al praise you [would that be possible]?” AzhwAr replies “Because rudhra was created by brahmA who was created by you, the praise by those with narrow knowledge will only conceal your auspicious qualities”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Seventh pAsuram. emperumAn says “Leave aside vEdham. There are certain individuals who are known as vaidhika purushas (well versed in vEdham such as vyAsa et al). What about their praising me?” AzhwAr replies “Even that will only minimize your glories”.

pAsuram

vAzththuvAr palarAga nin uLLE nAnmuganai
mUzhththa nIr ulagellAm padai enRu mudhal padaiththAy
kEzththa sIr aran mudhalAga kiLar dheyvamAyk kiLarndhu
sUzhththamarar thudhiththAl un thol pugazh mAsUNAdhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(since emperumAn is known as sthavapriya (one who likes to be glorified))

vAzhththuvAr – those who praise you
palar – many
Aga – to exist
nin uLLE – in your will
nAnmuganai – four headed brahmA
mUzhththa nIr – in the causal ocean
ulagellAm – all the worlds
padai – you create
enRu – saying thus
mudhal – as the primary entity
padaiththavanE – oh one who created!

(being created by such brahmA)
kEzhththa – abundance
sIr – having qualities such as gyAnam etc
aran – rudhra
mudhalA – starting with
kiLar – those who are with risen divine powers
amarar – having immortality [to a limited extent]
dheyvamAy – dhEvathAs
kiLarndhu – zealously
sUzhththu – covering (the qualities which reap benefits [for them])
thudhiththAl – if they praise
un – your
thol – natural (ancient)
pugazh – radiant qualities
mAsUNAdhE – would they not become tainted?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who being the primary entity, created the four headed brahmA in the causal ocean saying to him “you create all the worlds” so that many of those who praise you exist! Even if such dhEvathAs starting with rudhra et al who are having immorality [to a limited extent], who are with risen divine powers, praise you, covering those qualities which reap benefits [for them], would your naturally radiant qualities not become tainted?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vAzhththuvAr palarAgabhattar explains this as “Yes, there are many who can praise emperumAn. But what greatness do they have over vEdham [which is eternal and free from blemish]?” Alternatively, this is explained as – to create many who can praise emperumAn.
  • nin … – With a very small fraction of your will, you created brahmA telling him “you create these worlds which are surrounded by water”. It can also be explained as – you created brahmA saying to him “mUzhththa nIrilE” (in the great causal ocean), “lOkangaLai uNdAkku” (you create the worlds). Is there any way for those created by brahmA, who was created by you, to praise you? [this explains bhattar‘s view point]

When asked “But apart from those (vaidhika purushas such as vyAsa et al), what if we also included dhEvathAs rudhra et al? Can they praise your glories?”, further it is explained that, even for them “it is not possible to do so”.

  • kEzhththa … – If we leave aside these helpless group, is it possible for greatly powerful personalities to comprehensively glorify you? kiLarndha sIr – qualities such as gyAnam etc; if each of those dhEvathAs starting with rudhra, who are at times confused to be supreme, who have such great knowledge, who have a very long life, attempts to praise different qualities which reap different benefits, would such praising cause disgrace to your naturally auspicious qualities? [yes they will, in the sense that] “his  qualities are only as great as they are able to praise [while in reality the greatness of his qualities are unlimited]”. In that sense, will their praising you not become a disgrace for you (emperumAn)?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 31

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

From time immemorial we who had been born in numerous ways have now without any effort from us have got the divine feet of emperumAnAr – with the intense love due to this, he (amudhanAr) is addressing his mind in this way.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

Like in general, when some one would tell only his close ones when he gets some treasure, he (amudhanAr) is also telling his mind that is common for bondage and liberation: for various types of times (days, months, etc.) we had been coming living in various forms like dhEvas, (manushyas,) etc., and have come to this stage; now without any means from our side, we have joined emperumAnAr whose love towards the divine feet of the one with beautiful shoulders that is pEraruLALan (kAncheepuram), that love is like an ornament; we have joined such emperumAnAr and got the true state, you see! Saying so to his mind amudhanAr is very joyful.

ANdugAL nAL thingaLAy nigazh kAlamellAm manamE
eeNdu pal yOnigaL thoRuzhalvOm inRor eN inRiyE
kAN thagu thOL aNNal then aththiyUrar kazhal iNaik keezh
pUNda anbALan irAmAnusanaip porundhinamE                    31

Listen


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

manamE – Oh the mind which is together with me in both the times of bondage and liberation (bandham and mOksham)
nALay – by days
thingaLAy – by months
ANdugaLAy – by years
nigazh kAlam ellAm – been here, life running in all such times,
as dhEvas, manushyas etc., types of categories, and as countless sub types within them
eeNdu – gathered in various such times/forms (lived as humans etc., where we lived in years, months, days, and innumerable such births; Or, like being born in life forms that live for a few days only, few months only, etc., )
pal – in various different
yOnigaL thORum – birth categories, in each such manner,
uzhalvOm – we, who take on various bodies (births) repeatedly
inRu Or eN inRiyE – (eN -> thoughts) today when not having any (better) thoughts in the mind (to do something to break the cycle of birth, etc., or try some means for that, etc.); was doing same things as before; there was not something that I could do;
thOL – having such divine shoulders, so is desirable by the quality of beauty as well,
kAN thagu – which befit seeing,
aNNal – our master as spelled out (in the vEdhas etc.)
then – who is beautiful to see
aththiyUrar  – who is named based on aththiyUr (hasthigiri – kAncheepuram), as aththiyUrar, that is, pEraruLALap perumAL (varadharAjap perumAL); his –
iNai – (each divine foot) which can be compared only to each other;
kazhal keezh – under such divine feet
pUNda – having attachment
anbALan – and having friendship/love
irAmAnusanai  – that is emperumAnAr;
porundhinamE  – we (the mind and me) got to reach such emperumAnAr.

dhEvapperumAL_DSC_1033_1then aththiyUrar

vyAkyAnam

ANdugaL nAL thingaLAy nigazh kAlamellAmAs said in ‘kalA muhUrthA: kAshtAScha ahOrAthrAScha sarvaSa:, ardha mAsA mAsArithavath samvathsaraScha kalpathAm’ (~ ), and in ‘nimEshO mAnushO yOsau mAthrAmAthrapramANatha: | thairashtAdhasabhi: kAshtA thrimSath kAshtA:kalAsmruthA|| nAdikAthu pramANena kalAdhaSasapanchacha | nAdi gApyAmathadhvAbhyAm muhUrththOdhvijasaththama || ahOrAthra muhUrththAmsthu thrimSanmAsasthuthaisthathA | mAsairdhvAdhasabhir varsha mahOrAthramthuthathdhivi’  (~ 1 blink of eye is called nimishA (not ‘minute’); 15 blinks of eye = one kAshtA; 30 kAshtA = one kalA;  30 kalA = 1 mUhurtha; also 15 kalA =  1 nAzhigai; 2 nAzhigai = 1 muhUrtha; and 30 muhUrtha = 1 nAL (day);  15 nAL = 1 paksha; 2 paksha = 1 mAsa (month); 12 mAsa = 1 samvathsara (year) ) – in all such categories of times (as we have lost time doing other things, by all these categories of times).

eeNdu pal yOnigaL thORu uzhalvOmAs there are numerous sub-types within each of species of dhEva, manushya, etc., we enter into each such sub-types many times, and go in cycles; as said in ‘mARi mArip pala piRappum piRandhu [thiruvAimozhi – 2.6.8]’ (being born time and again in many types of beings, that is, this cycle of birth and death), we have been around in this cycle, time eternal; eeNdu – (be born in groups of these births);

manamE Oh mind who is common for both bondage and liberation, and who is the way for knowledge to be routed! You have known about the aforementioned ways of us – saying so, amudhanAr is conversing with his close associate, his mind. As said in ’Evam samsruthi chakrasthE bhrAmyamANE svakarmabhi: jeevE dhu:kAkulE’ (~ due to his karma he keeps being born), we have been through all of these births.

inRunow

Or eN inRiyE – without my thinking about anything (for getting out of the cycle); without my doing any service, which I could based on true knowledge, to the divine feet of emperumAnAr,

kAN thagu thOL aNNalAs said in ‘AyadhAScha suvrthAScha bhAhava:parikOpamA: sarva bhUshaNa bhUshArhA:’, having the divine shoulders, and who came as emperumAnAr‘s companion from vindhyA forest all the way to kAncheepuram (anishta nivruththi), and being a great helper who conveyed through thirukkachchi nambiaham Eva param thathvam’ (ishta prApthi); (that is, He is the protector).

ARu_vArthaidhEvap perumAL’s six answers to emperumAnAr          

then aththiyUrarbeing beautiful to see, and as said in ‘nagarEshu kAnchee’ – such city of kAnchee, and he himself (hearsay, this is said by emperumAnAr🙂 said:‘SrI hasthiSaila SikarOjvala pArijAtham’, in such a place of hasthigiri, such pEraruLALap perumAL who is the lord (as shown by vEdhas);

kazhal iNaik keezh – They are purifying and for enjoyment – the two divine feet are equal only to each other; under such divine feet –

pUNda anbALansuch dhEvapperumAL’s is decorated by emperumAnArs’ intensity of devotion;

irAmAnusanaithat is, such emperumAnAr

porundhinamEAs said in  ‘un adik keezh amarndhu pugundhenE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10]’ (~ I am well set under your divine feet), and ‘rAmAnuja padhachchAyA’ (shadow of emperumAnAr‘s feet), we have got set in emperumAnAr’s divine feet, you see! Thus, saying so to his mind, amudhanAr is being very happy for the good life he has been bestowed.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

kANdagu thOL  .. pUNda anbALan – thiruvadi (hanuman) immersed in the beauty of shoulders of chakravarthi thirumagan in the forest when they first met; when pEraruLALan returns from procession and then removes the divine garlands, emperumAnAr enjoyed looking at the beauty of His shoulders; in the forest of vindhya mountains  pEraruLALan in the form of hunter showed the strength of His shoulders and brought emperumAnAr safely to aththiyUr – due to this emperumAnAr is fond of those shoulders.

then aththiyUrarthe place of mountain where dhEvapperumAL resides is called aththigiri (hasthigiri). aththi -> elephant. (giri -> mountain). Since the dhig gajangaL (protectors of the directions) worshiped this place, it is called aththigiri.

bhUthaththAzhvAr also said about this place – ‘aththiyUrAn puLLaiyUrvAn [iraNdAm thiruvanthAdhi – 96]’ (He is presiding in aththiyUr, having periya thiruvadi (garudan) as His carrier).  What is referred as ‘perumAL kOil’ is also this aththiyUr.

Note that instead of saying ‘kachchi’ which refers to kAncheepuram, amudhanAr has mentioned ‘aththiyUr’.  ‘kachchi’ also includes other dhivya dhEsams like Urakam, pAdakam, etc., so aththiyUr refers specifically to the place where dhEvapperumAL resides.

pUNda anbALan -> pUNda -> very strong;  even when residing in thiruvarangam, emperumAnAr was having ‘then aththiyUrar’ for his thiruvArAdhanam.

kAN thagu thOL aNNal – could be applied as adjective to emperumAnAr. By this, the quality of his divine body is mentioned; by anbALan (having love towards), the quality of his Athma is mentioned.

irAmAnusanaip porundhinamE – have got attached to emperumAnAr‘s divine feet in here and in the other world as well, without any separation ever.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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Arththi Prabandham – 11

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vaduganambi-avatharasthalamvaduga nambi

Introduction

In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL assumes that SrI rAmAnuja asks him a question. The question is “hey!!! maNavALa mAmunigaL! As per the phrases ‘nizhalum adithArumAnOm (periya thiruvandhAdhi 31)’, ‘mEvinEn avan ponnadi (kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 2)” and ‘rAmAnuja padhachchAyA (embAr’s thaniyan), you yearned for the state of those devotees who are the embodiment of pArathanthriyam”. (pArathanthriyam is a quality by which the servant (owned) is completely dependent on the master(owner). The master uses the servant at his will and the servant because of his true nature does not voice any concern at any time.) SrI rAmAnuja continues, “this kind of connection with me is only possible for the likes of vaduga nambi”. maNavALa mAmunigaL answers to this by saying that “hey SrI rAmAnuja!!! Please give me the state of vaduga nambi who knew no god apart from you. Please inculcate that state in me. After doing that, please use me in whatever way you want to for how much ever time you desire”.

pAsuram:
unnaiyozhiya oru dheivam maRRaRiyA
mannupugazhsEr vaduga nambi than nilayai
enRanakku nI thandhu ethirAsA ennALum
unRanakkE AtkoL ugandhu

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thirumAlai – avathArikai (Introduction) – Part 1

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vishnu-rescuing-jivathma

periyavAchchAn piLLai, the vyAkhyAthA (commentator) for thirumAlai, has written a very detailed avathArikai for it. It is a fairly lengthy one and we shall see it in two parts.

emperumAn SrIman nArAyaNan is the purushArtham (ultimate goal) for all AthmAs, whether they are in nithya vibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam or spiritual realm) or in leelA vibhUthi (samsAram or materialistic realm). The nithyasUris (those who are in nithya vibhUthi) know this fully well and enjoy emperumAn. samsAris (those who are in materialistic realm), on the other hand, mistake physical body for AthmA and spend their time in satisfying its needs by feeding on sensory perceptions. This goes on from time immemorial. thoNdaradippodi AzhwAr, before he became AzhwAr, was in such a frame of mind. emperumAn, desiring to bring  the AzhwAr into his fold, mercifully shows the greatness of his thirunAmam (exalted name). His thirunAmam, in turn, explains the features of his svarUpam (basic nature), rUpam (his thirumEni or exalted physical form), guNam (his auspicious qualities) and his vibhUthi (his wealth). AzhwAr immerses himself in the greatness of emperumAn’s thirunAmam in the first 3 pAsurams (hymns) of thirumAlai . In the next 11 pAsurams, he shows this greatness to all the samsAris (people like us) so that they could also move away from samsAram and move towards the path to liberation. Finally he makes emperumAn himself very pleased, in the 45th (final) pAsuram.

[periyavAchchAn piLLai next writes about samsAram and who a samsAri is. When we read it, we would start wondering whether we should stay in this samsAram any more. Even if it is not possible to leave it immediately, as we age (grow old), we should at least show some sense of detestation towards it; otherwise, all the works of AzhwArs, SAsthras, purANas, ithihAsas, upanishadhs etc will go waste. We should read this wonderful avathArikai of periyavAchchAn piLLai every few months, to affirm to ourselves that we will not indulge in worldly pursuits ad infinitum.]

SamsAris earn pApa and puNya in this materialistic realm by carrying out various deeds (one earns a puNya when he/she does what is prescribed in SAsthras and avoiding what is forbidden by it; he/she earns pApa by doing what is forbidden by SAsthras and not doing what is prescribed). They then reach naraka or swarga (hell or heaven) to get rid of the accumulated pApa or puNya and return to leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm) in another form, repeatedly. SAsthra describes this journey of Athma in panchAgni vidhyA prakaraNa (chapter called panchAgni vidhyA) in chAndhOgya upanishath.

After getting rid of pApa in naraka (hell) and puNya in swarga (heaven), the AthmA is thrown into ethereal layers (vettaveLi, in thamizh) where it takes a subtle form. Sun, with his warm rays, melts the snow atop himavAn (himAlaya mountains) and converts it into moisture laden cloud and enables the AthmA to enter the cloud. At the appropriate time, the moisture laden cloud opens out as rain drops and falls on land, with the AthmA. Thus AthmA reaches land with rain water. The rain water flows into the fields to help paddy crops. AthmA enters paddy grain (paddy is taken as an example here; AthmA could enter wheat or pulses or vegetables or any other material equally). At the right time, when the paddy grains mature, the farmer harvests the field and the AthmA with the paddy (or any other grain or vegetable) enters a house where the grain is cooked as food. That food eaten by a male, carries the AthmA into the reproductory organ of the male. At the appropriate time the AthmA enters a female’s womb and takes a form there. Now the AthmA is called as “purusha” as he takes a human form. Not every AthmA which was thrown out from hell or heaven will enter a womb of a female and become “purusha”. There are a number of obstacles to it as it could fall into the sea instead of land. On land, it could fall in a forest, enter the fruit of a forest tree which could be eaten by insect or bird or animals. Even if it enters a grain [as we had seen earlier], the grain may fall on the floor at the time of cooking, by mistake, instead of into the cooking pot. Thus, based  on emperumAn’s will, the AthmA could turn out to be a “purusha”. Inside the mother’s womb, the AthmA suffers due to the eating habits of the mother. If she takes excessive salt or spicy food or sweet or sour materials, the AthmA suffers the effects of all these materials as they reach the “purusha” through the umbilical cord. He feels as if he is inside a pot containing molten lead when he is inside the womb. As the foetus grows inside the womb, it  is unable even to stretch its limbs freely and grows in a crouched form. Around the 7th month inside the womb, the AthmA prays to bhagavAn to spare him all these troubles and to grant him mOksham. But bhagavAn sends a type of vAyu (gas) called “Satam” which presses against the foetus’ bones and makes it ignorant completely (ignorance of SAsthra, hence of bhagavAn) and comes out of the womb, with lot of pain, upside down (head first and legs finally), the same way he was pushed out of hell or heaven in the first instance.

Once he is born, as an infant, he cannot even look after his needs and is dependent on others for cleaning him, feeding him, moving him etc. He cannot scratch himself if it itches. As time passes by, he starts looking after himself. Till the age of 15, he spends time playing and not thinking about bhagavAn. After that, as a youth, he starts engaging in worldly pleasures, still not thinking of bhagavAn. He gets married, gets children and struggles for their welfare. By the time he realises that he has spent the better part of his time in worldly pursuits only and has not bothered to do anything for his after-life, old age sets in. His mind is now turned towards bhagavAn, but physically he is unable to do any kainkaryam (service) for bhagavAn. At young age, the body was willing, but the mind wasn’t and at old age, it is the reverse. Death catches up with him at last and the cycle repeats itself with journey to hell or heaven and back to panchAgni vidhyA states that we have seen earlier. Thus he comes out of his mother’s womb in pain and leaves the world in pain, to suffer in hell.

Looking at this continuous suffering of the jIvAthmA, emperumAn taking pity on him, and being a suhruth (good at heart) gave the jIvAthmAs,  SAsthram which is like a bright lamp in the darkness of samsAram. In SAsthram (SvEthASvara upanishath), he explains the three thathvams (entities) namely chith (sentient entity), achith (insentient entity) and ISwara (bhagavAn himself) so that jIvAthmAs can learn the difference between the body and the inner residing soul and about paramAthmA. Further bhagavAn explained in antharyAmi brAhmaNam (subhAlOpanishath) that paramAthmA pervades all jIvAthmAs and that he is apahathapApmA (not touched by sins or virtues (pApa/puNya)) of the jIvAthmAs, the only Lord and that he is nArAyaNa. jIvAthmAs should forget about enjoying achith and take efforts to reach ISwara so that they can finally come out of the vicious cycles of birth and death.  This was similar to giving vision to a person blind from birth and lighting a lamp in a dark room. He showed that both chith and achith are his servitors; that he is the soul and the other two are like his body. In muNdakOpanishath he showed that it is due to karma only that chith is bound to achith and that if he gets rid of karma (getting rid of pApa and puNya) completely, he will reach SrIvaikuNtam and enjoy paramAthmA in ways similar to how nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam such as viSvaksEnar, ananthAzhwAn, garudan et al) are enjoying him there.

But the jIvAthmAs, instead of leading their lives as stated by SAsthram (vEdham) and reaching bhagavAn, either did not accept vEdham (vEdha bAhyar) or interpreted vEdham wrongly (vEdha kudhrushti). bhagavAn then decided to take incarnations as one among jIvAthmAs so that they will rectify their wrong doings at least after seeing him. However, this did not happen and he had to only fight people such as hiraNyAksha, rAvaNa et al. Before he could get one vibhIshNa, there were lakhs of rAkshasa who were bent on opposing him. Same was the case with one vidhura. However, just as the owner will not let go of his possession, bhagavAn could not give up his attempts at correcting the jIvAthmAs.

bhagavAn, through his goodwill, creates a change of heart in the jIvAthmA, as a result of which he blesses him. This in turn makes the jIvAthmA not to oppose bhagavAn, leading to further grace from bhagavAn. Now the jIvAthmA goes towards bhagavAn. He gets interested in SAsthras and with his AchArya’s (guru or teacher) upadhESam (instructions about bhagavAn), the jIvAthmA realises that bhagavAn is the supreme master and that he is a totally dependent servitor to bhagavAn. Once he realises that he is a servitor, he understands that bhagavAn is the purushArtham (ultimate goal) for him and that he should reach bhagavAn, as that becomes his svarUpam (basic nature). Then he gets the desire to find a way to reach bhagavAn. SAsthram tells us that one can reach bhagavAn through karma yOgam, gyAna yOgam and bhakthi yOgam (thorugh deeds, knowledge and devotion to bhagavAn, respectively). But he realises that these are difficult paths for reaching bhagavAn as any shortcoming while observing these could lead to further delay in attaining the goal. Due to these reasons, bhagavAn shows the way through upanishaths (the end part of vEdham) to reach him by surrendering to him.

The first one (through karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgam) is called as sAdhyOpAyam (where we have to take effort to reach bhagavAn) and the second one, where we reach bhagavAn through bhagavAn himself, is called sidhdhOpAyam (readily available path). This path (surrendering or prapaththi as it is called) has one important requirement. The prapannan (one who carries out prapaththi) should have unshakeable faith that bhagavAn would free him from samsAram (materialistic world) and would take him to SrIvaikuNtam and that we need not take any effort. This is called as mahAviSvAsam (deep faith). It is not easy to get this mahAviSvAsam [because we feel that we do not have to take any efforts and bhagavAn himself would take us at the appropriate time].

Hence for such jIvAthmAs, bhagavAn shows another way. This is called as thirunAma sankIrthanam (singing the divine names of bhagavAn). This will not take us to mOksham directly, but will create the mahAviSvAsam when surrendering later to bhagavAn. Thus reciting bhagavAn’s divine names will enable us to get rid of our sins and induce us into either karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgams or induce us into prapraththi (surrendering to bhagavAn) with the mahAviSvAsam required for it or it will by itself be a goal for us to recite it. i.e. instead of looking for a path by singing bhagavAn nAmams (the divine names of bhagavAn), singing his name itself will be the purushArtham (goal) for us.

We shall see the remainder of avathArikai in the next part.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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