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SrIvaikuNta gadhyam – 1st chUrNai Part 2

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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namperumal-thiruvadi

We have seen how the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn come as waves from a great ocean, in the previous part. We shall continue from there.

Who is that entity, having such svarUpa rUpa guNas? He is …

paramapurusham bhagavantham nArAyaNam – He is nArAyaNan. What sort of an entity is he? He is..

paramapurusham – superior entity. The word “purusha” is common to both jIvAthmA and ISvaran. In order to point out to the correct entity, the adjective “parama” has been added to purusha. “parO mA asmAdhithi parama:” – there is no one superior to him, hence he is paramapurushan.

Is there any name for this most wondrous entity?

bhagavantham – One who has the 6 primary qualities of gyAna bala aiSvarya vIrya Sakthi thEja: (we have seen the meanings of these terms several times) and who is responsible for the creation, protection and destruction of universe is called as bhagavAn. But then, we know of several personalities who are called as bhagavAn such as vyAsa  bhagavAn (vyAsa, who wrote the epic, mahAbhAratham and various other profound works such as brahma sUthram), nAradha bhagavAn, a muni (sage) and son of brahmA, and several self-styled bhagavAns. The title “bhagavAn” to these people has been given as a mark of respect and not in real sense of the term.  However the term fits only one entity and not these persons. To make things clear, now he says…

nArAyaNam – He is nArAyaNan, who has no one superior to him, as mentioned in vEdham (nArAyaNAdhbrahmA jAyathE (brahmA was born out of nArAyaNa), nArAyaNAdhrudhrO jAyAthE (rudhra was born out of nArAyaNa)). nArAyaNa is responsible for the creation of brahmA, rudhra et al. He is paramapurushan, bhagavAn, possessing the 6 primary auspicious qualities (gyAna, bhala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakthi, thEja:). Usage of the two terms nArAyaNam and paramapurusham is from purusha sUktham. The term bhagavAn has been taken from rahasya AmnAyam which says that pavithram vAsudhEvO bhagavAn, sankarshaNO bhagavAn, pradhyumnO bhagavAn, anirudhdhO bhagavAn, implying the 6 most auspicious qualities of bhagavAn (sankarshaNan, pradhyumnan and anirudhdhan are forms of vyUha vAsudhEva (bhagavAn in thiruppARkadal or kshIrAbdhinAthan). Of them, sankarshaNan is the God for destruction, pradhyumnan for creation and anirudhdhan for protection and each of these three Gods takes 2 qualities from the 6 mentioned earlier; sankarshaNan has as major qualities gyAna and bala, pradhyumnan has aisvarya and vIrya while anirudhdhan has Sakthi and thEjas). Taken together, all these would conclusively affirm that the vEdhams refer only to nArAyaNan in the beginning, middle and end.

Until now the superiority of the entity that we attain (on surrendering) has been described. From here, the prayer that SrI rAmAnuja offers for carrying kainkaryam (service to bhagavAn) is described.

swAmithvEna guruthvEna suhruthvEna cha parigruhya – the larger meanings of the word nArAyaNa are explained in these terms. There are four main qualities associated with the entity nArAyaNaswAmithva (owner or master), saulabhya (easy to access), sauseelya (not seeing any difference between self and ASrithars (followers) and moving in a friendly manner with them) and vAthsalya (treating faults as virtues in ASrithars). swAmithvEna directly refers to his quality of swAmithvam (he is the Lord). guruthvEna refers to his quality of saulabhya as he came down from SrIvaikuNtam to become the first AchAryan (guru or teacher). saulabhyam is associated with teacher as teacher comes down to the level of student to explain difficult terms. suhruthvEna refers to sauseelyam as suhruth means a person with a good heart (feels for the difficulties of others) and sauseelyam as a quality means being friendly with people without looking at the difference in levels (level could be one of wealth or intellect or practices). The fourth quality vAthsalya is referred to in the term “cha” in the above mentioned verse. There is another interpretation given by vyAkhyAthA (commentator) periyavAchchAn piLLai. Initially there were three terms, paramapurusham, bhagavantham, nArAyaNam. Now there are three terms, swAmithvEna, guruthvEna, suhruthvEna. He now compares each of the terms in the first set with each of the terms in the seconod set, in the same order. Thus paramapurusham is compared with swAmithvEna, bhagavantham with guruthvEna and nArAyaNam with suhruthvEna. In purusha sUktham (one of five sUkthams which were mentioned in vEdhams to glorify SrIman nArAyaNa and his consorts, SrI, bhU and neeLAdhEvi), the term purusham denotes bhagavAn being a swAmy; thus there is correlation between the terms paramapurusham and svAmithvEna. In the treatise rahasya AmnAyam, sankarshaNa is referred to as sankarshaNO bhagavAn (please see the term nArAyaNam above where this has been explained in detail). Since sankarshaNan possesses gyAna as prime quality, it is tantamount to saying that he is guru as only guru teaches gyAna. Since sankarshaNan is called bhagavAn, we can infer that there is direct correlation between bhagavAn and guru and hence we can see that guruthvEna is the equivalent of bhagavantham. In nArAyaNa anuvAkam (nArAyaNa sUktham), it is said “anthar bahiScha thath sarvam vyApya nArAyaNa: sthitha:” which means that nArAyaNan pervades both inside and outside throughout. Thus he is antharyAmi (one who resides inside). Since he resides inside the heart (hrudhaya), he is suhruth. And since he is nArAyaNan, we can say that nArAyaNan is suhruth. Thus we establish correlation between nArAyaNam and suhruthvEna. The vyAkhyAthA gives a third interpretation to bring out the equivalents between the two sets of terms. We are discussing SaraNAgathi (surrendering). swAmithvEna brings the context of sva-swAmy relationship (sva means property,  the possession and swAmy means Lord, the possessor). guruthvEna brings out the Sishya-AchArya (student-teacher) relationship. suhruthvEna refers to friendly relationship as in SaraNam suhruth gathir nArAyaNa: (from subAlOpanishadh). Hence suhruthvEna corresponds well to nArAyaNam. Thus we have seen correlation among the two sets of terms, paramapurusham, bhagavantham, nArAyaNam and swAmithvEna, guruthvEna, suhruthvEna.

parigruhya – to hold on firmly. Instead of only one  person (bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja) holding on to him, here the reference is to all the people living in samsAram (materialistic realm) who are holding firmly onto him. Another  interpretation is – holding on to him in all ways (as mentioned in SAsthrAs, as tutored by AchAryas and as practiced by bhagavAn himself). Once he thought about the swAmithvam of bhagavan, SrI rAmAnuja thinks about the kainkaryam to be performed to bhagavAn which is the quality of a servitor.

aikAnthika Athyanthika thath pAdhAmbhuja dhvaya paricharyaika manOratha:aikAnthika – with single focus; Athyanthika – without end; thath – that; pAdha – exalted feet; ambhuja – lotus like; dhvaya – two of them; paricharyA – to carry out kainkaryam; Eka – only; manOratha – desire of mind.

aikAnthikaEkAntha sambhandhi (only bhagavAn and servitor; no one else). This word can join with ‘thath‘ or with ‘thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya” or with ‘paricharyai‘. When it joins with ‘thath‘ (that bhagavAn), i.e. thath aikAnthika, it refers to the close relationship with bhagavAn, without any cause or reason. If it is taken together with ‘thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya‘, i.e. thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya aikAnthika, it refers to the deep love that the servitor has towards the exalted feet of the master and this is said to be in keeping with the svarUpam of the servitor.

thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya – kainkaryam always means carrying out service to bhagavAn‘s two exalted feet. His feet secrete honey just like the secretion of a lotus flower. ambhuja (lotus) is brought in as a simile to indicate that the enjoyment for the servitor will be sweet and desirous.

dhvaya refers to two feet which are the path (means) for reaching bhagavAn. Also, as purushArtham (fruit of attaining bhagavAn) it refers to perumAL (bhagavAn) and pirAtti (his consort) together for whom the kainkaryam is carried out.

paricharyAcharyA – history or carrying out or kainkaryam. Here the meaning to be considered is kainkaryamparicharyA – all types of kainkaryam. Another meaning for paricharyA is to keep circling (whether to have dharSan of bhagavAn or circum-ambulating the garbhagruham (sanctum sanctorum) of bhagavAn) repeatedly to do kainkaryam.

EkamanOratha: – leaving out all the other prayOjanam (benefits of attaining bhagavAn), focusing only on carrying out kainkaryam to bhagavAn, with devotion and determination.

thath prApthayE – to attain that manOratham (desire of mind) of doing kainkaryam.

cha – also. Is there anything else to be attained and along with that, attain kainkaryam too? Why is he mentioning ‘cha‘ here which would indicate that there is more than one prApyam (fruit of surrendering)? The vyAkyAthA comes up with a very beautiful explanation here: What is the meaning of “thath pAdha” in the words “thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya paricharyaika manOratha:“? It is nothing but ASrithar (follower). This is because it is the ASrithar who is bhagavAn‘s exalted feet. Hence SrI rAmAnuja is praying for doing kainkaryam not only to bhagavAn but also to his ASrithar or bhAgavathar. This is brought out by thiruppANAzhwAr‘s first pAsuram “adiyArkku ennai Atpaduththa vimalan” (the faultless bhagavAn engaged me in carrying out kainkaryam to his ASrithars). Another interpretation given for “cha” is that bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja is not only having the desire for carrying out kainkaryam but he also wants to carry out that kainkaryam. Thus it is one thing to have desire for kainkaryam and the other thing is to carry out that kainkaryam. Hence the word “cha” has been added.

Up to now, he has described upEya svarUpam (the true nature of carrying out kainkaryam to bhagavAn). Now he describes the upAya nishkarsham (the certainty of the path to reach bhagavAn) and its anushtAna prakAram (the method of carrying out SaraNAgathi). He divides this into three parts. Starting with thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya prapaththE: and ending with manvAna: he ascertains the path to reach bhagavAn. Then, starting from thasya and ending with charaNAravindha he describes how the path (upAyam) will be. Finally, starting with ananyAthma and ending with anuvarajEth he describes how he surrendered.

thath pAdhambhujadhvaya prapaththE:thath – that; pAdha – foot; ambhuja – lotus like; dhvaya – two of them; prapaththE: – hold on to firmly or surrender. Earlier we had seen these same terms in thath pAdhAmbhujadhvaya paricharyaika manOratha: wherein he had described how the two exalted lotus-like feet were readily available for carrying  out kainkaryam (this is called as upEyam or prApyam – the fruit of surrendering). Here he says that he is holding on to the two feet as upAyam (path to reach bhagavAn). This is also referred to by another term, prApakam. Thus we see that prApyam is also prApakam (both being attained through the two exalted feet of bhagavAn). This is also confirmed in dhvaya mahAmanthram where, in the first line, we hold on to SrIman nArAyaNan‘s two feet for reaching him (upAyam or prApakam) and in the second line, we carry out kainkaryam to SrIman nArAyaNan (to his feet) which is upEyam or prApyam.

anyanna mE kalpakOti sahasrENApi sAdhanam asthi ithi manvAna:anyath – other; na – not; mE – to me; kalpakOti sahasrENApi – for very long time; sAdhanam – means (path); asthi – available; ithi – like this; manvAna: – in thought. Roughly translated this means that: “As far as my thoughts go, there is no means available for reaching bhagavAn, other than his exalted feet, even if one were to search for such means for thousands of crores of kapla” (one kalpa is a period in brahmA’s life time, which is equivalent of 1000 times 43,72,000 years of our time).

anyath – other (means for attaining bhagavAn). The “means” other than prapaththi (surrender). Included in this list are bhakthi, gyAna, karma etc which are mentioned in SAsthram. If mentioned in SAsthram, wouldn’t these qualify to be means for attaining bhagavAn?

na mE asthi – not available for me. These may be adopted as means by those who have the will power to practice them – rishis, yOgis et al may adopt these means. SrI rAmAnuja says that he has been born in this samsAram for thousands of times and he is agyan (ignorant), aSakthan (without any ability. It is true that in all these births, he had been unable to attain bhagavAn, but in this birth or in the coming births, he would surely find the means for attaining bhagavAn….

kalpakOti sahasrENApi – Would a cobweb, immersed in water for thousands of days, ever germinate? In the same way, even if he were to take thousands of crores of births, he would never be  able to find the means other than this, for reaching bhagavAn, says SrI rAmAnuja.

sAdhanam nAsthi – there is no other means that he could fathom out. Even if he were to carry out bhakthi at some point of time, the benefit of that would go only towards wiping out some of the sins that he had committed in earlier births and not for reaching bhagavAn.

ithi manvAna: – This is affirmed -that it is  not possible to find another means to reach bhagavAn (other than prapaththi or SaraNAgathi) even if he were to go around looking for such means for thousands and thousands of years.

We shall see the remaining portion of this chUrNai in the next part.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.6 – vaikundhA

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum

Previous Decad

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sriperumbuthur_perumAL_AzhwAr_after_thiruvadi_thozhalAdhi kESavap perumAL with ubhaya nAchchiyArs and nammAzhwArSrIperumbUthUr (During adhyayana uthsavam completion – after thiruvadi thozhal)

Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

vaikundhA – AzhwAr speaks about the joy emperumAn acquired after uniting with him.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In sixth decad – SrIvaikuNtanAthan (lord of paramapadham) became fulfilled and delighted after uniting with AzhwAr (which was explained in previous decad) and thought “What can I give to AzhwAr? What can I do to him?” and starts doubting “Hope he does not leave me”. AzhwAr seeing these qualities of emperumAn such as pArathanthriyam (total dependence on AzhwAr), vAthsalyam (motherly affection towards AzhwAr), becomes greatly astonished, informs him that he will never leave him and pacifies him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In sixth decad – sarvESvaran becoming greatly delighted after uniting with AzhwAr, thinks “what if AzhwAr leaves me thinking himself as unworthy?” and manifests his viSlEsha bhIruthvam (unable to bear separation from him) in AzhwAr’s heart; AzhwAr becomes astonished thinking “How attached emperumAn is towards me!” and with great delight explains the following aspects to remove emperumAn’s doubts:

  • how he held on to emperumAn firmly
  • how emperumAn bonded with him in a single-minded manner
  • emperumAn‘s magnanimity of letting AzhwAr experience him
  • how AzhwAr would not let emperumAn go due to such magnanimity of emperumAn
  • how AzhwAr is not qualified to leave emperumAn due to the great joy derived from uniting with emperumAn
  • how he became fulfilled (complete) by experiencing emperumAn
  • how this result (experiencing/serving emperumAn) did not stop with him and was passed on to all those who are related to him
  • that he is desiring not to be separated from such divine experience
  • how emperumAn who worked for this result himself, will not break it
  • even if emperumAn tries to break it, how he will not let that experience go

By mercifully explaining this, AzhwAr eliminated all the doubts of emperumAn.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In “andhAmaththanbu decad, emperumAn‘s union with AzhwAr after the suffering in “AdiyAdi” decad is explained; in this thiruvAimozhi (decad), it is explained that the joy derived in that union is for bhagavAn. ALavandhAr mercifully explains that this is AzhwAr‘s contemplation of emperumAn’s love towards him. In “Unil vAzh uyir“, it is explained that – AzhwAr experienced bhagavAn and thought that it cannot be stopped with bhagavAn and extended his affection towards bhagavAn’s devotees as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.10adiyArgaL kuzhAngaLai udan kUduvadhu enRu kolO” (when will I unite with the nithyasUris agreeing with their principles); in this decad, it is explained that – after sarvESvaran showing his affection towards AzhwAr, not stopping there, he extends that same affection towards those who are related to AzhwAr and so on; in both sides, when the affection increases, it would extend to those who are related as well; AzhwAr himself subsequently says in thiruvAimozhi 2.6.7 “emar kIzh mEl ezhu piRappum vidiyA vennarakaththenRum sErdhal mARinar” (seven generations currently, downward, upward will not have to be born in this deep hell where there is no hope).

bhagavAn descended without diminishing any of his qualities such as being the lord of both nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and leelA vibhUthi (material realm), being the abode of all auspicious qualities, being fulfilled in all manners, and united with AzhwAr; not only that, He considered such union as a blessing for him and felt greatly delighted; He then doubted “I have now united with AzhwAr for whom I have searched since time immemorial; What if he leaves me?”; seeing this bewilderment, AzhwAr pacifies him saying “you don’t have to worry like this” and makes him feel like existing.

These emotions of emperumAn are explained using a similar passage from SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 94.18 “vaidhEhi! ramasE kaSchith chithrakUtE mAya saha” (Oh sIthA, the princess of vidhEha kingdom! Are you enjoying with me in this chithrakUta mountain?) – SrI rAma, looking at the beauty of the mountain and their togetherness, started doubting if such great experience will last for long. Similarly, emperumAn started doubting the longevity of such great union with AzhwAr too.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.6 – Audio

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

thiruvAimozhi –> Second centum

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Meanings

sriperumbuthur_perumAL_AzhwAr_after_thiruvadi_thozhalAdhi kESavap perumAL with ubhaya nAchchiyArs and nammAzhwArSrIperumbUthUr (During adhyayana uthsavam completion – after thiruvadi thozhal)

Full rendering

pAsuram 1

pAsuram 2

pAsuram 3

pAsuram 4

pAsuram 5

pAsuram 6

pAsuram 7

pAsuram 8

pAsuram 9

pAsuram 10

pAsuram 11

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.5.11 – kURudhal onRu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

nammalwar-art

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

AzhwAr says “those who practice this decad will enjoy emperumAn in paramapadham as highlighted in this decad”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

AzhwAr explains attaining parampadham as the result for reciting this decad.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In the end – AzhwAr says “if there is any one who can practice this decad, they will reach parampadham and enjoy eternally”.

pAsuram

kURudhal onRArAk kudak kUththa ammAnai
kURudhalE mEvik kurugUrch chatakOpan
kURina andhAdhi OrAyiraththuL ippaththum
kURudhal vallAr uLarEl kUduvar vaikundhamE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

onRu – one quality
kURudhal – if spoken
ArA – cannot be fully spoken
kudak kUththu – [emperumAn who is having] auspicious qualities such as SeeLa (simplicity) which is manifested by him dancing like a cow-herd boy with pots
ammAnai – master
kURudhal – to explain (as is)
mEvi – set out
kurugUrch chatakOpan – AzhwAr (who became knowledegable and devoted to emperumAn by the grace of emperumAn)
kURina – mercifully explained
andhAdhi – anthAdhi style (First word/sentence of a pAsuram relates to the last word/sentence of previous pAsuram) in which the structure of the pAsurams cannot be corrupted
Or – unique/matchless
AyiraththuL – in the thousand pAsurams
ip paththum – this decad
kURudhal – to recite/speak
vallAr – able
uLarEl – if present
vaikundham – paramapadham (spiritual realm)
kUduvar – reach

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Even if attempted, our lord emperumAn‘s qualities such as SeeLam (simplicity) which are manifested through kudak kUththu etc, cannot be spoken. nammAzhwAr who was blessed by emperumAn with knowledge and devotion, set out to speak (as it is) about such emperumAn’s qualities; AzhwAr thus sang this decad in this distinct/matchless thousand pAsurams which are in anthAdhi style which cannot be corrupted. Those who are able to recite these 10 pAsurams will reach paramapadham.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kURudhal … – When set out to speak about his nature, as mentioned in thaiththiriya upanishath Anandhavalli, it is impossible to completely explain his nature. Here AzhwAr is not speaking about his supremacy which cannot be explained; AzhwAr is actually saying that emperumAn‘s act of dancing with pots as a cow-herd boy cannot be explained fully.
  • ammAnai – One who manifested his kudak kUththu, thereby making me fully exist for him. mahAbhAratham bhIshma parva “vishnOr jishNOr vasudhEvAthmajasya” (vishNu (omni-present), jishNu (victorious) who appeared as the divine son of vasudhEva).
  • kURudhalE mEvi – vEdham withdrew itself highlighting inability to speak about bhagavAn – but AzhwAr pursues such task and sets out to do it nicely. In eighth pAsuram, he said “nAn solluvadhen? solleerE” (How can I speak? you speak if possible) and immediately in ninth pAsuram, he said “solleer en ammAnai” (speak about my lord) – that is AzhwAr’s nature.

Did he just attempt to speak or did he succeed speaking about bhagavAn?

  • kurugUrch chatakOpan – Since he is nammAzhwAr who was blessed divinely by emperumAn, there is no doubt about his ability to glorify emperumAn.
  • kURina andhAdhi … – The 10 pAsurams in this prabandham which are as glorious as the object of this prabandham – which is emperumAn himself.
  • kUduvar vaikundhamE – Instead of not achieving the goal as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.10adiyAr kuzhAngaLai udan kUduvadhu enRukolO?” (when I will reach the divine assembly of nithyasUris agreeing to their principles?) and instead of suffering in separation as in thiruvAimozhi 2.4AdiyAdi“, immediately on reciting these pAsurams, they will attain the goal which I attained by tiresome prayers. When father’s wealth is present (which is acquired by him with great difficulty), the son would simply enjoy the wealth. No need to suffer like AzhwAr; those who learn/practice this decad, they can simply participate in AzhwAr’s result.

Finally, nampiLLai summarizes the contents of this decad briefly.

  • In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr explained how emperumAn came along with his entourage and united with him.
  • In the second pAsuram, He said “after uniting with me, his divine form, divine features and divine weapons became radiant”.
  • In the third pAsuram, He said “emperumAn united with me in such a manner that, He would feel existing when being together with me and in separation He would feel as though non-existing”.
  • In the fourth pAsuram, AzhwAr ridiculed the examples given to him (his features) since they are no match for him.
  • In the fifth pAsuram, He skipped the examples and directly enjoyed bhagavAn.
  • In the sixth pAsuram, He said “such distinct emperumAn enjoyed me like mukthAthmAs (liberated souls) would enjoy him”.
  • In the seventh pAsuram, AzhwAr said “emperumAn assumed the forms of SrI rAma, krishNa et al for AzhwAr’s sake”.
  • In the eighth pAsuram, AzhwAr said “He does not have the ability to speak about emperumAn”.
  • In the ninth pAsuram, AzhwAr, seeking out for company, set out to speak about emperumAn.
  • In the tenth pAsuram, AzhwAr said “Even to speak about a single quality of emperumAn united with me thus, is very difficult”.
  • In the end, AzhwAr explains the result for those who recite this decad and completes the same.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 2.5.10 – AN allan

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-birth

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr highlighting emperumAn‘s distinct nature which is different from all entities such as male, female, gender-less individuals and says that he cannot speak about the bonding of such emperumAn with him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says that it is very difficult to explain emperumAn‘s nature.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “even if I can speak about his greatness, I cannot speak about such emperumAn uniting with me”.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Tenth pAsuram. AzhwAr says “It is very difficult to speak about the nature of emperuAn who united with me”.

pAsuram

AN allan peN allan allA aliyum allan
kANalum AgAn uLan allan illai allan
pENungAl pENum uruvAgum allanumAm
kONai peridhudaiththu em pemmAnaik kURudhalE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

AN – male
allan – not being
peN – female
allan – not being
allA – useless
aliyum – gender-less
allan – not being
kANalum – to be seen (using the pramANams that show them)
AgAn – unable
uLan allan – does not exist (for those who are unfavourable)
illai allan – exists – he is not void (for those who are favourable)
pENum – when being devoted (as devotees)
kAl – at times
pENum – desired (by those)
uru Agum – assuming a form
allanum Ay – (for those who don’t have such desire) he will not manifest his form
em pemmAnai – my master
kURudhal – while explaining (me who has seen this nature of him as shown by him)
peridhu – very
kONai udaiththu – difficult

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

He is unlike male; He is unlike female; He is unlike the gender-less individuals who are not of any use [in the context of procreation]; He is also unable to be seen (using the pramANams/tools such as eyes that show these differences such as male, female and so on); He does not exist (for those who are unfavourable); He exists and is not void (for those who are favourable); for those devotees who desire to see Him in specific forms, He assumes those forms; for those others (who don’t desire to see Him) He will not manifest His form; While [I am] explaining about my master [who showed his such nature to me], I feel great difficulty in doing so due to these aforementioned reasons.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • AN allan … – He is unlike the worldly men; similarly he unlike the worldly women; he is unlike the gender-less individuals who are not of any use. This is explained in rig vEdham AraNyam 2.2 “nainam vAchA sthriyam bruvannainamasthrIpumAn bruvan | pumAmsam na bruvannainam vadhan vadhathi kaSchana || a ithi brahma ||” (A man who explains this paramAthmA, cannot explain him in feminine terms; He cannot explain paramAthmA as gender-less individual who is different from male and female; He cannot explain paramAthmA in masculine terms; in this manner, parabrahmam (bhagavAn) is identified as “a” (akAram)). This is also explained in SrI bhAgavatham 8.3.24 “sa vai na dhEvAsuramarthyathiryangna sthrI na shaNdO na pumAnna janthu: | nAyam guNa: karma na sanna chAsannishEdhaSEshO jayathAdhaSEsha: ||” (That paramAthmA is not present as dhEva (celestial beings), asura (demoniac beings), marthya (human beings), thiryang (animals); He is not present as a woman; He is not present as a gender-less individual; He is not present as any other object outside these three types (male, female and gender-less); He is not present as a quality; He is not present as an activity; He is not sath (jIvAthmA [who does not change but] whose knowledge can reduce); He is not present as asath (achEthanam – matter which itself transforms); That sarvESvaran who is different from all these aforementioned entities and who is also present as everything due to his immense potency, has to appear for my liberation). When bhattar was thus explaining, a thamizhan (a person who is proficient in thamizh language) questioned “jIyA (Oh great personality)! if he is not like any of the 3 types (male, female, gender-less) which are seen in this world, is he SUnyam (void – non-existing)?”. bhattar mercifully replied “Oh son! you seem to be ignorant about the grammar in the word construction of the pAsuram. AzhwAr is not saying ‘AN allan (He is not a man), peN allaL (She is not a woman), allA aliyum alladhu (It is not a gender-less entity)’; Since AzhwAr is saying ‘allan, allan, allan‘ (all of which indicate masculine nature) – here, the word purushOththaman (best among men – supreme man) is indicated. isn’t it?”. By saying “AN allan peN allan …“, AzhwAr establishes that bhagavAn is neither like some other entity within each type (not like any other male) nor he is like another type (not like another female).
  • kANalum AgAn – He cannot be understood through the pramANams (tools – eyes etc) which make us see these differences such as male, female etc. This also establishes that there is no equality between the tools that show him and these other aspects.
  • uLan allan – for those who have not surrendered unto him – he is not existing.
  • illai allan – for those who have surrendered unto him – he is not void. This is explained further.
  • pENum kAl pENum uru Agum – When some one prays to him “Please take birth as our son”, he does so and says “… sapalam dhEvi sajjAtham jAthOham yath thavOdharAth” (As prayed by you desiring for a son previously, Oh mother dhEvaki! that desire has been fulfilled for you now by that reason I have been born through your womb). Also explained as – when some one desires for him, he will appear in a manner that those who prayed for him will have to carefully protect him or take care of him.
  • allanum Am – Even when he makes himself available like this, those unfavourable persons such as SisupAla will not be able to understand/approach him.
  • kONai peridhu … – To speak about sarvESvaran‘s nature of revealing so much to me, is very difficult.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 2.5.9 – solleer en ammAnai

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

antharyami

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram – As AzhwAr was unable to speak about emperumAn, he completely stopped speaking; subsequently, out of desire (to speak about him), calls everyone and starts engaging in a conversation with them.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “If you are able to speak about the unsurpassed sweet emperumAn, please do so”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram – AzhwAr who withdrew after deciding that he cannot speak about emperumAn, out of utmost desire calls everyone and starts speaking to them.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Ninth pAsuram. AzhwAr will not stop speaking about him saying “I cannot”.  He says to samsAris (worldly people) “Can you all together speak about my lord?” [Previously AzhwAr said no one can speak about emperumAn; now he is calling out again to see if there is some intelligent ones who may be capable of doing that].

pAsuram

solleer en ammAnai en Avi Avi thanai
ellaiyil sIr en karumANikkach chudarai
nalla amudham peRaRkariya vIdumAy
alli malar virai oththu ANallan peNNallanE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

en – for me
ammAnai – being the lord
en Avi – for my soul
Avi thanai – being the soul
ellai il – boundless
sIr – having qualities such as saukumAryam (beauty) etc
en karumANikkach chudarai – one who allowed me to experience his blue emerald like form
solleer – speak (if it is possible to do so for all of you together)

when asked, the reason for being unable to speak about him,
nalla – being distinct (from worldly nectar)
amudham – eternally sweet nectar

even for great yOgis
peRaRku – to attain
ariya – difficult
vIdumAy – the controller of the eternal land (of paramapadham – spiritual realm)
alli malar – in lotus flower
virai oththu – most enjoyable like the fragrance
peN allan – like he is different from women (due to him being a man)
AN allan – he is different from all men other than himself (due to him being purushOththama – supreme man)

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Do so if you can speak about emperumAn who is my lord, who is the soul of my soul (paramAthmA – in-dwelling super soul), who is having boundless qualities such as beauty etc and who allowed me to experience his blue emerald like form; (when asked, the reason(s) for being unable to speak about him) he is eternally sweet nectar which is distinct from worldly nectar; he is the controller of paramapadham (spiritual realm) which is difficult to attain (even for great yOgis); he is most enjoyable like the fragrance in lotus flower; like he is different from women (due to him being a man), he is also different from all men other than himself (due to him being purushOththama – supreme man) .

Hence it is to be understood that it is difficult to speak about him.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • solleer en ammAnai – Oh ones who are able to enjoy worldly (lowly) pleasures and explain about that! can you speak about him?
  • en ammAnaibhagavAn who manifested his divine qualities and activities and thus engaged me in proper servitude towards him.
  • en Avi Avi thanai – one who is the antharAthmA (in-dwelling super soul) of my AthmA (soul).
  • ellai … – Even if one can understand the limits of the qualities of his divine svarUpam (true nature) [such as gyAnam, Anandham etc], one can never understand the limits of the qualities of his divine vigraham (form) [such as saukumAryam etc]. Also explained as AzhwAr saying “emperumAn who allowed me to experience his unlimited auspicious qualities of the divine svarUpam (true nature) and  his cool divine blue emerald like beautiful form.
  • nalla amudham – eternal and most enjoyable nectar. Also explained as best among available nectar.
  • peRaRku ariya vIdumAy – being the mOksha purushArtham (liberation – the fourth goal desired by AthmAs [dharma (righteousness), artha (wealth); kAma (enjoyment) and mOksha (liberation) are the four goals desired by AthmA generally].
  • alli malar virai oththu – For his sweetness, he is comparable to the fragrance of the lotus flower.
  • AN allan peN allan – Not like any other man.  Just like he is unlike any other woman, he is also unlike any other man. This indicates that, he cannot be compared to any one.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 2.5.8 – ponmudi ampOrERRai

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

srinivasa-with-tulasi-garland

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In eighth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “You being unique and beyond the capacity of mind/words and still uniting with me – I cannot explain this great quality of yours”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully explains the greatness of uniting with emperumAn which is beyond the capacity of explanation through words.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Eighth pAsuram. AzhwAr says “I cannot speak about this great quality of yours, where you being the leader of the nithyasUris who have unblemished knowledge, still united with me without checking my lowly nature”.

pAsuram

ponmudi ampOrERRai emmAnai – nAlthadamthOL
than mudivonRillAdha thaN thuzhAy mAlaiyanai
en mudivu kANAdhE ennuL kalandhAnai
sol mudivu kANEn nAn solluvadhen solleerE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pon – radiant
mudi – having a crown
am pOr ERRai – being very prideful
emmAnai – the master who accepted my service (by showing such pride of full independence)
nAl – four types of
thadam – huge
thOL – having divine shoulders
than – for his greatness
mudivu onRillAdha – having no end

(explaining about) that which highlights his greatness and sweetness,
thaN – cool
thuzhAy mAlaiyanai – one who is wearing a divine thuLasi (basil) garland
en mudivu kANAdhE – (like there is no end for his greatness) without seeing my lowliness
en uL – in my heart
kalandhAnai – one who mingled/united
nAn – me

I can only understand myself (but cannot explain to others)
sol – to explain through words
mudivu – method
kANEn – not seeing
solluvadhu – explaining this
en – how?
solleer – (if possible) please do that (he is saying this to worldly people).

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn is wearing a radiant crown; showing such prideful form he turned me into his servitor and became my master; he is having four (types of) divine shoulders and has no end to his greatness; his greatness and sweetness are highlighted by his cool divine thuLasi (basil) garland; just like there is no end to his greatness, there is no end to my lowliness too – he entered into the heart of of such lowly me and mingled with me; (while I can understand his glories) I cannot see any method to speak about his glories; AzhwAr says to worldly people “like you glorify material joyful aspects, you speak about emperumAn‘s glories if possible”.

It is indicated that the enjoyable nature of emperumAn who is different from everything else is beyond explanation. en mudivu kANAdhE – this is also explained as “unable to witness my sufferings in separation from him”.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pon mudi am pOr ERRai – Having a crown which shows his control over both vibhUthis (realms – paramapadham and samsAram) that manifests his lordship over all.
  • emmAnai – by showing his ultimate lordship, he placed me in my ultimate servitude.
  • nAl thadam thOL … – shoulders which are four in numbers; while speaking about emperumAn who is wearing thuLasi (basil) garland, even the vEdham itself gives up saying “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE” (unable to comprehend the glories of paramAthmA, speech and mind give up and return). thuLasi garland is the identity of the entity whose glories cannot be comprehended.
  • en mudivu …. – Like there is no limits for the goodness in emperumAn, there is no limits to the faults in AzhwAr.
  • en mudivu kANAdhE – Not seeing my level. As said in SrIvishNu sahasranAmam “avigyAthA” (ignorant), ignoring my faults and closing his eyes, he came and mingled with me. Another explanation – unable to witness me trying to finish myself in separation that was highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 2.4AdiyAdi“, he came and united with me.
  • sol mudivu kANEn nAn – Trying to explain this quality of mingling with me (sauSeelyam), I went through the same difficulty as vEdham which tried to explain bhagavAn‘s quality named “Anandham” (bliss) [in thaiththiriya upanishadh Anandhavalli]. Also explained as AzhwAr saying “When he allows me to experience him, the taste which I acquire out of this can only be experienced and cannot be explained to others”.
  • solluvadhu en solleerE – Oh [worldly] people! you who are able to share your worldly experiences! Are you able to explain his glories?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

SrIvaikuNta gadhyam – 1st chUrNai Part 1

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

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parampadhanathan-art

avathArikai (Introduction)

Starting with svAdhIna thrividha chEthana and ending with nArAyaNam, this chUrNai describes the superiority of bhagavAn over the svarUpam (basic nature) of chEthana (sentient) and achEthana (insentient) entities and his qualities aligned to his svarUpam.

svAdhIna thrividha chEthanAchEthana svarUpa sthithi pravruththi bhEdham,
klESa karmAdhyaSEsha dhOshAsamsprushtam,
svAbhAvikAnavadhikAthiSaya gyAnabhalaiSvarya vIrya Sakthi thEja:prabhruthi
asankhyEya kalyANa guNAgaNougha mahArNavam,
paramapurusham, bhagavantham, nArAyaNam,
swAmithvEna guruthvEna suhruthvEna cha
parigruhya aikAnthika (Athyanthika) thathpAdhAmbhujadhvaya paricharyaika manOratha:,
thathprApthyE cha thathpAdhAmbhujadhvaya prapaththE:
anyanna mE kalpa kOti sahasrENApi sAdhanamasthIthi manvAna:,
thasyaiva bhagavathO nArAyaNasya akhila sathvadhayaika sAgarasya
anAlOchitha guNAguNa akhaNdajanAnukUla amaryAdhaSeelavatha:,
svAbikAnavadhikAthiSaya guNavaththayA (thu)
dhEvathiryangmanushyAdhyakhilajana hrudhayAnandhanasya,
ASritha vAthsalyaika jaladhE:, bhakthajana samSlEshaika bhOgasya,
nithyagyAnakriyaiSvaryAdhi bhOga sAmagrIsamrudhdhasya,
mahAvibhUthE: SrImatha: charaNAravindhayugalam
ananyAthma sanjIvanEna thadhgatha sarvabhAvEna SaraNam anuvrajEth ||

Explanatory Notes

svAdhIna – Unlike chEthana and achEthana entities who are dependent on bhagavAn and are controlled by him, bhagavAn is completely independent and is under his own control and nobody else’s. As mentioned in the palaSruthi (hymns listing the benefits) of vishNu sahasranAmam (1000 names of vishNu), jagadhvaSE varthathEdham krishNasya sacharAcharam – all the entities in the universe, apart from himself, are under the control of krishNa.

What are these entities?

thrividha chEthanAchEthana – three types of AthmAs, namely bhadhdha (those who are still bound to samsAram (materialistic realm)), muktha (those who were in samsAram earlier but who have now been liberated and are in SrIvaikuNtam) and nithya (those who have had no connection with samsAram and who have always been in SrIvaikuNtam). These are the three types of chEthana entities. The three types of achEthana entities are: prAkrutha, aprAkrutha and kAla rUpa.  prAkrutha entities are those which are composed of achith (insentient) entities which exist in prakruthi (materialistic realm); aprAkrutha entities are those achith entities which exist in SrIvaikuNtam (such as lakes, tanks, steps leading to these water bodies, gardens etc). prAkrutha entities are composed of mixed saththvam (sudhdha sathvam, rAjasam and thAmasam). aprAkrutha entities are composed of sudhdha saththvam only (pure good). kAla rUpam is time dimension.

Are only these six (bhadhdha, muktha, nithya AthmAs and prAkrutha, aprAkrutha and kAla rUpa achEthana) the dependent entities? For knowing this, we have to consider their

svarUpa sthithi pravruththi bhEdham – the bhEdham (difference) in their svarUpa (basic nature), sthithi (life or sustenance) and pravruththi (their activities). SrI periyavAchchAn piLLai introduces three terms here to explain these three terms: dharmi svarUpam (basic nature of the entity), dharma svabhAvam (qualities of the entity) and vyApAram (activities of the entity). Thus bhagavAn has under his control, the svarUpam, svabhAvam (qualities) and vyApAram (activities) of the six chEthana and achEthana entities. We shall now look at the bhEdham (difference) in svarUpam, svabhAvam and vyAparam of these entities.
For chEthana entities, the difference in their svarUpam is caused by difference in levels of happiness and sadness that they possess. Difference in their svabhAvam is due to difference in the level of their knowledge, ability to carry out tasks (doing physical kainkaryam to bhagavAn is a measure of this), their level of enjoyment (one may eat once in a day while another may eat 4 times a day), longevity (number of years that the AthmAs live in each birth) etc. Difference in pravruththi (activity) is on account of difference in knowledge, desire and effort taken in attaining an objective.
For achEthana entities, difference in svarUpam is due to various manifestations such as prakruthi (primordial matter), mahAn (the great state), ahankAram (individualisation), thanmAthra (subtle elements) etc. When it comes to kAlam (time), the difference in svarUpam is on account of various measures of time such as kalA, kAshtA, muhUrtham etc (these were the units used by our forefathers centuries ago and are still in use in vaidhIka time measurements; today we have seconds, minutes, hours, day, week etc). Difference in svabhAvam for achEthana entities is their being lifeless, constantly changing nature, being permanent (an achEthana entity will change its form from one to another, but it can not be destroyed; it exists in some form or another – for example a tree can exist as a tree, as a furniture, as a stick, as charcoal etc, but it still exists), always existing for the sake of others (like a fruit or sandalwood paste etc), being composed of sAthvic, rAjasic and thAmasic entities. Difference in pravruththi (activity) is its being the initiator for various actions (for example the body which an AthmA takes when it is born in samsAram, due to which the AthmA carries out various activities, thus earning pApa or puNya), being the raw material for fabrication of various articles (wood being used to make various types of furniture, door, window etc; gold being used to make different types of jewels; cotton being used to make different types of cloth), its ability to hide bhagavAn’s svarUpam (just as dust hides the radiance of a gem when it covers the gem, the body of jIvAthmA hides his as well as bhagavAn’s true nature since it is composed of saththvam, rajas and thamas), its non-radiant nature (it cannot emit any radiance on its own and when someone looks at it, the person will not get any knowledge).

One may ask, is it only bhagavAn who controls these chEthana and achEthana entities? Even the king of a country or the head of a family (in a limited way) has control over chEthana and achEthana entities. Then what is the difference between bhagavAn and others?

klESa karmAdhyaSEsha dhOshAsamsprushtam – A king or head of a family is affected by faults in him (faults such as klESam, karmam etc) whereas bhagavAn is not affected by faults such as these. There is a pAthanjala sUthram which says “klESa karma vipAkASayair aparAmsrushta: purushaviSEsha ISwara”. klESa is defined as “rAgadhvEsha abhinivESA: klESa:“. rAga – desire; dhvEsha – hatred; abhinivESa – greed. These are called as klESa (suffering). There are two other faults which are clubbed to these three – avidhya (ignorance) and asmitha (ego) to form pancha klESa: (five sufferings). bhagavAn is not affected by this klEsakarma is defined as activities resulting from and resulting in puNya (good deed or virtue) and pApa (bad deed or sin). karma does not touch bhagavAn. vipAka is the resultant of one’s jAthi (species which they belong to), Ayush (life expectancy) and bhOga (enjoyment or experience). These will be different for different AthmAs. bhagavAn is not affected by vipAka. ASaya is vAsanA (impressions left in the mind due to repeated births, which induce certain actions in the jIvAthmA). This is also not applicable to bhagavAn. Thus bhagavAn is not afflicted with any fault.

Is he just the opposite of all faults? No, he is also the repository of all auspicious qualities.

svAbhAvikAnavadhikAthiSaya gyAnabhalaiSvaryavIryaSakthithEja:
svAbhAvika – natural to bhagavAn. He did not get these auspicious qualities by doing any penance or as a gift from any celestial (demi) god or for any limited period of time. These qualities are present in bhagavAn as a part of his nature. Are these qualities limited in their measure?
anavadhika athiSaya– without any limit. Nobody knows the limit of his qualities – not even he nor his consorts know the limit of his auspicious qualities. periyavAchchAn piLLai cites certain references here such as yathO vAchO nivarthanthE aprApya manasA saha (not possible to state either by words or by thoughts), uyarvaRa uyarnalam udayavan evan avan (his greatness is so high that the greatness of those that we know in this word would appear infinitesimal when compared to bhagavAn – thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1) to prove that there is no limit to his qualities. What are these qualities?

gyAna bala aiSvarya vIrya Sakthi thEja: prabhruthi asankhyEya kalyANa guNa gaNougha
mahArNavamgyAna – bhagavAn’s ability to see right in front of his eyes all the events that (a) have occurred, (b) are occurring and (c) will occur, at all places. bala – ability to bear entire universe on a small part of his body. aiSvarya – ability to control all chEthana and achEthana entities and direct their activities. vIrya – when he carries the universe on himself, he does not show any distortion in his features or does not sweat. Sakthi – ability to protect all entities with no one to oppose him or cause any hurdle in his path. thEja: – his radiance is such that his opponents will shiver, just by hearing  his name. Also, thEja: denotes his ability to carry out any activity without any effort.

Are there only these 6 qualities? No, there are others too…

prabhruthi – starting from this. While there are many qualities, the above-mentioned six are the primary qualities.

If there are many others, is there any count for these qualities, just as we say ashtOththara (108) or sahasranAma (1000)?

asankhyEya – countless. If a person were granted the lifetime of brahmA and also the thousands of tongues that AdhiSEsha has, he can not complete one in 10000 of his auspicious qualities.

If they are countless, do they also include any dhOsha guNas (faults)? No, he has only…

kalyANa – auspicious. He has only auspicious qualities and does not have any faults in him. Neither his auspicious qualities nor his faults can be counted. Since there are innumerable auspicious qualities, they can not be counted. Since he does not have even one fault, this also can not counted.

guNagaNougha

guNa – type of qualities is such that when one hears them, (s)he will not have to close (her) his ears. On hearing the qualities, one’s heart will melt. We have seen that his qualities are countless.

Can these qualities be grouped and counted?

gaNa – bundles. His qualities are innumerable and even if they are bundled into different groups, they can not be counted. Here, SrI periyavAchchAn piLLai lists a few of these bundles to describe his qualities.

  • First in this list is his swAmithvam (qualities which will confirm that he is the swAmy or master or owner). To be called a swAmy, he needs to have qualities such as Souryam (ability to create panic among opponents even if the opponent’s army is huge), vIryam (ability to annihilate opponents without any effort), parAkramam (making even the opponents believe that he is their leader), chAthuryam (smartness/cleverness), sthairyam (standing like a rock in the face of difficulties), dhairyam (not intimidated by opponents) and so on.
  • Next in the list is soulabhyam (simple; easy to access); following qualities are necessary to be a saulabhyan: bhavyathai (submissive), krupai (merciful), aparAdhasahathvam (putting up with faults), klESasahishNuvathvam (putting up with sufferings when it comes to self and not putting up with sufferings of ASrithars (followers)), vAthsalyam (treating faults of ASrithars as virtues), prathyupakAra nairapEkshyam (not expecting anything good in return) and so on.
  • The third bundle of qualities in the list is souseelyam (moving easily with ASrithars, unmindful of differences between self and ASrithars), for which the following qualities are a must: sva vaibhava gyAnam (knowing well about his position/status), parakIya hEyAgyAnam (knowledge about the faults of others), akrithrimathvam (being honest; synergy among thought, speech and action) and so on.
  • The fourth group of qualities comes under the category of vAthsalyam (treating faults in ASrithars as virtues) with following qualities: pakshapAtham (showing bias towards ASrithars), upakAranairapEkshyam (not expecting anything in return) and so on.
  • The 5th bundle of qualities comes under the term santhOsham (happiness) with qualities such as priya, mOdha, pramOdha, Anandha (these are different levels of happiness). Thus, there is no limit to the qualities that bhagavAn possesses.

Are these qualities shown one at a time?

Ogha – wave. These qualities come like waves continuously and not one at a time. Where are these waves?

mahArNavam – great ocean. His qualities are like a great ocean and the qualities come towards his ASrithars like waves from the ocean.

We shall see more of this chUrNai in the next part.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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यतिराज विंशति – तनियन (ध्यान श्लोक)

श्रीः
श्रीमते शटकोपाय नमः
श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः
श्रीमद् वरवरमुनय् नमः

यतिराज विंशति                                                                                         श्लोक १

 yathirajarइस प्रकार श्री देवराज स्वामीजी ने पूर्व दिनचर्या में अपने आचार्य श्री वरवरमुनि स्वामीजी के दिनचर्या में अभिगमनम्, उपादानम्, एज्ज्याई का अनुभव किया।

अब वें श्री वरवरमुनि स्वामीजी की चौथी दिनचर्या स्वाध्याय का अनुभव करते हैं। अनेक स्वाध्यायोंमेसे एक प्रकार है जिसमें पूर्वाचार्योंके ग्रंथोंके आधारपर शिष्योंकों कालक्षेप दिया जाता है। इसका उल्लेख उत्तर दिनचर्या श्लोक क्रमांक १ में किया गया है, “वाक्यालंकृति वाक्यनं व्याक्यादरम्”। परंतु यतिराज विंशति (जो श्री रामानुजाचार्य के प्रति के समर्पण भाव को दर्शाता है) के संबंधमें सोचते हुये श्री देवराज स्वामीजी यह स्तोत्र दोहराते हैं।

श्री शठकोप स्वामीजी “प्रपन्नजनकुटस्थ” कहलाते हैं, जिसका अर्थ है श्री शठकोप स्वामीजी प्रपत्ति के अवलंब में मूल पुरुष हैं, जो यह प्रतिपादन कराते हैं की मोक्ष का भगवान ही एकमात्र उपाय हैं। श्री वरवरमुनी स्वामीजी, जो सबके आराध्य हैं, उन्हे श्री शठकोप स्वामीजीसे प्रारम्भ कर अपने आचार्य श्री शैलेश स्वामीजी तक के गुरूपरंपरा का ज्ञानपूर्वक उपदेश प्राप्त हुवा।

तीन रहस्य जैसे मूलमंत्र, द्वयमंत्र, और चरममंत्र का मूल आशय है की भगवद रामानुज ही उपाय और उपेय हैं। इस प्रकार के अविरत भक्ति से श्री वरवरमुनी स्वामीजी ने लोगोंकों जन्म मरण के चक्र से छुड़ानेकी प्रबल इच्छा से यतिराज विंशति नामक स्तोत्र की रचना की। स्तोत्र लिखते समय कोई रुकावट ना आए इसलिए उन्होने श्री यतिराज के प्रति प्रथम २ श्लोक निवेदन किए।

यह रचना रहस्यत्रय के सार को प्रगट करती है। व्याख्यानकर्ता श्री अन्नाप्पंगार स्वामीजी के अनुसार हम देख सकते हैं की यतिराज विंशति स्तोत्र में २० शब्द हैं – ३ शब्द मूलमंत्र के लिए, ६ शब्द द्वयमंत्र के लिए, और ११ शब्द चरमश्लोक के लिए। विंशति का अर्थ है २०।

तनियन्

य: स्तुतिं यतिपति प्रसादनीं व्याजहार यतिराज विंशतिम्।
तं प्रपन्नजन चातकांबुजं नौमी सौम्य वरयोगी पुंगवम्॥

य:  – जो भी, यतिपति प्रसादनीं  – यतिराज से कृपा की प्रार्थना करता है, यतिराज विंशतिम्  – यतिराज के बारेमें रचित २० श्लोक,  स्तुतिं – स्तुति, व्याजहाररचना की, प्रपन्नजन चातकांबुजं  – चातक के समान प्रपन्न जन, तं वरयोगी पुंगवम्  – वरवरमुनी स्वामीजी, नौमी  – आराधना करते हैं

इस तनियन की रचना श्री देवराज स्वामीजी ने की है। “यतिपति प्रसादनीं” का अर्थ है, जो भी इस स्तोत्र का अनुसंधान करेगा उसे श्री रामानुज स्वामीजी की कृपा प्राप्त होगी। “प्रपन्नजन चातकांबुजं” का अर्थ है श्री रामानुज स्वामीजी उस घन की तरह हैं जो चातक पक्षी के लिए जल वर्षा करते हैं। श्री रामानुज स्वामीजी शरणागतोंकी सहायता करते हैं। “वरयोगी पुंगवम्” श्री वरवरमुनी स्वामीजी को दर्शाता है।

devaraja swami

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यतिराज विंशति

श्री:
श्रीमते शठकोपाय नम:
श्रीमते रामानुजाय नम:
श्रीमद् वरवरमुनये नम:

ramanujar-alwaiश्री रामानुजाचार्य – भविष्यदाचार्य पवित्र स्थान – आळ्वार् तिरुनगरि

mamunigal-srirangam

श्री वरवरमुनि स्वामिजि – श्री रंगम

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परिचय

मन्नुयिर्गाळिङे मणवाळ मामुनिवन्
पोन्नडियाम् चेण्गमलप् पोदुगलै – उन्नि
चिरत्ताले तीण्डिल् अमानुवनुम् नम्मै
करत्ताले तीण्डल् कडन्.

बहुत् सारे महाचार्यों के अवतार से पवित्र हुए इस् भूमि में पूर्वाचार्यों के नाम से आज तक बुलाये गए धर्मसत्ता, श्री वरवरमुनि स्वामीजी से पूर्ण होता है | उन्के बाद् भी कई महाचार्यों का अवतार् हुआ | लेकिन स्वयं श्री रंगनाथजी एक शिष्य का स्थिति लेकर वरवरमुनि से ईदू का व्याख्यान सुन लिए | इसी  कारण से, महानों मानते हैं  कि  पूर्वाचार्य गुरु परम्परा श्री वरवरमुनि  से  पूर्ण  हो  जाता है |

आलवार तिरुनगरी में तिरु नावीरुडय दासर नामक एक महाचार्या के पुत्र होकर श्री वरवरमुनि अवतार किये | उनका नाम था अलगिय मणवाल पेरुमाळ नायनार |  उनका जनम साधारण वर्ष, आश्वयुज मास, मूल नक्षत्र में हुआ | उनका आचार्य  तिरुवाय्मोऴि पिळ्ळै थे |

एक दिन तिरुवाय्मोऴि पिळ्ळै श्री रामानुजाचार्य के गुणानुभव करते रहे | उन्होंने “मारन (श्री शठगोपजी) के चरण दण्डवत करके सुगति प्राप्त किये रामानुजन” जैसे बहुत सारे श्लोकों ध्यान किये और श्री शठगोपजी से रामानुजाचार्य के अनुराग को अनुभव किये | इससे उत्प्रेरित होकर श्री रामानुजाचार्य को आलवार तिरुनगरी में एक अलग मंदिर बनाने के लिए अपने शिष्योंको नियमित किये |

श्री वरवरमुनि जी भी उस रामानुजाचार्य के चरणों में बहुत सारे सेवा करते रहे | अपने आचार्य के नियमन से उस रामानुजाचार्य के चरणों में यतिराज विंशति नामक स्तोत्र समर्पित किये | कोइल अण्णन् स्वामीजी अपने वरवरमुनि शतकम में इस यतिराज विंशति का माधुर्यम् जैसे बहुत सारे गुणों को प्रकाशित किये |

भूमिका – पेरुमाळ कोइल श्री उभय वेदांत प्र.भ. अण्णण्गराचार्य स्वामी (श्री रामानुज पत्रिका – ३-११-१९७० – http://acharya.org/d.html )

मूल तमिल व्याख्यान: श्री उ. वे. T. A. कृष्णाचार्य स्वामी, तिरुपति

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