Daily Archives: January 8, 2016

upadhESa raththina mAlai – 37

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pAsuram 37

OrAN vazhiyAy upadhEsiththAr munnOr
ErAr ethirAsar innaruLAl – pArulagil
Asai udaiyOrkkellAm AriyargAL kURum enRu
pEsi varambu aRuththAr pin                                     37

pAsuram 37

Word by word meaning

munnOr – pUrvAcharyas (preceptors)
upadhEsiththAr – were teaching
OrAN vazhiyAy – in one purusha kramam (one to one / one after one).
pin – Later,
Er Ar – fully beautiful
ethirAsaremperumAnAr
in aruLAl – by his kind grace,
enRu pEsi – precepted (niyamanam) that
Asai udaiyOrkkellAm – for all those who are interested in this,
pArulagil – in the earth,
AriyargAL – oh AchAryas!
kURum enRu – you teach them
aRuththAr – (and so) divined the removal of
varambu – boundary of teaching.

vyAkyAnam

Now, he (maNavALa mAmunigaL) is divining about how the meaning of prapaththi was nurtured by the preceptors as a series starting from SrIman nAthamunigAL, and how emperumAnAr by his infinite grace divined and removed such boundary, and divined the way and carried it out; starting with ‘OrAN vazhiyAy upadhEsiththAr’.

Not having any difference between the meanings of prapaththi and of thiruvAimozhi, it is talking about – for growing thiruvAimozhi, to begin with he (emperumAnAr) divined the meaning of prapaththi first.

It was divined as ‘dhvayArththam dhIrga SaraNAgathi enRadhu sArasangrahaththilE [AchArya hrudhayam – 210]’, wasn’t it?

One who teaches dhvayam and thiruvAimozhi is the one who would be complete in being an AchAryan, is what they divined about this.

As said in ‘samanthrarAja dhvayamAhayasmai [nAthamunigaL thaniyan as recited by the lineage of araiyar]’ (who was taught thirumanthram dhvayam.. (by nammAzhvAr)), it is only after divining dhvayam that nammAzhvAr divined thiruvAimozhi and other prabandhams to periya mudhaliyAr (SrIman nAthamunigaL).

In the same way, emperumAnAr divines by nurturing dhvayam and thiruvAimozhi, isn’t it? So he first grew dhvayam first. Only after becoming experts in dhvayam would one start enriching on thiruvAimozhi, isn’t it?

OrAN vazhiyAy – Teaching only one or few eminent souls is how earlier AchAryas were carrying out this.

munnOr – they are the ones before emperumAnAr, that is, those starting from ‘aruL peRRa [upadhESa raththinamAlai – 36]’ nAthamunigaL. They considered the dignity of meanings and so were teaching in secrecy and protected it. nambi (thirukkOttiyUr nambi) too got promise from emperumAnAr before divining its meaning to him.

eR Ar ethirAsar innaruLAl – unlike that, emperumAnAr who is the lord of yathis, instead of focusing on the greatness of the meanings, saw the deterioration of these people, and based on only having loving kindness, did he propagate it.

eR Ar ethirAsar – That is, as said in ‘rUpamEvAsyai thanmahimAnam vyAchashtE [yajur vEdham]’ (he said about the greatness of its beauty/form), and can be said as ‘Er Arum seyya vadivu [Arththi prabandham – 30] ((emperumAnAr of) complete beauty and elegant form), – by complete shining grace of his divine auspicious body he is of attraction to everyone, he could not tolerate as he saw the poor state of samsAris, and due to his causeless mercy only did he advise in this way.

emperumAnAr corrected and protected the world with his quality of mesmerizing physical appearance and his quality of soul (Athma guNam).

EmperumAnar_thirukoshtiyuremperumAnAr as divining from thirukkOshtiyUr

If asked who are the eligible –

pAr ulagil Asai udaiyOrkkellAm – for those living in this world who have got even little interest.

Asai udaiyOr – Like saying ‘nidhi udaiyOr’, it is to be said as ‘paththudai adiyavakku [thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1]’ (to the adiyArs who have the devotion).

In this world those who are interested in this, is rare indeed.

So without looking at the superiority or inferiority based on their birth, living, and knowledge (janma, vruththa, gyAnam), and looking only at the indication of interest by being amicable (to the teachings), you tell them the greatest meanings that I have told you;

Since he (emperumAnAr) is devoted to the divine feet of the one (nammAzhvAr) who said, ‘maRRu onRillai surungach chonnOm mAnilaththu evvuyirkkum [thiruvAimozhi 9.1.7]’ (there is no upAyAntharam (other means), will say it short to everyone in this wide world), he (emperumAnAr) divined: ‘pAr ulagil Asai udaiyOrkkellAm’.

AriyargAL – As said in ‘kAryam karuNamAryENa [SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam – 116.49](for the one having good virtues, it is apt to be kind), you also just by kindness do the teaching (he said). He is removing the boundaries by speaking based on his sweet kindness, isn’t it? In the same way he is divining them also to teach.

AriyargAL – He was addressing those who were present with him at that time in front of theRkAzhvAn, saying that – like me you also use the little interest shown, and teach all such people – saying so he removes the hurdles.

Or,

AriyargAL – is also referring to those he established as the set of AchAryas that include kUraththAzhvAn and such 74 noble ones.

By this it gives the meaning that those who have learned from a very valued AchAryan (peru madhippan) themselves shall teach, and those who have the interest (sradhdhai) shall learn from them.

AriyargAL kURum enRu pEsi varambu aRuththAr pin – Previous AchAryas, as said in ‘idham thE nAthapaskAya [srI bhagavath gIthA – 18.67]’ (what I have said, secretly), told their disciples not to teach everyone but just be involved in it themselves, and so had kept it in secrecy. Afterwards, since he (emperumAnAr) is ever interested in betterment of others, told by mouth that you spread it by your teachings.

munnOr varambu aRuththAr pin – Like that time when perumAL (SrI rAman) stopped and destroyed the boundary put by the mudhalis (mAhArAjar and his groups) (by accepting vibhIshaNan?), here too he (emperumAnAr) crossed the boundaries put in by them (earlier AchAryas). Isn’t he who established the boundary (sampradhAyam/visishtAdhvaitham?) did like this?

As said in ‘rAmAnujasya karuNAvaruNAlayasya [rAmAnuja prapaththi]’ (to rAmAnujar who is full of mercy), such sea of mercy breaking the boundary of shores.

{ What follows from here till end of this vyAkyAnam is connected together with a very interesting play of words. and is thought provoking too }

That is, like the kings who change the narrow one-man lane into a broad road, emperumAnAr also changed the path of Or AN vazhi one-by-one way, by his sweet grace, into a broad path by asking to teach to all those that are amicable, thus removing the barriers.

It is said ‘SrImAn rAjapadhamcha kAradhayayA rAmAnujAryOmuni: ’ (due to his kindness rAmAmunja muni performed kingly presidency).

As he performed like said in ‘rAmAmunja peru vazhi vetti’.

Isn’t he ‘vishNu lOka maNi maNdapa mArga dhAyi [dhAtI panchakam – 5](gifts the path to vishNu lokam’s maNi maNdapam (SrI vaikuNtam))?

– – – – – – – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.2 – thiNNan

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Previous Decad

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krishna-githa-azhwar

Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

AzhwAr out of great love towards emperumAn‘s supremacy, explains that with examples.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the second decad, AzhwAr explains about following aspects of bhagavAn’s incarnations which reveal his supremacy and simplicity which lead to him being most enjoyable (as indicated previously):

  • he being the controller of all (not just in parama padham but even in his incarnations – applicable for all aspects)
  • he being the cause to remove unwanted aspects and bestow desired aspects (for his devotees)
  • he being greater than all
  • he being worshippable by all
  • his lotus-eyed nature that reveals his supremacy
  • his resting in the milk-ocean to protect his devotees
  • his ability to connect disconnected aspects (i.e., making impossible things work)
  • he being the protector in all manners
  • he being the cause for the creation, sustenance and annihilation of the universe(s)
  • he being approachable by all dhEvathAs

Thus, AzhwAr explains emperumAn‘s supremacy over all, his easily approachable nature and his charming nature which increase the sweetness of him.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In previous decad, the distress which AzhwAr experienced (in separation from emperumAn) is beyond explanation. When the ocean is burning, is it possible to cool it down by pouring water? He was thinking that he would die in distress. But subsequently,  emperumAn manifests in front of him and AzhwAr’s distress completely disappears. On analysing the reason for that (such disappearance of the distress),  the bliss of seeing bhagavAn is unlike any material joy. bhagavAn’s greatness is such that, just like one cannot think about anything else in separation, even in union, one cannot think about anything else than him.

AzhwAr analyses the reason for such greatness and finds out that emperumAn being filled with all auspicious qualities is the reason. And for that (having all auspicious qualities), his being the supreme lord is the reason. AzhwAr said “uyaravaRa uyarnalamudaiyavan” (filled with auspicious qualities) first and immediately realized “ayarvaRum amarargaLadhipathi” (leader of nithyasUris). So, AzhwAr mercifully explains such supremacy of bhagavAn which he realized.

piLLAn says – since previously AzhwAr realized kAraNthvam (being the cause) in thiruvAimozhi 2.1.10 “mUvA muthalvA” (youthful cause of all), here he is further explaining that attribute.

A question arises here – “emperumAn‘s supremacy is explained previously by AzhwAr. Why is he repeating it?”. AzhwAr cannot stop speaking about emperumAn (and his qualities). emperumAn too is so great that he cannot be explained just once. And in matters related to bhagavAn, repetition is not a defect. AzhwAr can simply enjoy emperumAn‘s single quality. emperumAn too is capable of giving blissful experience (to AzhwAr) on the same quality again and again and make AzhwAr feel as if he is enjoying a new quality. thirumangai AzhwAr too said in periya thirumozhi 8.1.9 “paNdivaraik kaNdaRivadhu evvUril yAm” (where did I see him before?) and nammAzhwAr himself says in thiruvAimozhi 2.5.4 “eppozhudhum nAL thingaL ANdu Uzhi UzhidhoRum appozhudhaikku appozhudhu en ArAvamudham” (every day, year, time after time, he feels nectarean every such moment).

Still, there are differences.

  • Previously, in the first decad (of first centum), when AzhwAr explained emperumAn‘s supremacy, it is svAnubhavam (self-experience); here, he experiences emperumAn’s supremacy while trying to explain that to others to establish the principle clearly in others’ minds.
  • There, he explained in affirmative terms; here, he is explaining it in both affirmative and negative terms.
  • There, he explained it following Sruthi (vEdham, upanishath); here he explains it following ithihAsa and purANas.
  • There, his supremacy in parama padham is explained; here, his supremacy in incarnations is explained.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.2 – Audio

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thiruvAimozhi –> Second centum

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pAsuram 1

pAsuram 2

pAsuram 3

pAsuram 4

pAsuram 5

pAsuram 6

pAsuram 7

pAsuram 8

pAsuram 9

pAsuram 10

pAsuram 11

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SaraNAgathi gadhyam – 10th chUrNai

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Ramanuja panguni uttiram serthi

avathArikai (introduction):

In the first chUrNai, bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja surrenders to pirAtti, requesting her to grant him the desire in the path (of attaining mOksham through surrendering to bhagavAn) as well as deep faith that bhagavAn would grant him mOksham. Subsequently pirAtti grants him his wishes. Then he approaches bhagavAn, the Lord of both nithya vibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam) and leelA vibhUthi (samsAram or materialistic world). He recounts the unmatched qualities of bhagavAn and with pirAtti playing the role of purushakArabhUthai (recommending person) he performs SaraNAgathi (act of surrendering) to bhagavAn. Then he lists all that he has given up at the time of SaraNAgathi, emphasising that bhagavAn himself would be all these entities to him. He also tenders apology for carrying out SaraNAgathi after going the wrong way in all the previous births and thus far in this birth. He also quotes the words of preceptors when they carried out SaraNAgathi as these are always dear to bhagavAn. When bhagavAn is willing to grant mOksham after carrying out SaraNAgathi once, why did SrI rAmAnuja do it multiple times? He did that because of the strong craving (Arththi) that he had for reaching SrIvaikuNtam and also because he wasn’t sure whether bhagavAn would be gladdened more by hearing the verses of preceptors when they carried out SaraNAgathi or hearing his own words. With this, SrI rAmAnuja completes the equivalent of first part of dhvaya mahAmanthram (the part dealing with the actual surrendering of jIvAthmA to bhagavAn). Now he has to start the second part which deals with carrying out kainkaryam (rendering service) to bhagavAn and pirAtti together. But before stating that desire (of carrying out kainkaryam), we should first get rid of the undesirables that we have in plenty with us. SrI rAmAnuja states these now in chUrNai 10 to 12. This is equivalent to the meaning of nama: in dhvaya mahAmanthram. These undesirables are present in us on account of karma (deeds, both good and bad, from previous births), agyAnam (ignorance) and dhEha sambhandham (connection with bodily entities during repeated births in samsAram). Starting with dhEhAthmAbhimAnam (mistaking the body for AthmA, and acting accordingly), ending with svabhOgthruthva budhdhi (thinking that doing service to bhagavAn and pirAtti is to please oneself and not to please bhagavAn), and including all the faults in between, SrI rAmAnuja lists these undesirables in chUrNai 10 and requests bhagavAn to rid him of all these faults.  periyavAchchAn piLLai raises a query here: AzhwArs gave prominence to agyAna (ignorance) as main fault which led to karma (both good and bad deeds) and repeated births in samsAram whereas rAmAnuja gave prominence to karma, leading to agyAna and repeated births. Why did AzhwArs give prominence to agyAna and SrI rAmAnuja to karma? periyavAchchAn piLLai reasons out that for AzhwArs, lack of knowledge was the main reason for their troubles based on their own experience, until bhagavAn removed their agyAnam and gave them true knowledge. In the case of AchAryas, including SrI rAmAnuja, being born in families where the elders had good gyAnam (knowledge) and anushtAnam (practices), there was no dearth of knowledge and they found that karma was the one which led to agyAnam and to repeated births. Moreover, adhvaithis (those who believe in only one entity unlike vishthAdhvaithis who believe in three, viz. chith, achith and ISwaran) maintained that true knowledge would lead to mOksham and SrI rAmAnuja wanted to have clear distinction from adhvaithis‘ argument and hence put forth karma as the primary fault in jIvAthmA.

Let us first look at the chUrNai:

manOvAKkAyai: anAdhikAla pravruththa – anantha akruthya
karaNa – kruthyAkaraNa – bhagavadhapachAra – bhAgavathApachAra –
asahyApachAra rUpa – nAnAvidhAnanthApachArAn Arabdha
kAryAn – anArabdhakAryAn kruthAn kriyamANAn
karishyamANAmScha sarvAn aSEshatha: kshamasva II

manOvAkkAyai:manas – mind; vAk – speech; kAyam – body. One of these three faculties    is required for carrying out any activity (karma). These are used for either reaching bhagavAn or for losing bhagavAn. Lord krishNa in bhagavadh gIthA says that mind is one’s friend as well as an enemy. What is mentioned for mind is true for the other two, too.

anAdhikAla pravruththaanAdhi – without beginning (time immemorial); kAla – time; pravruththa – start doing. These offences have been done from time immemorial.

anantha – without an end; these offences are countless. bhagavAn asks SrI rAmAnuja as to what these offences are. He responds with the next few verses.

akruthyakaraNaakruthya – not to be done; karaNa – doing. I have committed offence by doing what has been forbidden by SAsthras (religious treatises)

kruthyAkaraNakruthya – to be done; akaraNa – not doing; I have also committed offence by not doing what SAsthras have ordained to do.

bhagavadhapachArabhagavadh – bhagavAn; apachAra – offence or misdeed; offending bhagavAn.

bhAgavathapachArabhAgavatha – follower of bhagavAn; apachAra – offence or misdeed. Offending bhagavAn‘s followers

asahyApachAra rUpa – asahya – without any reason; apachAra – offence or misdeed. rUpa – form. Committing an offence without any reason. The deeper meanings for all these three apachAras are given at the end.

nAnAvidha – of different types,

ananthApachArAn – unlimited offences. It is not the sum total of the offences that is mentioned here, but each of the types listed above is unlimited in quantity.

ArabdhakAryAnArabdha – that which has started; kAryAn – deeds of karma. The reference is to the portion of karma taken from “sanchitha karma” (the big bundle of karma that has been earned by jIvAthmA during all its previous births). The jIvAthmA is sent with this small portion of karma to this world at the beginning of each birth, to be spent during its lifetime.

anArabdhakAryAnanArabdha – that which has not started; kAryAn – deeds of karma. The remaining portion of karma which is yet to be exhausted.

kruthAn kriyamANAn karishyamANAmSchakruthAn – what has been done in the past; kriyamANAn – what is being done now; karishyamANAn – what will be done in future; cha – and. All these refer to the deeds in this birth, taking place in all three times – viz past, present and future.

sarvAn – everything. What has been listed above is only a portion of the offences committed. Please include all the rest too, in this, says SrI rAmAnuja.

aSEshatha: kshamasvaaSEshatha: – without leaving anything; kshamasva – forgive. SrI rAmAnuja seeks pardon from bhagavAn for all the transgressions that he has committed as mentioned above.

SAsthra says that the extent of punishment to a person who has the capability to perform, but still does not perform the deeds that it has specified, is double of a person who is not capable. It expects capable persons to lead by example and hence levies stringent punishment if its order is violated.

What  is bhagavadhapachAram? – in various temples, the properties of the temples such as lands, buildings, jewels etc have been donated by rulers and rich people over many centuries. If a person takes the produce from the temple’s land or bhagavAn‘s jewels for his own use or if he gives these to someone else  (known or unknown to him) or if he borrows/begs from a person who has committed the offence listed above, it is called as bhagavadhapachAram. Also, talking ill of bhagavAn when he has taken many incarnations by saying that he was also a human being like ourselves; or estimating the value of bhagavAn‘s archA thirumEni  (the vigraha or idol of bhagavAn) or by enquiring about the material from which the idol has been made;  or by equating bhagavAn with dhEvathAntharams (other dhEvathAs such as brahmA, rudran, indran et al) or considering bhagavAn’s wealth as one’s own, are all bhagavadhapachAram. An example of a person who committed bhagavadhapachAram is SiSupAlan who kept talking ill of Lord krishNa.

What is bhAgavathApachAram? – arguing with SrI vaishNavas (followers of SrIman nArAyaNa); or thinking lowly of the birth and practices of other SrI vaishNavas; talking low or making fun of people who are handicapped either physically or mentally. An example of a person who committed bhAgavathapachAram is rAvaNan who committed offence on SrI SItA.

What is asahyApachAram? – unable to control jealousy when bhagavAn‘s or bhAgavatha’s good qualities are highlighted and banging one’s head or cutting one’s tongue, unable to bear such virtues; or hating a person because he is a SrI vaishNava. An example of such a person is hiraNyakashyap who could not bear his son prahlAdh reciting SrIman nArAyaNa’s names and asked his guards to put his own son in fire.

This completes chUrNai 10. We shall now look at chUrNai 11.

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Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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