Monthly Archives: February 2016

SrIranga gadhyam – pravESam

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pravESam (Introduction) for SrIranga gadhyam

Ramanuja panguni uttiram serthi

In the first chUrNai, bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja prays for kainkaryam (service) to bhagavAn as purushArtham (benefit obtained through surrendering to him). As a prerequisite to carrying out this kainkaryam, he says in the 2nd chUrNai that he doesn’t have anything (meaning that he doesn’t have karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgam). Not only does he not possess what is required for kainkaryam, but he confesses that he also has all the dhOshams (faults) in this chUrNai. But he still prays for bhagavAn’s exalted feet as a means for surrendering. In the 3rd, 4th and 5th chUrNais, he prays for being a servitor. He also prays again for kainkaryam with deep belief and trust. In the 6th chUrNai, SrI rAmAnuja says that since bhagavAn is full of mercy and countless other auspicious qualities, he alone can grant the deep belief to him so that SrI rAmAnuja can rest assured that he would be granted kainkaryam too. In the 7th and final chUrNai, he requests bhagavAn to enable the jIvAthmA, who is totally subservient only to bhagavAn and to no one else (ananyArha SEshabhUthan) to carryout kainkaryam as basic nature (svarUpam).

mumukshus (those who are interested in attaining mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam)), until their physical bodies fall down, should spend their time in

  1. carrying out kainkaryam to bhagavAn in dhivya dhESams (those places where AzhwArs have sung hymns in praise of bhagavAn) through repeatedly chanting bhagavAn’s many divine names, writing about him, reading what has been written, hearing from others, bowing to him (as in salutation) and praying to him. If this is not possible
  2. carrying out kainkaryam to bhagavAn’s adiyArs (devotees). If this is not possible,
  3. thinking and speaking about the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn. If even this is not possible
  4. constantly reciting dhvaya manthram, knowing its meaning.

Here, the vyAkhyAthA (commentator) periyavAchchAn piLLai has given another concession to us. In his vyAkhyAnam (commentary) he doesn’t stipulate that we should live in SrIrangam and recite dhvayam. He says that we can stay wherever we are and recite dhvayam.

SrI rAmAnuja had earlier recited the SaraNAgathi gadhyam so that his followers can recite it, thus fulfilling the fourth of the four options given above. This gadhyam is very expansive, and hence in order to make it easier for his followers and for namperumAL to listen in exclusivity, he recites SrIranga gadhyam, containing all the meanings mentioned in SaraNAgathi gadhyam, yet brief.

We shall next go on to the first chUrNai in SrIranga gadhyam.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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SrIranga gadhyam – thaniyan

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periyaperumAL-udayavar

chidhachithparathathvAnAm thathvayAthAthmya vEdhinE I
rAmAnujAya munayE namO mama garIyasE II

Meaning: chith – sentient (with gyAnam, knowledge); achith – insentient (without gyAnam); para – supreme (SrIman nArAyaNan); thathvAnAm – the true entities; thathva – true; yAthAthmya – as it is; vEdhinE – one who knows; rAmAnujAya – to rAmAnuja; munayE – sage; namO – salutation (bow to); mama – my; garIyasE – highly venerable AchAryan (teacher).

I bow to SrI rAmAnuja, who is my highly venerable AchAryan. He knows the true nature of the three thathvams (entities), namely chith (those which are sentient), achith (those which are insentient) and param (supreme entity, SrIman nArAyaNa) who is distinctly different from and superior to chith and achith.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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SrIranga gadhyam

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periyaperumal-artSrIrangaAthan – mUlavar and uthsavar – SrIrangam

ramanuja-srirangam SrI rAmAnuja – SrIrangam

periyavachan-pillaiperiyavAchchAn piLLai

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After SaraNAgathi gadhyam, bhagavath rAmAnuja continues to recite SrIranga gadhyam in glorification of SrIranganAthan who is the presiding deity of SrIrangam. Let us enjoy this treatise now.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.5 – iniyAr gyAnangaLAl

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

varaha_avathar

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram – AzhwAr becomes satisfied saying “Just like you lifted up the world from praLayArNavam (causal ocean), you have also lifted me up from the samsAra sAgaram (ocean of material realm) by mercifully showing my relationship with your lotus feet; so, I have now attained your lotus feet”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “Since you have shown your divine relishable nature and have been the one who triggered my attachment towards you, have I not attained your lotus feet? (yes, I have)”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Fifth pAsuram – When asked “Is it sufficient to have knowledge? Should the result be not accomplished?” AzhwAr says “you being my first well wisher, having transformed me to be different from samsAris (worldly people), I have attained the result then and there”.

pAsuram

இனி யார் ஞானங்களால் எடுக்கல் எழாத எந்தாய்!
கனிவார் வீட்டு இன்பமே! என் கடல் படா அமுதே!
தனியேன் வாழ் முதலே! பொழில் ஏழும் ஏனம் ஒன்றாய்
நுனி ஆர் கோட்டில் வைத்தாய் உன் பாதம் சேர்ந்தேனே

ini yAr gyAnangaLAl edukkal ezhAdha endhAy!
kanivAr vIttu inbamE! en kadal padA amudhE!
thaniyEn vAzh mudhalE! pozhil Ezhum Enam onRAy
nuni Ar kOttil vaiththAy un pAdham sErndhEnE

pAsuram 5

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

yAr – even those who are great
gyAnangaLAl – with the knowledge
edukkal – to grasp
ezhAdha – cannot grasp
endhAy – my lord
kanivAr – those with well matured heart (due to their attachment towards you)
vIttu inbamE – one who is like the bliss in liberation
en – for me (who neither has knowledge nor has a matured heart)
kadal – in the ocean
padA – not created from
amudhE – being (divine) nectar
thaniyEn – lonely me (due to not fitting in this material realm)
vAzh – (glorious) living (matching my nature)
mudhalE – (due to his triggering the attachment, etc) the primary cause
pozhil Ezhum – (to demonstrate lifting me up from the material world) the universe which is structured as seven islands
onRu – distinct
EnamAy – being mahAvarAha (great wild-boar)
nuniyAr – sharp
kOttil – in the tusk
vaiththAy – Oh one who placed it!
ini – now (after your being my controller)
un pAdham – your divine feet
sErndhEnE – reached (certainly)

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh lord who cannot be grasped even by great persons! Oh divine nectar which is not sourced from the ocean (like the worldly nectar which came out of churning milk ocean)! Oh the one who is primary cause for the glorious life of mine who is lonely here in this material world! Oh distinct great varAha who lifted up the seven-island universe and placed it in your sharp tusk (to demonstrate that you will lift me up from this samsAram as well)! Now (after your being my controller), I have certainly reached your divine feet.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • ini – explained further…
  • Ar gyAnangaLAl edukkal ezhAdha endhAy – Oh my lord who cannot be understood by the  self-effort of one who may be however greatly knowledgeable! That is, emperumAn could not be comprehended by dhuryOdhana and could not be lifted up by rAvaNa.
  • kanivAr vIttu inbamE – For those who melt for you, you are their bliss of liberation; also explained as, for those who melt for you, you descend to their own place and give them bliss. Where did we see this? Mother yaSOdhA enjoyed ultimate bliss at her own residence (given by krishNa) as explained in perumAL thirumozhi 7.8 “thollai inbaththu iRudhi kaNdALE” (she enjoyed that ancient ultimate bliss).
  • en kadal padA amudhE – Oh most enjoyable lord who I got without my effort! I am not counted in either group – enemies (like rAvaNa) or devotees (like yaSOdhA) – since I only have adhvEsham (no hatred towards you when you try to help).
  • thaniyEn vAzh mudhalE – the primary cause (well-wisher) for such experience of lonely me. Like sIthA pirAtti who felt lonely amidst the rAkshasis (demoniac servants of rAvaNa), AzhwAr feels lonely in this samsAram.
  • pozhil Ezhum Enam onRAyAzhwAr is explaining emperumAn‘s help when he was feeling lonely. Assuming the most distinct form of a great varAha (wild-boar), he rescued the seven worlds which were consumed by the praLayam (annihilation).
  • nuniyAr kOttil vaiththAy – nuni – sharpness;  Ar – abundance; placing it in the abundantly sharp tusk.  This implies emperumAn‘s desire for protecting everything which is a lot greater than that of those who need to be protected.
  • ini una pAdham sErndhEnE – Just like lifting up the world from the praLayam, when you rescued me from the ocean of samsAram, I have attained the divine feet of your highness. Right at the time when you gave knowledge to me to say in thiruviruththam 1st pAsuram “imaiyOr thalaivA – in ninRa nIrmai ini yAm uRAmai” (1st prabandham of nammAzhwAr), I have attained your divine feet.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.4 – enadhu AviyuL

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

antharyami

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth pAsuram – AzhwAr being unable to return emperumAn‘s favour, becomes perplexed.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says he cannot return emperumAn‘s favours.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Fourth pAsuram – AzhwAr recollects emperumAn‘s favour which he mentioned in “vaiththAyAl” and becomes perplexed. When asked “Can you not submit something you own and be satisfied?” he agrees and submits his own self but then repents for doing so.

pAsuram

எனது ஆவி யுள் கலந்த பெரு நல் உதவிக் கைம்மாறு
எனது ஆவி தந்தொழிந்தேன் இனி மீள்வது என்பது உண்டே?
எனது ஆவி ஆவியும் நீ பொழில் ஏழும் உண்ட எந்தாய்
எனது ஆவி யார்? யான் ஆர்? தந்த நீ கொண்டாக்கினையே

enadhu Avi uL kalandha peru nal udhavik kaimmARu
enadhu Avi thandhozhindhEn ini mILvadhu enbadhu uNdE?
enadhu Avi Aviyum nI pozhil Ezhum uNda endhAy
enadhu Avi Ar? yAn Ar? thandha nI koNdAkkinaiyE

pAsuram 4

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pozhil Ezhum – all worlds
uNda – (while being destroyed during praLayam (annihilation)) placed in your stomach and protected them
endhAy – Oh lord/master!
enadhAvi uL – inside my AthmA (which is to be rejected due its fallen nature)
kalandha – mixed seamlessly (like water mixing with water)
peru – (considering that as his benefit) huge
nal – good (since its nirhEthukam – without any effort from AzhwAr)
udhavi – for the favour
kaimmARu – as return of favour
enadhAvi – my AthmA
thandhu ozhindhEn – submitted (to you)
ini – now
mILvadhu – (for that) return
uNdE – is not there

When analysing deeper,
enadhu Aviyum – for my AthmA (soul)
Avi – AthmA
nI – you

Thus,
enadhu Avi Ar? – the actions of AthmA (which is submitted) are not under my control
yAn Ar – the doership of mine (who is submitting) is not under my control
thandha – one who created (the existence of this AthmA which has the ability to give, act etc)
nI – you only
koNdAkkinAy – subsequently accepted

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh lord who placed all worlds (while being destroyed during praLayam (annihilation)) in your stomach and protected them! You mixed seamlessly inside my AthmA (which is to be rejected due to its fallen nature) and did huge good favour; as a return for such favour, I submitted my self unto you which cannot be revoked; on analysing deeper, you are my soul (AthmA‘s AthmA), neither the actions of the AthmA (that is submitted) and nor the doership of the AthmA that is submitting is under my control; (really) you (who) created (the existence of this AthmA which has the ability to give, act etc) have subsequently accepted this AthmA.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • enadhu Avi uL kalandha – You have entered into me (AthmA) who has toiled in this samsAram since time immemorial.
  • enadhu Avi – (like saying “my AthmA” with much shame) showing an example – Like vaSishta (great sage) entering chaNdALa’s (outcast) place. AzhwAr always considers himself as highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.4 “nIchanEn” (I am the most fallen).
  • uL kalandha – Not just bestowing enjoyment and liberation for my AthmA; as highlighted in first pAsuram “ellAm thanuLLE kalandhozhindhOm“, uniting/bonding fully with me.
  • udhavi, nal udhavi, peru nal udhavi – udhavi – favouring; nal udhavi – favouring without any effort from AzhwAr, peru nal udhavi – favouring others as if it is a favour for oneself. kaimmARuprathyupakAram – in return for such huge favour.
  • enadhu Avi thandhu ozhindhEn – I submitted my self under the lotus feet of your highness.

bhagavAn asks “For how many baths (days), this will last?”

  • ini mILvadhu enbadhu uNdE – Given it as sadhyO dhaSAham – those 10 days completed too; When selling goods, the seller would say you can return the product within 10 days from the date of purchase, but not after that. AzhwAr saying even those 10 days are gone now – so there is no option for revoking his submission.

bhagavAn says “Good! Now, you analyse and see whose you have submitted and to whom”. When AzhwAr analyses it, he realises that he has submitted something to bhagavAn, which is already owned by bhagavAn.

  • enadhu Aviyum nI – you are the in-dwelling super soul of my soul too. We have considered the AthmA as ours for long (since time immemorial), though it is already owned by bhagavAn. Today, we submitted that to him. What would emperumAn, who is omniscient, think about this act of ours? Once realising  emperumAn‘s reaction, AzhwAr feels ashamed of his submission. If we don’t perform AthmasamarpaNam (submitting oneself), that will lead to sarva mukthi prasangam (everyone irrespective of surrendering or not, should have become liberated); but if we submit ourselves to him, that would mean that we offered something which is already owned by him; so, what is to done? When perplexed one should submit oneself; but when one acquires clarity, one cannot be satisfied that “I have offered myself”; ALavandhAr too said in sthOthra rathnam SlOkams 52 and 53 “… mayA samarpitha: , … athavA kinnu samarpayAmi thE” (I have offered myself, (After knowing that everything is yours) what can I offer to you?) [In arumpadham, there is detailed explanation for this section, since this is a very in-depth principle to understand].
  • pozhil Ezhum uNda endhAy – should we have to say this based on your natural lordship over everyone? Is it not sufficient to say you are the lord of everyone since you have protected everyone by placing everyone in your stomach during annihilation?
  • endhAy – Just like you protected the world during annihilation, you bonded with me and protected me from destruction due to separation from you
  • enadhu Avi Ar? yAn Ar? – Who owns the entity that is being submitted? Who owns the submitter?  How can I say “I have submitted my AthmA (when it is really not owned by me)”?
  • thandha nI koNdu AkkinaiyE – you who first created the AthmA, accepted it too. How can AthmA be created when it is eternal? It is because of his eternal desire that the AthmAs are eternally existing as explained by kUraththAzhwAn in SrIvaikuNta sthavam 36 “ichchAtha Eva viSvapadhArthasaththA…” (the creation of all entities is based on your vow/desire).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SaraNAgathi gadhdyam – chUrNais 21 to 23

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21st chUrNai:

mA thE bhUdhathra samSaya: II

Explanatory Notes:

mA thE bhUdhathra samSaya:mA – no;  thE – to you; bhUth – to be; athra – here; samSaya: – doubt.

bhagavAn tells SrI rAmAnuja not to have any doubts at this stage. But why is he saying this when SrI rAmAnuja has not uttered a word? Sri rAmAnuja thinks over whatever has happened so far. He feels that what he has done (surrendering to bhagavAn) is a very small effort. The fruit of this labour, i.e. the benefit accrued out of this is very huge (getting mOksham, SrIvaikuNtam). And, the hurdles in getting there are monstrous (all the ills in samsAram, our world). In this world, even to get  a small benefit, one has to put in lot of efforts. Hence, would such an exalted benefit come to me for such a small effort, wonders SrI rAmAnuja. He doesn’t say this, but only thinks. And, is that not enough for sarvagyan (omniscient) to respond? bhagavAn says that he could expect this from someone who has tried to attain mOksham with his own efforts through upAyAntharams, the other paths (karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOga). But SrI rAmAnuja has given up everything else and surrendered to bhagavAn himself. Why then should he have this doubt? There is no need, says bhagavAn. The basic feature to be noticed here is that the effort that we think we have put in (in surrendering to bhagavAn) is not really our effort, but his mercy.

Let us now move on to the 22nd chUrNai:

anrutham nOktha pUrvam mE na cha vakshyE kadhAchana I
rAmO dhvir nAbhibhAshathE,
sakrudhEva prapannAya thavAsmIthi cha yAchathE I
abhayam sarva bhUthEbhyO dhadhamyEthadh vratham mama II
sarva dharmAn parithyajya mAmEkam SaraNam vraja I
aham thvA sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi mA Sucha: II
ithi mayaiva  hyuktham II

Explanatory Notes:

There are three sentences, spoken by three different persons – the first is by namperumAL, the 2nd by SrI rAma and the 3rd by krishNa. In our sampradhAyam, namperumAL is considered to be SrI rAma and periya perumAL is krishNa.

anrutham nOktham pUrvam mE na cha vakshyE kadhAchana:anrutham – false; na – no; uktham – said; pUrvam – past; mE – by me; na – no; cha – also; vakshyE – future; kadhAchana – ever.

namperumal-nachiyar-serthi

namperumAL says that there has been no falsehood in whatever he has spoken in the past. It is not that it is due to some destiny. He doesn’t have even the smell of falsehood anywhere near him. When there is no connection at all with falsehood, how can he be expected to speak falsehood in future? That is also impossible (one may wonder whether he is presently speaking falsehood since he has ruled out falsehood both in the past and in the future; but then present is future when one is in the time-frame of past and it is past when one is in the frame of future; hence if past and future are mentioned, it goes without saying that present  is also included in these two). But SrI rAmAnuja still wonders that thiruppANAzhwAr had spoken of periya perumAL as krishNa…..And, krishNa has uttered falsehood many times, even ANdAL has said so in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi (143 verses sung by ANdAL)….

rAmO dhvir nAbhibhAshathE – rAma: – SrI rAma; dhvi – two; na – no; abhibhAshathE – utter.

This was uttered by SrI rAma himself amidst the merciful rushis (seers or ascetics) in dhaNadAraNyam (a forest area in present day madhya pradhESam). namperumAL says that he is the representative of SrI rAma and hence he will not say two things. SrI rAma had steadfastly held on to this (not speaking two words) throughout his avathAram (incarnation). SrI rAmAnuja now wonders as to where he had said as SrI rAma which did not require repetition. namperumAL says

sakrudhEva prapannAya thavAsmIthi cha yAchathE
abhayam sarva bhUthEbhyO dhadhamyEthadh vratham mama – sakruth – once; Eva – only; prapannAya – surrender to me; thavAsmi – I belong to you; cha – also; yAchathE – beg or solicit; abhayam – without fear; sarva – all; bhUthebhyO – from living beings ; dhadhAmi – I give; Ethath – this; vratham – vow; mama – my.

vibhishan-surrender-to-lord-ramSrI rAma says in SrI rAmAyaNam when vibhIshaNa comes to surrender to him at thiruppullANi shore (sEthukkarai) that it is his vow  to grant fearlessness from all living beings to a person who has surrendered to him once and who wholeheartedly feels that he (the person) belongs to him (SrI rAma). Now SrI rAmAnuja further wonders whether this is what he (namperumAL) said? namperumAL says that even as the next incarnation to SrI rAma, as krishNa he had said similarly. What is it that you had said as krishNa, wonders SrI rAmAnuja……

sarva dharmAn parithyajya mAmEkam SaraNam vraja
aham thvA sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi mA Sucha: – sarva – all; dharmAn – dharmams (paths); parithyajya – giving up fully; mAm – me; Ekam – only; SaraNam – surrender; vraja – hold onto; aham – I; thvA – you; sarva – all; papEbhya: – sins; mOkshaishyAmi – shall liberate from; mA – no; Sucha – feel sad.

githai-karappangadu-wrapper

As charioteer for arjun, krishNa had said this charama SlOkam (ultimate verse) in the battlefield of kurukshEthra as part of bhagavadh gIthA. He had told arjun to leave all the other paths and hold on to him as the only path and that he would liberate him from all his sins and that he need not feel sad. Thus, namperumAL quotes from both rAmAvathAram and krishNAvathAram,  the two charama SlOkams. Still doubt lingers in Sri rAmAnuja’s mind as the two avathArams are different (in rAmAvathAram, he spoke only truths; in krishNAvathAram, he had spoken lies too) and would they not cancel each other? bhagavAn says that whether it was truth or lie that he spoke, he did so for his followers who surrendered to him and so long as they hold on to him, he will not let them down. And he further says…

ithi mayaiva hyuktham – ithi – this; mayA – by me; Eva – only; hi – surely; uktham – said.

namperumAL further assures that it was said only by him, whether it was said in vEdhas (scriptures) or by vaidhikas (those who follow scriptures). Since he is the one to whom his devotees surrender, his word is always correct.

Let us now move on to the next, and last chUrNai in this gadhyam, the 23rd:

athasthvam thava  thathvathO magyAna dharSana prApthishu
nissamSayas sukhamAsva II

Explanatory Notes:

athasthvam thava  thathvathO magyAna dharSana prApthishu
nissamSayas sukhamAsva atha – hence; thvam – you; thava – your; thathvatha: – truly; math – my; gyAna – knowledge; dharSana – vision; prApthishu – attain; nissamSaya: – without any doubt; sukhamAsva – be happy.

bhagavAn tells SrI rAmAnuja that a person such as SrI rAmAnuja who had surrendered himself fully to bhagavAn, will get full knowledge about him, have his dharSan (vision of bhagavAn) and will ultimately reach him (this is parabhakthi, paragyAna, paramabhakthi as we have seen several times). He assures him that this will happen and that he need not have any doubt about this and blesses him to remain happily for ever.

ramanuja-srirangam

With this we complete SaraNagathi gadhyam.

periya pirAttiyAr samEdha namperumAL thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
bhagavadh rAmAnujar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

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Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.3 – aRiyAk kAlaththuLLE

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

vamana-mahabali

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram – emperumAn asks “What favour did I do to you?” and AzhwAr says “though I have no qualification, you prepared me to unite with you”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully explains how emperumAn nurtured AzhwAr‘s devotion towards him.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram – thirumAlai ANdAn explains as heard from ALavandhArAzhwAr says with sorrow ‘emperumAn bestowed me sambandha gyAnam (knowledge about emperumAnAzhwAr relationship) and then he placed me in a body which hides that knowledge'”. emperumAnAr mercifully heard this and said “previous pAsuram and next pAsuram are spoken by AzhwAr with joy and hence this pAsuram cannot be spoken in sorrow. So AzhwAr is speaking ‘When I was in ignorance – emperumAn gave me knowledge and engaged me in his service’ in this pAsuram as a favour done by emperumAn”. When emperumAn says to AzhwAr “You said, aththA nI seydhana (the many favours you have done); tell me one such favour which you value most” and AzhwAr starts speaking about that.

pAsuram

அறியாக் காலத்துள்ளே அடிமைக்கண் அன்பு செய்வித்து
அறியா மா மாயத்து அடியேனை வைத்தாயால்
அறியாமைக் குறள் ஆய் நிலம் மாவலி! மூவடி என்று
அறியாமை வஞ்சித்தாய் எனது ஆவியுள் கலந்தே

aRiyAk kAlaththuLLE adimaikkaN anbu seyviththu
aRiyA mA mAyaththu adiyEnai vaiththAyAl
aRiyAmaik kuraLAy nilam mAvali! mUvadi enRu
aRiyAmai vanjiththAy enadhu AviuL kalandhE

pAsuram 3

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

aRiyAmai – one who mesmerised (through his physical beauty so that others cannot know his true nature)
kuRaLAy – one who became vAmana (dwarf)
nilam mAvali mUvadi enRu – saying “land mahAbali three feet” (even without proper sentence formation)
aRiyAmai – not understanding (the instructions given by SukrAchArya who said “this is supreme lord himself”)
vanjiththAy – Oh one who cheated (and grabbed the world which he considered as his own)!
enadhu Avi uL kalandhu – entering into my heart (by revealing this incident)
aRiyA – that which will nurture ignorance
mA – having insurmountable glories
mAyaththu – samsAra which is the result of mAyA (ignorance)
adiyEnai – me (just considering our relationship as master-servant)
aRiyAk kAlaththu uLLE – when there was no scope to know about such relationship
adimaik kaN – in such servitude
anbu – attachment
seyviththu vaiththAyAl – created that

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who mesmerised (through your physical beauty so others cannot know your true nature) by becoming vAmana (dwarf) saying “land mahAbali three feet” (even without proper sentence formation) and making mahAbali not understand the instructions of SukrAchArya and thus cheated (and grabbed the world which mahAbali considered as his own! Entering into my heart (by revealing this incident) when I was in this insurmountably glorious samsAram which is the result of mAyA which will nurture ignorance and when there was no scope to know about such relationship in me, (just considering our relationship as master-servant) you created that attachment towards such servitude.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • aRiyAk kAlaththu uLLE – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 18.27 “bAlyAth prabhruthi susnigdha:” (lakshmaNa being very attached to SrI rAma from early child hood), in early days when knowledge is not developed.
  • adimaikkaN anbu seyviththu – adimaikkaN – in servitude. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.25 “aham sarvam karishyAmi” (let me serve you in all manner) – you engaged me in the tasks which are done by nithyasUris who are never touched by samsAram.
  • anbu seyviththu – Instead of remaining with the attitude “will not leave it, if it comes to me and will not search for it, if I don’t get it”, you made me such that I cannot sustain without serving you as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.22 “kurushva…” (bless me to accompany you).
  • arIyA … –  Like someone who ate an intoxicating plant and became bewildered, AzhwAr became bewildered and asked “you have blessed me (who is so fallen)”. [Explaining ALavandhAr‘s view point – ] Even if something is captured in samsAram, it is still mine and so I will engage it in service. [Explaining emperumAnAr‘s view point – ] You placed this water source [when I am in ignorance, you blessed me with opportunity to do service, like providing water for a thirsty person].

Here is an example for this (engaging me in service without my knowledge).

  • aRiyAmai … – Like someone who acts without the knowledge of his own heart (so mischievous), assuming the form of a vAmana even without the knowledge of SrI mahAlakshmi who resides in his own heart, as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.9 “koLvan nAn mAvali” (mahAbali, I will accept), he spoke incoherent sentence “nilam mAvali mUvadi” (land mahAbali three feet). Only if he had begged before, could he have spoken coherently and asked for something.
  • aRiyAmai vanjiththAy – He cheated mahAbali with his sweet words even when SukrAchArya et al tried to convince him that “He is sarvESvaran, arrived to fulfil the desires of dhEvas, arrived to grab all your properties”. Similarly, he entered my heart, captured it too and united with me. He arrived into me who was totally shying away from him and captured me by manifesting his auspicious qualities and activities. Just like he cheated mahAbali as a mischievous dwarf, he entered into me, who was ignorant and from early days engaged me in his devotion.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 18

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pAsuram 18

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

emperumAnAr who helps us to know about the qualities of madhurakavi AzhvAr who is having the state of keeping nammAzhvAr in his divine mind, such emperumAnAr is my help, says amudhanAr.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

Out of the AzhvArs discussed in the previous pAsurams, one who is considered as foremost, and who for making everyone be able to learn created thiruvAimozhi, who incarnated for that, such nammAzhvAr’s disciple who does not consider anybody else, is madhurakavi AzhvAr; emperumAnAr who helps everyone to know about such madhurakavi AzhvAr’s auspicious qualities and reach true goal, such emperumAnAr is my companion, says amudhanAr.

eydhaRku ariya maRaigaLai Ayiram in thamizhAl
seydhaRku ulagil varum SatakOpanaich chinthai uLLE
peydhaRku isaiyum periyavar seerai uyirgaL ellAm
uydhaRku udhavum rAmAnusan em uRu thuNaiyE.               18

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

eydhaRku ariya – (For every one to get the meanings of ) Hard to attain
maRaigaLai – vEdhas,
(unlike praNavam which is very short, and unlike vEdhas which are very wide,
seydhaRku – to divine
Ayiram – as one thousand pAsurams only
in – that too being sweet,
thamizhAl – in the language that is easy for women and children to learn too,
SatakOpanai – since he prevents those who don’t accept or misinterpret vEdhas, AzhvAr having the divine name of SatakOpan
ulagil varum – incarnated in the world;
chinthai uLLE – in his divine mind
peydhaRku isaiyum – being apt/qualified to keep (such nammAzhvAr) is one
periyavar – having such greatness that is madhurakavi AzhvAr;
rAmAnusan emperumAnAr
udhavum – helps (by showing madhurakavi AzhvAr‘s)
seerai – divine qualities such as knowledge,
uyirgaL ellAm uydhaRku – for all the AthmAs to reach the true goal
em uRu thuNaiyE – (such emperumAnAr is) my great companion.

vyAkyAnam

eydhaRku ariya maRaigaLai – As said in ‘ananthAvai vEdhA: [?] (vEdhas are boundless), it is being unlimited and cannot be said as having these many numbers in it, and it is not being accessible to all the sentient but only based on eligibility, and being rare for even very learned ones to discern, such samskrutha vEdhas;

Ayiram in thamizhAl – Without having the restriction of varNas, and which everyone who are interested can learn, and which can be numbered as being a thousand (thiruvAimozhi), starting from ‘uyarvaRa uyar nalam [thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1]’, up to the end ‘uyarndhE [thiruvAimozhi 10.10.11]’, in the beginning, middle, and end, it talks in detail about – nature, form, and wealth of emperumAn, nature, form of sentient and non-sentient, reasons for jIvAthmAs to be involved in the cycle of worldly existence (samsAram), devotion based knowledge that can help avoid such cycle, nArAyaNan being the source of existence of the worlds and not the other deities, emperumAn being complete in all auspicious qualities, being in assembly with dhivya sUris such as ananthan, garudan, vishvaksEnar, how he (nammAzhvAr) advised due to his extreme mercy to the laukikas (those involved in worldly activities) for them to experience what he got as divine experience, how he (nammAzhvAr) enjoyed emperumAn to quench his thirst for Him; it talks about all the meanings clearly and in appropriate length, and due to that it is being very very easy, as said in ‘bhakthAmrutham [thiruvAimozhi thaniyan]’, and in ‘thoNdarkku amudhu uNNach chol mAlaigaL [thiruvAimozhi 9.4.9]’ (I said this pathikam of thiruvAimozhi as nectar for the devotees), it is being enjoyable from start to end for those who are interested in it, in the dravidian language of thamizh in a beautifully set way, in the form of a prabandham called thiruvAimozhi;

seydhaRku – to incarnate that prabandham; to make its appearance; (to explain the hard to understand/attain vEdhas in sweet thamizh prabandham)

ulagil – This leelA vibhUthi (earth etc), which is as said in ‘asudhdhAsthEsamasthAsthu dhEdhyAmkarmayOnaya:, AvirinchAdhi mangaLam [?](), and ‘iruL tharumA gyAlam [upadhESa raththina mAlai – 72]’ (world that gives ignorance), and ‘garbha janmAdhyavasthAsu dhukkamathyantha dhussaham, nakinchith kaNayannithyam charAmIndhirayagOchara: []’ (),

varum SatakOpanai – The present tense in ‘varum’ – AzhvAr’s divine and auspicious vigraham (form) is being worshiped in all dhivya dhESams, and in the divine residences of all prapannas, and his divine prabandhams being in use now and in all the future – is its meaning. Incarnating in this way, such –

SatakOpanai – ‘satar’ are those not having knowledge about their true nature, samsAris. He who was severe with such people in ‘oru nAyakam [thiruvAimozhi – 4.1.1]’ (~it is shown that even those who were ruling the world had had their fortune reversed and it was of no use, so come and surrender to emperumAn), and ‘naNNAdhAr muRuval [thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.1]’ (~ it shows the nature of this world which is not being helpful for AthmA);

he who opposed the ones who denied or misinterpreted the vEdhas. Such nammAzhvAr.

chinthaiyuLLE – in his (madhurakavi AzhvAr’s) divine mind,

peydhaRkuto keep in his mind as his lord, and as one to worship such nammAzhvAr

isaiyum – having suitable greatness; he (madhurakavi AzhvAr) divined as ‘mEvinEn avan ponnadi meymmaiyE [kaNNinuN chiruththAmbu – 2](~ surrendered to nammAzhvAr‘s golden feet), ‘thEvu maRRu aRiyEn [kaNNinuN chiruththAmbu – 2]’ (do not know any other lord (than nammAzhvAr)), and ‘mikka vEdhiyar vEdhaththin utporuL niRkap pAdi en nenjuL niRuththinAn [kaNNinuN chiruththAmbu – 9]’ (nammAzhvAr made me understand the inner meanings of vEdhas (about the state of subservience to His devotees)).

periyavar – As said in ‘uNda pOdhu oru vArththaiyum, uNNAdha pOdhu oru vArththaiyum solluvAr paththup pEr uNdiRE; avargaLaich chiriththiruppAr oruvar uNdiRE; avar pAsuram koNdu ivvarththam aRudhiyidak kadavOm [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 411,412](Other 10 AzhvArs are happy/sad based on emperumAn‘s availability and talk in opposite ways; there is one AzhvAr (madhurakavi AzhvAr) who is like laughing at them, because he is always happy being subservient to His devotee nammAzhvAr; we shall show the meanings using such AzhvAr‘s prabandham about the ultimate state of serving His devotees), he having the greatness of being in charama parva naishtai (ultimate state that is being subservient to AchAryan) and being immersed in that which is said in SAsthram as ‘yasmAth thadhupadhEstAsau thasmAth gurutharO guru: | archaneeyascha vandhyascha [mahAbhAratham]’ (who teaches us about bhagavAn is higher than that bhagavAn) etc., – such madhurakavi AzhvAr who is complete in this respect;

azhwar-madhurakavi-nathamunimadhurakavi AzhvAr with nammAzhvAr and nAthamunigaL – perumAL kOyil (kAncheepuram)

seeraiHaving auspicious qualities that are praised in ‘mARan satakOpan vaN kurugUr, engaL, vAzhvAm enRu Eththum madhurakaviyAr emmai, ALvAr avarE araN [kaNNinuN chiruth thAmbu thaniyan](~madhurakavi AzhvAr who sings about nammAzhvAr as our savior, is our protector), and ‘pArulagil maRRuLLa AzhvArgaL vandhu udhiththa nALgaLilum uRRadhu emakku enRu nenjE Or [upadhEsa raththina mAlai – 25](~Oh mind! Think always that the day of incarnation of madhurakavi AzhvAr is more precious to us compared to that of other AzhvArs).

(now it talks about emperumAnAr)

uyirgaL ellAm – Without any distinction between the people of various varNams whether of lower ones or higher ones – for all the samsAris (people of this world);

uydhaRku – for their ujjeevanam (for reaching true goal); it is in amudhanAr’s divine mind that it is not possible to use other means to reach true goal than this (emperumAnAr’s help).

udhavum – bestows his help; when teaching about the meaning of thirumAnthram, emperumAnAr teaches that those auspicious meanings should be considered all the way to subservience to devotees in the same way as that of madhurakavi AzhvAr;

irAmAnusan em uRu thuNaiyE – such emperumAnAr is my strong help. uru -> firm/strong; thuNai -> one who helps/supports; by this it says that this would get me to reach paramapadham.

For the word of periyavar – it could also be explained as – all the swamis who have kept AzhvAr’s divine feet in their divine mind.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarthi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

Ayiram in thamizhAl – This phrase shows the opposite of the difficulty of vEdhas, as thiruvAimozhi being easy and sweet. It is ‘theriyach chonna Ayiram [thiruvAimozhi 6.9.11]’ (~ The thousand pAsurams told for knowing it and its meanings (easily)).

ulagil varum satakOpanai – while others keep having their birth here due to their karmas, nammAzhvAr incarnated here to help remove the birth from here, by giving us thiruvAimozhi, etc.

That is his incarnation is for giving thiruvAimozhi.

emperumAn incarnated as hayagrIva to bring out the vEdhas that were hidden; He incarnated as krishNan to give us SrI bhagavath gIthA to show the meanings of upanishaths; nammAzhvAr incarnated to give us thiruvAimozhi in sweet thamizh, for everyone to understand.

emperumAn incarnated as krishNan a cowherd who helps cows find the way in forest, to give SrI bhagavath gIthA to help us find our way out of the forest of darkness;

it is in samskrutham which is hard and confusing as arjunan said ‘vyAmisrENaiva vAkyEna budhdhim mOhayaseevamE [SrI bhagavath gIthA – 3.2]’ (may be you are confusing me with the mixture of these sentences); SrI bhagavath gIthA confuses even arjunan; nammAzhvAr’s thiruvAimozhi is the thousand for everyone to understand.

periyavar – Here, nammAzhvAr -> periyan; madhurakavi AzhvAr-> periyavar. emperumAn is the greatest; but since He is inside the heart of nammAzhvAr he is even bigger than emperumAn; and since madhurakavi AzhvAr is always having nammAzhvAr in his heart, he is even bigger than nammAzhvAr; So, periyavar.

First stage is of keeping emperumAn in one’s heart; final stage is keeping His devotees in one’s heart.

uyirgaL ellAm uydharku udhavum – For everyone to reach true goal, emperumAnAr showed the ways of being subservient to nammAzhvAr, thus showed the state of madhurakavi AzhvAr. It is due to emperumAnAr’s help that vEdhAnthAcharyar said ‘thunbaRRa madhurakavi thOnRak kAttum thol vazhiyE nal vazhigaL thuNivArgatkE [guruparamparA sAram]’ (~ Being staunch that madhurakavi AzhvAr’s state of being subservient to AchAryas is the state that has been followed from time eternal), and it is due to emperumAnAr‘s help that maNavALa mAmunigaL said ‘madhurakavi soRpadiyE nilaiyAgap peRROm [Arththi prabandham – 55]’ (~ we are having the state in the same way as madhurakavi AzhvAr);

uRu thuNai – If we put in some effort, then others might be of help to us in return; unlike that, without any efforts from our side, emperumAnAr helps us to reach true goal, so he is being a help that is firm and apt for us.

– – – – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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upadhESa raththina mAlai – 74 (and conclusion)

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pAsuram 74 – divined by erumbiappA (disciple of maNavALa mAmunigaL)

mannuyirgAL ingE maNavALa mAmunivan
ponnadiyAm senkamalap pOdhukaLai – unnich
chiraththAlE theeNdil amAnavanum nammaik
karaththAlE theeNdal kadan.                                        74

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Word by word meaning

uyirgAL – Oh chEthanas (sentients)
man – well established
ingE – in this world!
unni – (If we) think about
pon – the beautiful
adiyAm – divine feet of
maNavALa mAmunivan – SrI maNavALa mAmunigaL
senkamalap pOdhugaLai – (that are like) beautiful reddish lotus flowers
theeNdin – and if got it touched
chiraththAlE – by our head, then,
amAnavanum – amAnava purushA (at the entry of SrIvaikuNtam)
theeNdal – touching
nammai – us
karaththAlE – by his SrI hastham (divine hands)
kadan – would be his duty {adiyEn have heard that this also means that amAnavan touching us is not necessary since we would be happy here itself due to maNavALa mAmunigaL‘s divine feet touching our head here}.

Short explanation (Given by Dr. M. varadharAjan swami in his book of thamizh translation of original vyAkyAnam of upadhESa raththina mAlai).

In his uththara dhinacharyA, eRumbi appA describes the divine feet of maNavALa mAmunigaL, as ‘unmeelath padhma garbha … pAchayugmam… dhayALu: [uththara dhinacharyA – 6]. What it says is as follows.

A flower that is in the process of blossoming – the brightness of its inside that is of reddish hue – the bottom part of his divine feet is of such nature; top part of his feet is whitish like that of gathered milk; it is with beautiful nails, that are whitish like that of full moon days’ moon. The tip part of such nails are having a slight bend; the feet are very soft; they are aprAkrutham (not made of worldly matter, but divine matter); since he is incarnation of Adhi SEshan, it is aprAkrutham. It is the very best;

Such divine feet should be kept in his head – so pleads his disciple erumbi appA.

srisailesa-thanian-mamunigal-eedu-goshtinamperumAL creating the most distinguished thaniyan for his AchAryan maNavALa mAmunigaL

amAnavan – One having four arms, holding conch and disc in his hands, in the virajA river before the entry to SrI vaikuNtam (where he gives his hands to help us out of the virajA river to enter the inner area of SrI vaikuNtam). This is explained in rahasya grantham of archirAdhi (page – 98). It is said as ‘amAnava: – thath purushau amAnava: sa ainAn bramhA gamayathi [chAndogya upanishath – 5.10.2]’. For this, as said in ‘asamsAree vaingutha: purusha:’, ranga rAmAnuja muni has done vyAkyanam for this as one who is not a samsAri.

{The following thought suddenly occurred to adiyEn one day while reciting upadhESa raththina mAlai in a temple. Kindly correct adiyEn’s mistakes in this. This is followed by its translation in English.

மணவாள மாமுனியும் எழுபத்து நாலு சிம்ஹாஸநாதிபதிகளான கணனைக்கிணங்க அவ்வளவு பாட்டுக்கள் இப்பிரபந்தத்துக்கிட வேணும் என்று திருவுள்ளமாய், அப்போது அவர் சிஷ்யர் எறும்பியிலப்பா தன் ஆசார்யன் விஷயமாக ஒரு பாட்டு இதில் கடைசியில் சேர்க்கப் பிரேரிதராய் நெடுங்காலும் அதற்கு ஹேதுவென் என்று பார்த்து, நம்பெருமாள் திருமுன்பே விண்ணப்பிக்க, அவரும் அர்ச்சக முகேன மணவாள மாமுனிகளுக்கு ஆக்ஞையிட, பின் எறும்பியிலப்பாவும் பரம பிரீதியோடே இப்பாட்டை இட்டருளினார், என்பது பிரஸித்தமிறே.

இத்தால் நமக்கு உண்டான விசேஷம் ஒன்றுண்டு. “இந்த உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை தன்னை” வியாக்யானத்தில், இத்தை ஒரு மாலையாக, “ஆழ்வார்கள் பதின்மர் ஒரு கையாகவும், ஆண்டாள், மதுரகவியாழ்வார், யதிராசராமிவர்கள் நடுநாயகமாகவும், ‘நாதமுனி முதலாம் நம் தேசிகர்’ என்று தமக்கு முன்புண்டான ஆசார்யர்கள் ஒரு கையாகவும், இப்படி எல்லாரையும் சேர்த்துப் பிடித்து, ஒரு மாலையாம்படியிறே செய்தருளிற்று” என்று பிள்ளை லோகம் ஜீயர் வியாக்கியானமிட்டருளினார்.

ஆசார்ய ரத்ன ஹாரத்தில் கடைசியாய் மணவாள மாமுனிகள் விளங்குவது போலே, இப்படிப்பட்ட இந்த மாலையிலும் விலக்ஷணமாக, கடைசியாய் மணவாள மாமுனிகள் சேர்க்கப் பட்டாரிறே.

அங்கே இவரை ஸ்ரீ சைலேச தயா பாத்ர தனியன் மூலமாய்ச் சேர்த்த நம்பெருமாள், இங்கும் அர்ச்சக முகேன இவரைச் சேர்த்தருளினார்.

வட மொழி மூலமாய் அத்தை அங்கே சேர்த்தவர், இங்கே தன் ஆசார்யன் உகந்த அழகிய தமிழ் மூலமாய்ச் சேர்த்தார்.

இவரைப்போலே அவரும் ‘ஓரொருவர்’ இறே.

Translation:

maNavALa mAmunigaL thought in his divine mind to write this prabandham in 74 pAsurams, to match the number of seventy four simhAsanAdhipathis established by emperumAnAr. His disciple erumbi appA wished to add a pAsuram to this in praise of his AchAryan. After thinking about a way for this for a very long time, he went in front of namperumAL and pleaded to Him about this. He too through the archakar told maNavALa mAmunigAL to grant this wish; then eRumbi appA happily added this last pAsuram in to this prabandham – this is very well known.

There is a wonderful matter for us regarding this. In the vyAkyAnam by piLLai lOkam jeeyar for the previous pAsuram of ‘indha upadhEsa raththina mAlai thannai’, it is said as:

“That this prabandham is having the characteristic of a garland can be seen in the way he has put it together. That is, on one side are the ten AzhvArs, and then, with ANdAL, madhurakavi AzhvAr, and ethirAjar in the center, and then, all the Acharyas before him such as ‘nAthamuni mudhalAna nam dhEsikar [upadhEsa raththinamAlai – 36]’ (preceptors starting from SrIman nAthamunigaL) are on the other side of the garland – this is how he has collected them well together and made it like a garland.”

Now, like how in the garland of AchArya rathna hAram maNavALa mAmunigaL is set as the last one, here too in this garland maNavALa mAmunigaL is added last in the most distinguished way.

namperumAL who added maNavALa mAmunigaL there, has, through the archakar, has added him here as well.

He added him there through the samskrutha thaniyan of ‘SrISailESa dhayA pAthram’ and here He has added his AchAryan through the thamizh language that his AchAryan (maNavALa mAmunigAL) is fond of.

Like his AchAryan, He too is ‘Or oruvar’.

Concluding comments

adiyEn got this wonderful opportunity to live in the world of upadhESa raththina mAlai for the past few weeks while trying to translate into English.

There may be several mistakes in the translation, which adiyEn would be happy to correct those if pointed out.

Dr. M. Varadharajan swami’s thamizh translation of original vyAkyAnam by piLLai lOkam jeeyar, was of unlimited help as he made it very easy for adiyEn to quote the sources of references, and to understand the meanings of many samskrutha phrases present in the original vyAkyAnam. Without that, it would have taken adiyen much more time to complete this translation. pallANdu to Dr. M. Varadharajan swami.

Thanks so much to Sri. Sarathy Thothathri swami for reviewing each and every day, correct the structure, spellings, and meanings as appropriate and publishing on time every day. Without his involvement, it would have been very hard to keep going.

Finally thanks to the readers who have sent in comments once in a while, and checking in often.

pallANdu to adiyEn AchAryan’s divine feet for his upakAram of making me involved in sath sampradhAyam.

– – – – – – – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.2 – oththAr mikkArai

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

dasavatara-3

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

After praising his heart, AzhwAr relishes emperumAn’s merciful favours towards him by informing emperumAn about that.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram – AzhwAr says to emperumAn “I cannot count the number of favours you, who are without any expectations, have done to me with much expectations towards me, reforming my heart to be favourable towards you and so on”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says that such tasteful emperumAn has done countless favours towards him.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. When this pAsuram was discussed once in the assembly of embAr, a question was asked “Who is the prathamaguru (first guru) for the AthmA?” Some SrIvaishNavas said “it must be the AchArya”; others said “that would be the SrIvaishNava who led the AthmA to the AchArya”; at that time embAr said “No! It is bhagavAn only; even when a SrIvaishNava invites an AthmA to approach an AchArya, it is sarvESvaran who ensures that the AthmA accepts the proposal without rejecting it. In previous pAsuram, AzhwAr praised his heart saying that it was his heart which united him with emperumAn. At that time the heart asks “Why are you praising a passer-by without knowing the root cause?” AzhwAr then says “if I contemplate deeper, I understand that emperumAn is the cause for my heart leading me to emperumAn and without realising that I simply praised my heart” and starts praising sarvESvaran.

pAsuram

ஒத்தார் மிக்காரை இலையாய மா மாய
ஒத்தாய் எப் பொருட்கும் உயிர் ஆய் என்னைப் பெற்ற
அத் தாய் ஆய் தந்தை ஆய் அறியாதன அறிவித்து
அத்தா! நீ செய்தன அடியேன் அறியேனே

oththAr mikkArai ilaiyAya mA mAya!
oththAy ep poruktum uyir Ay ennaip peRRa
ath thAy Ay thandhai Ay aRiyadhana aRiviththu

aththA! nI seydhana adiyEn aRiyEnE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

oththAr mikkArai ilaiyAya – not having anyone equal or greater (for such tasteful nature)
mAmAya – being very spectacular (even if enjoyed every moment, each moment being so new and relishable)
oththAy epporutkum – descending in all forms to give joy
uyirAy – being the bearer of everything (like the AthmA bearing the body)
ennai – me
peRRa – created
a – having such distinct relationship
thAyAy – being mother who looks after the desires of the child
a – being the cause for such creation
thandhaiyAy – being father who looks after the well-being of the child
aRiyAdhana – those experiences which one is ignorant about
aRiviththu – taught
aththA! – Oh one who has the natural relationship (to do such favours)!
nI – you (who have natural relationship unlike the mother/father of this world who have a relationship due to specific reason of being born to them due to karma)
seydhana – favours done
adiyEn – being a servitor
aRiyEn – would not know fully

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who has natural relationship with me! You have none equal or greater than you (in your tasteful nature) and are most spectacular every moment; you descend in all forms to give joy to us and you are the bearer of all entities; you are the mother who cares for my desires and the father who cares for my well-being; you are the AchArya (teacher) who taught what I don’t know; Even though I am your servitor, I don’t fully know the limitless favours done by you.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vhlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • oththAr mikkArai ilaiyAya mAmAya! – Did you accept me because you are lacking in something? Even for the master of SrI mahAlakshmi, there is one dhAridhryam (poorness/poverty) – as explained in SvEthASvathara upanishath “na thathsamaSchyAbhyadhikaScha dhruSyathE” (for that paramAthmA, no one equal or greater is seen) – he too is lacking in having someone equal or greater.
  • mAmAya – this is so spectacular!
  • oththAy epporutkum – You are so great, but what did you go through? One who has no one equal or greater, takes birth in different forms.
  • epporutkum oththAy – you descended as vishNu amidst brahmA and rudhra; you became the brother of indhra (as vAmana); you descended as humans in rAma, krishNa avathArams; you were born in animal species as mahAvarAha (great boar); you descended in plant species as kubjAmaram (dwarf mango tree). Even while taking a plant form, he assumes to be a dwarf tree so that even women and ignorant can climb (reach out easily). Why is he assuming these forms? If he takes birth maintaining his supremacy, they will leave him out of fear; if he makes himself too lowly, they will ignore him; so he assumes many different species to attract them. kUraththAzhwAn‘s athimAnusha sthavam 15th SlOkam is quoted here which reflects this meaning.

What did he do by assuming such incarnations?

  • uyirAy – emperumAn will care for the jIvAthmA as the AthmA himself cares; it is also explained as emperumAn being the dhAraka (bearer).
  • ennaip peRRa aththAyAy – instead of just being foster mother, being real mother who longs for a child, gives birth from her own body and cares for all his desires.
  • thandhaiyAy – the mother is just the one who carries the child; but the father is the seed-giver and one who cares for his well-being.

not only that;

  • aRiyAdhana aRiviththu – As explained in Apasthamba dharma sUthram, “SarIramEva mAthApitharau janayatha:” (the mother and father only give birth to the body), not just being mother/father, but also being the AchArya who nurtures knowledge; “sa hi vidhyAstham janayathi thathSrEshtam janma” (that AchArya triggers the (second) birth of the Sishya through knowledge). He has vowed to help jIvAthmAs as in SrI rAmAyNam “Ethath vrathtam mama” (this is my vow) and bhagavath gIthAmAmEkam SaraNam vraja” (surrender unto me only).
  • aththA – Oh the one who has done great favours! Since he is the owner, he is bound to help us in these ways. AzhwAr says as said in subAla upanishath “mAthA pithA bhrAthA nivAsaSSaraNam suhrudhgathirnArAyaNa:” (SrIman nArAyaNan is mother, father, brother, abode, refuge, friend, goal). He himself said in periya thiruvanthAdhi 5 “peRRa thAy nIyE piRappiththa thanthai nI maRRaiyArAvArum nI” (you are my mother, father and every relationship).
  • nI seydhana – if it is one or two favours, we can list them out; since there are too many, he just says “favours done by you”. Those favours done by svAmi (master) to me who is SEshabhUtha (servitor).
  • adiyEn aRiyEnE – you who bestowed such favours may know what was done by you; I can only experience the bliss and be submerged into it instead of counting those favours.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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