Daily Archives: January 31, 2016

rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – Audio

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irAmAnusan adip pUmannavE (Let SrI rAmAnuja’s lotus feet decorate our head constantly – last pAsuram of this prabandham)

thiruvarangaththu amudhanArthiruvarangaththu amudhanAr

Meanings

thaniyan 1

thaniyan 2

thaniyan 3

thaniyan 4 (Only recited in thirunArAyaNapuram)

pAsuram 1

pAsuram 2

pAsuram 3

pAsuram 4

pAsuram 5

pAsuram 6

pAsuram 7

pAsuram 8

pAsuram 9

pAsuram 10

pAsuram 11

pAsuram 12

pAsuram 13

pAsuram 14

pAsuram 15

pAsuram 16

pAsuram 17

pAsuram 18

pAsuram 19

pAsuram 20

pAsuram 21

pAsuram 22

pAsuram 23

pAsuram 24

pAsuram 25

pAsuram 26

pAsuram 27

pAsuram 28

pAsuram 29

pAsuram 30

pAsuram 31

pAsuram 32

pAsuram 33

pAsuram 34

pAsuram 35

pAsuram 36

pAsuram 37

pAsuram 38

pAsuram 39

pAsuram 40

pAsuram 41

pAsuram 42

pAsuram 43

pAsuram 44

pAsuram 45

pAsuram 46

pAsuram 47

pAsuram 48

pAsuram 49

pAsuram 50

pAsuram 51

pAsuram 52

pAsuram 53

pAsuram 54

pAsuram 55

pAsuram 56

pAsuram 57

pAsuram 58

pAsuram 59

pAsuram 60

pAsuram 61

pAsuram 62

pAsuram 63

pAsuram 64

pAsuram 65

pAsuram 66

pAsuram 67

pAsuram 68

pAsuram 69

pAsuram 70

pAsuram 71

pAsuram 72

pAsuram 73

pAsuram 74

pAsuram 75

pAsuram 76

pAsuram 77

pAsuram 78

pAsuram 79

pAsuram 80

pAsuram 81

pAsuram 82

pAsuram 83

pAsuram 84

pAsuram 85

pAsuram 86

pAsuram 87

pAsuram 88

pAsuram 89

pAsuram 90

pAsuram 91

pAsuram 92

pAsuram 93

pAsuram 94

pAsuram 95

pAsuram 96

pAsuram 97

pAsuram 98

pAsuram 99

pAsuram 100

pAsuram 101

pAsuram 102

pAsuram 103

pAsuram 104

pAsuram 105

pAsuram 106

pAsuram 107

pAsuram 108

SaraNAgathi gadhyam – 17th chUrNai Part 1

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SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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namperumal

avathArikai (Introduction)

bhagavadh rAmAnuja completes the explanation for dhvaya mahAmanthram (first part of which involves surrendering to bhagavAn and the second part, asking for kainkaryam (service to bhagavAn and pirAtti)) with the 16th chUrNai. What is remaining to be done now? vyAkyAthA (one who wrote the explanation for gadhya thrayam) SrI periyavAchchAn piLLai says that due to the extreme fondness that periyA perumAL has towards SrI rAmAnuja, bhagavAn repeats all that swAmy rAmAnuja had said till now to him (his faults as well as his requests) and tells him “due to my grace, let all good things happen to you without any hindrance”, thus making SrI rAmAnuja very happy. One may wonder, SrI rAmAnuja surrendered to pirAtti and namperumAL only, on the most auspicious uththirath thirunAL (the day of pirAtti’s thirunakshathram, her star, uththaram). If this be the case, how is it that periya perumAL, who is in reclining posture inside the garbhagruham (sanctum sanctorum) responds to rAmAnuja? We have to take it that namperumAL speaks the thiruvuLLam (mind) of periya perumAL. embAr, rAmAnuja‘s disciple as well as his cousin, who was among the gathering when SrI rAmAnuja surrendered to bhagavAn, asks a very pertinent question here, which many of us would be having in our minds: “We heard you speak to periya perumAL. How are we to believe that periya perumAL said all these things (starting with chUrNai 17 and going on till the end) to you?” rAmAnuja says that “periya perumAL showed me his svarUpam (basic nature), rUpam  (his physical eminence), guNam (auspicious qualities), vibhavam (wealth) etc and I repeated what is there in his thiruvuLLam (divine mind), which you believed; in the same way, you have to believe now when I quote him as I will not say anything that is not there in his thiruvuLLam“.

Let us look at the chUrNai. It is a fairly lengthy one and we have to see this too in parts, like the 5th chUrNai:

EvambhUtha math kainkarya prApthyupAthayA avakluptha samasthavasthu vihInOpi, anantha thadhvirOdhi pApAkrAnthOpi, anantha madhapachArayukthOpi, anantha madhIyApachArayukthOpi, anantha – asahyApachArayukthOpi, EthathkAryakAraNabhUtha – anAdhi viparIthAhankAra vimUdAthma svabhAvOpi, Ethadhubhaya kArya kAraNabhUtha – anAdhi viparItha vAsanA sambadhdhOpi, EthadhanuguNa prakruthi viSEsha sambhadhdhOpi,  EthanmUla – AdhyAthmika – Adhibhaudhika – Adhidhaivika sukhadhu:kha thadhdhEthu thadhitharOpEkshaNeeya vishyAnubhavagyAnasankOcharUpa machcharaNAvindha yugaLa aikAnthikAthyanthika parabhakthi paragyAna paramabhakthi vigna prathihathOpi, yEnakEnapi prakArENa dhvayavakthA thvam kEvalam madhIyayaiva dhayayA niSSEsha vinashta sahEthuka machcharaNAravindha yugaLa aikAnthikAthyathanthika parabhakthi paragyAna paramabhakthi vigna:, mathprasAdha labhdha – machcharaNAravindha yugaLa aikAnthikAthyanthika parabhakthi paragyAna paramabhakthi:, mathprasAdhAdhEva SAkshAthkrutha yathAvasthitha mathsvarUpa rUpa guNa vibhUthi leelOpakaraNa visthAra:, aparOkshasidhdha manniyAmyathA madhdhAsyaika svabhAvAthmasvarUpa:, madhEkAnubhava:, madhdhAsyaikapriya:, paripUrNAnavaratha nithya viSadhathama – ananya prayOjana – anavadhikAthiSaya priya madhanbhavashtham thathAvidha madhanubhava janitha – anavadhikASaya prIthikAritha – aSEsha vasthOchitha – aSEsha SEshathaikarathirUpa nithya kinkarObhava II

Explanatory Notes:

EvambhUtha math kainkaryaprApthiEvambhUtha – like this; math – my; kainkarya – service; prApthi – to gain or to obtain. bhagavAn says of bhagavadh rAmAnuja that for carrying out kainkaryam to him, he does not have…..

upAyathayAvaklupthaupAyathayA – means; avakluptha – mentioned. bhagavAn says that vEdhas (scriptures) have mentioned that one needs to have karma (doing as per what vEdhas have ordained to do), gyAna (knowledge about bhagavAn), bhakthi (devotion to bhagavAn) as upAyams (paths or means) for reaching God.

bhagavan now tells SrI rAmAnuja about various things that he doesn’t have. Yet despite SrI rAmAnuja not having these things, bhagavAn is granting him certain things. Let’s look at what he doesn’t have and what bhagavAn grants him.

samastha vasthu vihInOpisamastha – entire; vasthu – things; vihInopi – though you do not have. bhagavAn says that “you do not have karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgam which the scriptures have told you in order to carry out kainkaryam to me.”  A subtle meaning is to be taken here. It is not that SrI rAmAnuja does not have these yOgams. Even if he has them, he will not reach bhagavAn with the help of these upAyAntharams (other paths to reach bhagavAn) as it is against his svarUpam. Hence we should look at this in a different way:  Not only that, you do not have the basic qualification for these, which is knowledge about jIvAthmA and paramAthmA; not only that, you do not have the basic requirement for this, which is varNaSrama anushtAnam (carrying out activities following one’s varNam, a classification by one’s qualities and work and one’s ASram, one of 4 states in one’s life, being a brahmachAri, bachelor, a gruhasthan, married man, a sanyAsi, mendicant, and vAnaprasthan, retiring to forest to lead a simple life, towards the end of one’s life); not only that, you do not have the knowledge of AthmaguNas, the characteristic qualities of a jIvAthmA. In short, bhagavAn tells SrI rAmAnuja that he does not possess anything mentioned by vEdhas for reaching him and carrying out kainkaryam to him. But despite this……

anantha thadhvirOdhi pApAkrAnthOpi – anantha – without end; thadh – to that; virOdhi – inimical; pApa – sin; AkrAnthOpi – though seized by or taken over by. bhagavAn says that it is acceptable to an extent if you do not have gyAna and other guNas mentioned above. One day you may earn these. However, you also have all the unwanted things as you are surrounded by inimical sins which will prevent you from even attempting to get that gyAna. But despite this…

anantha madhapachAra yukthOpianantha – endless; madh – towards me; apachAra – fault or misdeed; yukthOpi – though possessed of. It is bad enough that you have all the inimical things as seen in the previous verse. Worse still, you are also having faults or misdeeds towards me, says bhagavAn. But despite this….

anantha madhIyApachAra yukthOpianantha – endless; madhIya – mine (refers to his devotees); apachAra – misdeed; yukthOpi -though possessed of. bhagavAn says that he would even tolerate misdeed towards himself. But he would never tolerate anyone harming or carrying out misdeed towards his devotees. But despite this……

anantha asahyApachAra yukthOpianantha – endless; asahya – without any reason or compulsion; apachAra – misdeed; yukthOpi – though having. Apart from the above, you are also carrying out misdeeds without any reason, says bhagavAn. Despite this….

Ethath kArya kAraNa bhUtha anAdhi viparItha ahankAraEthath – like this; kArya – effect; kAraNa – cause; bhUtha – being; anAdhi – without end; viparItha – false or reverse; ahankAra – conceited or egoistic. bhagavAn says that one commits all these misdeeds due to misplaced conceit or ego. viparItha ahankAram (false sense of ego) is considering what is not AthmA (sentient soul) as AthmA; in other words, considering body as AthmA. The causative factor for this is our pApa (sins) and the cause for that is dhEhAthmAbhimAnam (mistaking body for AthmA). AthmA’s svarUpam (nature) is gyAnam (knowledge) and Anandham (happiness). AthmA is different from and superior to prakruthi (primordial nature). But the sin that we commit is that we consider AthmA as being full of sorrow, insentient and equating it to the constantly changing prakruthi. This is both cause and effect. The false knowledge about AthmA is the cause for mistaking body for AthmA and the effect of this wrong knowledge is getting deeper and deeper into that wrong knowledge, inextricably. What is the result of this?

vimUdAthma svabhAvOpi – vimUda – hidden; Athma – sentient soul; svabhAvOpi – though having basic nature. Due to the viparItha ahankAram, the basic nature of AthmA, which is SEshathvam (being servitor to bhagavAn) is hidden. But despite this……

Ethathubhaya kAryakAraNa bhUtha anAdhi viparItha vAsanA sambadhdhOpi – Ethath – this; ubhaya – two; kArya – effect; kAraNa – cause; bhUtha – being; anAdhi – without beginning; viparItha – false; vAsanA – knowledge derived from memory; sambadhdhOpi – though bound or linked. bhagavAn explains the cause and effect for the two faults that we had seen in the earlier verse, namely pApam and ahankAram. He says that the false knowledge that we had been carrying in our mind from time immemorial, with which we are bound strongly, is the culprit for our pApa and ahankAram. What is this false knowledge? That this dhEham (body) of ours is the “real me” and that there is no AthmA and that we should look after this body for ever. bhagavAn says that even though you are bound by this false knowledge…..

Ethath anuguNa prakruthi viSEsha sambadhdhOpiEthath – this; anuguNa – suitable to; prakruthi – primordial matter; viSEsha – special; sambadhdhOpi – though bound to. bhagavAn goes to the root of the viparItha vAsanA which is dhEha sambhandham or connection to the body, which is due to the endless binding of prakruthi on us. Thus, due to endless dhEha sambhandham, we have dhehAthmAbhimAnam; due to dhEhAthmAbhimAnam, we have viparItha vAsanA; due to vipareetha vAsanA, we indulge in apachAram and ahankAram. This is a vicious circle, which even bhagavAn finds difficult to snap. But despite this….

EthanmUla AdhyAthmika Adhibhaudhika AdhidhaivikaEthath – this; mUla – root; AdhyAthmika – dhEha vyAdhi (physical ailments) and manO vyAdhi (mental ailments). Examples of  mental ailments are desire, anger, fear, hatred, sadness, jealousy, shame, distress etc. Examples of physical ailments are headache, fever, pain in the eyes, skin disease etc. Adhibhoudhika – ailments due to animals, birds, human beings, demons, reptiles etc. Adhidhaivika – ailments due to heat, cold, storms, thunder, lightning,rain etc caused by nature.

sukha dhu:kha thadhdhEthusukha – happiness; dhu:kha – sadness; thath – that; hEthu – cause. Happiness and sadness which are caused by the three different factors that we had seen in the previous verse (AdhyAthmika, Adhibhaudhika, Adhidhaivika). What are these (happiness and sadness)?

thatdhitharOpEkshanIya vishayathadh – self; ithara – others; upEkshanIya – not worthy of regard;  vishaya – matter.  Here he explains what are  happiness and sadness to self and others. Desirable or happiness for self is when one gets what he wants; undesirable (or sadness) for self is when one does not get what he wants. Regarding others, they may be either friends or enemies or not known to us. If they are friends, we are happy when they get what they want and we are sad if they do not get what they want. In the case of enemies, it is the opposite – we feel sad if they are happy and we feel happy if they are sad. It does not matter to us if the other person is not known to us (neither friend nor enemy).

anubhava gyAna sankOcharUpaanubhava – experience; gyAna – knowledge; sankOcharUpa – contracting in form (withering away). What is meant here is that when we start getting happy or sad based on our needs or the needs of others, we start forgetting about bhagavAn and focus more on the physical state of life. This leads to contracting of our knowledge (about bhagavAn).

machcharaNAravindha yugalaikAnthika Athyanthika parabhakthi paragyAna paramabhakthi vigna prathihathOpimath – my; charaNa – exalted feet; aravindha – lotus like; yugala – two; aikAnthika – only one and nothing else; athyanthika – only end; parabhakthi – having knowledge of bhagavAn; paragyAna – having ability to have dharshan (vision) of bhagavAn; paramabhakthi – attaining bhagavAn; vigna – hurdle; prathihathOpi – though defeated by. bhagavAn says that instead of being focused on my wondrous and exalted feet and carrying out kainkaryam (service) through unique and permanent parabhakthi, paragyAna, paramabhakthi, you have squandered it all by enjoying worldly pleasures and contracting your knowledge about me. But despite this………

yEnakEnApi prakArENayenakEnApi – in some/whatever; prakArENa – method.

dhvaya vakthAdhvayadhvaya mahAmanthram; vakthA – said.

bhagavAn says that even though bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja had many faults in him and due to all these faults he had lost his focus on the exalted feet of bhagavAn, since he (rAmAnuja), in some way or the other, had recited the dhvaya mahAmanthram, he (bhagavAn) is granting him (SrI rAmAnuja) all his wishes. It does not matter how one says dhvayam – whether he says with an agreeable mind or not; whether the person is craving for mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam) immediately or is willing to wait till the end of that particular birth, whether he says knowing the meaning of the words or without knowing the meaning; there is no issue. However, it should be only dhvayam which should be recited and not any other manthram. It should not even be the vyApaka manthram (there are three names of bhagavAn which, when added with Om nama:, are called vyApaka manthram as these names bring out the meaning of bhagavAn pervading the universe – the three names are nArAyana, vAsudeva and vishNu and these three names are superior to all the other names of bhagavAn). It should not even be thirumanthram (Om namO nArAyanAya). It should only be dhvayam that should be recited. Even in that, both sentences should be recited and not either the first or the second sentence alone. If we recite only the first sentence, the purushArtham (benefit of surrendering) will not be clear as the prayer for kainkaryam is given only in the second sentence. If we recite only the second sentence, the upAyam (path to attain bhagavAn) will not be clear as only in the first sentence we say that we surrender unto the exalted feet of bhagavAn.

thvam – you. bhagavAn says all these to SrI rAmAnuja, addressing him this way.

We shall see the the remainder in the next part.

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Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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upadhESa raththina mAlai – 60

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pAsuram 60

than guruvin thALiNaigaL thannil anbu onRillAdhAr
anbu than pAl seydhAlum ambuyai kOn – inbamigu
viNNAdu thAn aLikka vENdiyirAn AdhalAl
naNNAr avargaL thirunAdu.                                                 60

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Word by word meaning

anbu onRu illAdhAr – (For) those not having any love
thAL iNaigaL thannil – towards the two divine feet
than guruvin – of one’s AchAryan,
anbu seydhAlum – even if they do bhakthi
than pAl – towards Him, that is emperumAn,
ambuyai kOn thAnemperumAn who is the husband of periya pirAttiyAr who lives in the lotus flower
vENdiyirAn – would not be interested
aLikka – in giving
inbam migu – the very sweet and enjoyable
viNNAdu – paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam)
AdhalAl – So,
avargaL – those who do not have love towards AchAryan,
naNNAr – would not reach
thirunAdu – paramapadham (SrivaikuNtam).

vyAkyAnam

{piLLai lOkam jIyar due to his extreme mercy summarizes for us what has been seen in the recent set of pAsurams, and what maNavALa mAmunigaL is setting out to do now, based on the organization and meanings of SrI vachana bhUshaNam}

~~~~~

So, in previous pAsurams, he (maNavALa mAmunigAL) showed the unequaled greatness of SrI vachana bhUshaNam among the rahasya granthams authored by piLLai lOkAchAryar, the reason for naming it as SrI vachana bhUshaNam, that those knowing and following it are one or few only, advising others to learn it, figuring out reason for others to not learn it with love, and that if there is any vyAkyAnam for it that are supported by AchAryas then it is acceptable to learn from it, it would be of unlimited sweetness for self and others.

Now, like how the prabandham of SrI vachana bhUshanam starting with ‘vEdhArtham aRudhiyiduvadhu [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 1]’ (Meanings of vEdhas are established (through smrithis, ithihAsams, and purANams), through ‘aththAlE adhu muRpattadhu [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 4]’ (so ithihAsam comes first in the phrase since it is more significant), had put together references for the meanings conveyed,

and under that, brought the meanings conveyed in phrases starting from ‘ithihAsa SrEshtam [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 5]’ (best of ithihAsam (is SrI rAmAyaNam)) through ‘svathanthranai upAyamAgap paRRina pOdhirE ipprasangam thAn uLLadhu [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 407]’ (the problem/doubt is there when having the means as emperumAn who is independent decision maker (so it is better to go with AchAryan as the means)),

and showed the ultimate goal based on ultimate reference through ‘avargaLaich chiriththiruppAr oruvar uNdirE, avar pAsuram koNdu ivvarththam aRudhiyidak kadavOm [SrI vachana bhUshaNam]’ (~ While other AzhvArs are happy or sad based on emperumAn‘s availability for them, madhurakavi AzhvAr who has always got nammAzhvAr as his lord, is always happy and so it is like he would be laughing at the other AzhvArs),

he (maNavALa mAmunigaL) too, divined till now in this prabandham about aruLichcheyal (nAlAyira dhivya prabandhams), about their vyAkyAnams (commentaries), about the greatness of meanings of SrI vachana bhUshaNams till the last section (prakaraNam);

and taking that (SrI vachana bhUshaNam) as reference for the meanings of ways of ultimate stage that he is going to convey in the upcoming pAsurams in this prabandham, he is showing that to us in the last stage starting from this pAsuram and forward.

~~~~~

Under this, in this first pAsuram, if those who do not have even a little love towards their own/special lord (asAdharaNa SEshi) that is AchAryan, even if they do have devotion towards the universal/common lord (sAdhAraNa SEshi) that is emperumAn, He who does bhakthi (towards AchAryas) would not wish to give such other people the ultimate goal (prApyam); so he is saying that they would not get that ultimate goal.

than guruvin thAL iNaigaL thannil – It is in the two divine feet of AchAryan who is as said in ‘maruLAm iruLOda maththagaththuth than thAL aruLAle vaiththa avar [gyAna sAram – 36]’ (AchAryan placed his divine feet on the disciples head and removed the darkness that is ignorance), and who is available for one self, that it is appropriate to do prapaththi. It is said only as ‘avan thALiNaiyE unnuvadhE sAla uRum [gyAna sAram – 38]’ (it is only apt to depend on the divine feet of AchAryan).

So, when it is towards one’s AchAryan’s divine feet that one should do bhakthi as said in ‘thasmAth bhakthirgurau kAryA [anthimOpAya nishtai – page 10]’ (So, should do bhakthi towards AchAryan),

instead of doing that,

anbu onRu illAdhAr – those who do not have any bhakthi; it is in the matter (AchAryan) that Iswaran himself too do bhakthi that they live without a lot of devotion; emperumAn‘s devotion is as said in ‘anthAmaththanbu [thiruvAimozhi 2.5.1]’.

What if we live without that? What if we get bhakthi towards emperumAn?

anbu than pAl seydhAlum – Instead of towards AchAryan who created devotion towards emperumAn, if doing bhakthi towards emperumAn (who is the target of AchAryan’s devotion), that is, the kind of hard-to-get devotion as said in ‘peRarkkariya ninnapAthapaththi [thiruchchandha viruththam – 100]’ (devotion towards your feet that is hard for others to achieve), and in ‘arumpeRal anbu [thirukkuRunthANdakam – 5]’ (having the hard to achieve devotion);

Not having devotion towards the matter of ultimate state (charama parva vishayam, that is, AchAryan), if having complete devotion towards Him who is the matter of initial state (prathama parva vishayam, that is, emperumAn); since such people are not the target of emperumAn’s grace, so:

ambuyai kOn inbamigu viNNAdu thAn aLikka vENdiyarAn – By way of being target of AchAryan’s grace due to which pirAtti (thAyAr / goddess Lakshmi) recommends us to emperumAn, then as said in ‘gyAnam kanindha nalam koNdu nAdoRum naibavarkku vAnam koduppadhu mAdhavan [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 66]’ (~ mAdhavan gives SrIvaikuNtam to those having true knowledge that has matured into devotion and is desperate every day to reach Him), such mAdhavan (pirAtti’s husband), would not have any love in the first step itself when it comes to giving the ultimate place for people who do not have love towards the matter of AchAryan.

AdhalAl naNNAr avargaL thirunAdu – In this way if one who has to give doesn’t give, they would not get attain the goal, the goal called as ‘theLivisumbu thirunAdu [thiruvAimozhi 9.7.5]’ (SrI vaikuNtam). It is said ‘prApya lAbham prApakaththAlE [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 99]’ (goal is achieved through emperumAn).

inbamigu viNNAdu – He who has taken vow to give the ultimate place (SrI vaikuNtam) for those who do good towards Him, would not like to show that generosity towards such (aforementioned) people.

paramapadhanathanSrIvaikuNtam

viNNAdu thAnaLikka vENdiyirAn – Since such people don’t have the liking on the matter (AchAryas) that He likes the most in SrIvaikuNtam, He would not like to give such people the parama padham that is having the name of ‘paramavyOma [SaraNAgathi gadhyam]’ (highest place).

So, it would be hard for them to get the thirunAdu (SrIvaikuNtam) as said in ‘kidandha UzhiyAn pAdhammaruvArkku uNdAmO vAn [mudhal thiruvanthAdhi – 91]’ (Would they who do not have devotion towards emperumAn‘s divine feet get SrI vaikuNtam?).

He who is generous as he gives SrIvaikuNtam saying ‘vAnavar nAttaiyum nee kaNdukoL [thiruvAimozhi 3.9.9]’ (you shall get SrIvaikuNtam), would ignore them and not give it, what is the means for them to get the ultimate goal that should be gotten? They would lose it is all, as said in ‘izhandhE pOm iththanai enRu manaththuyirkkum’, etc.

By this, it has conveyed the meanings (of SrI vachana bhUshaNam) starting from ‘AchArya sambandham kulaiyAdhE kidandhAl [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 437] (if relationship with AchAryan stays without diminishing..), through ‘iththai ozhiya bhagavath sambandham dhurlabham [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 440]’ (without this, it is hard to get the relationship of emperumAn).

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Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dhAsan

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