srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In the fourth pAsuram – AzhwAr thinks “emperumAn who has taken many efforts such as srushti, etc., without any expectation and attracted me, will not let me go due to his sauseelyam (simplicity) even if I said ‘no’ to him” and becomes convinced.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
Subsequently, AzhwAr accepts bhagavAn‘s relationship saying “bhagavAn who is the controller of both spiritual and material realms and who has no expectation, attracted me through his auspicious qualities such as seelam (simplicity), etc., and became my master”.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Fourth pAsuram – When asked “This is bhagavAn‘s nature; Now, what are you going to do?”, AzhwAr says “Even if we try to leave, would the owner leave us?”. AzhwAr says “emperumAn who has taken many efforts such as srushti, etc., without any expectation and attracted me, will not let me go due to his sauseelyam (simplicity) even if I said ‘no’ to him” and becomes convinced.
thAn Or uruvE thani viththAyth thannil mUvar muthalAya
vAnOr palarum munivarum maRRum maRRum muRRumAy
thAn Or peru nIr thannuLLE thORRi athan uL kaN vaLarum
vAnOr perumAn mAmAyan vakunthan emperumAnE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
thAn – Him (who is indicated by the word “sath”)
Or uruvE – Having single form/substratum (sahakAri nirapEshathvam – since he does not expect any assistance from any one – he is the ancillary cause)
thani – singular (nimiththAnthara rahithan – one who does not depend on the desire of any one else – he is the efficient cause)
viththu Ay – being the seed (upAdhAna – seeking no other raw-material – since he is the material cause)
thannil – (thus being the all 3 types of causes) his own inherent nature having sankalpam (vow)
mUvar – the three (brahmA, rudhra, indhra)
muthalAya – etc., starting with,
vAnOr – dhEvathAs (celestial beings)
munivarum – rishis (sages)
palarum – many forms of jIvAthmAs
maRRum – other human forms
maRRum – other animal forms and plant forms
muRRumAy – all
thAn – Him (who has the sankalpam/vow)
thannuLLE – as part of his inherent nature (within himself)
Or – without second entity (since there is no other entity)
peru nIr – Singular causal ocean
thORRi – created
athan uL – (to create brahmA, etc) inside that
kaN vaLarum – lying down
vaikunthan – resident of paramapadham
vAnOr perumAn – controller of nithyasUris
mAmAyan – (being without any expectation) with his amazing qualities and actions, having unlimited auspicious qualities
em perumAnE – my master.
Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
bhagavAn who is indicated by the word “sath” having a single form (being the instrumental cause), being the singular (being the efficient cause) seed (being the material cause), out of his sankalpam (vow) became dhEvathAs (starting with brahmA, rudhra, indhra), rishis, many forms of jIvAthmAs, human forms, animal/plant forms and all forms. emperumAn created a singular causal ocean with in himself and lied down in that ocean (to create brahmA, etc.). Such emperumAn who is the resident of paramapadham (spiritual realm) and the controller of the nithyasUris (eternally liberated souls), with amazing qualities and actions, is my master.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
[Note: For any object, generally, three types of causes are explained. upAdhAna kAraNam – material cause – that which transformed to become the object; nimiththa kAraNam – efficient cause – that which caused the transformation; sahakAri kAraNam – ancillary cause – tools that are used for the creation. For example, when a pot is made – soil is the material cause, potter(‘s desire/will) is the efficient cause; stick and wheel are the instrumental cause].
- thAn Or uruvE thani viththAy – This phrase explains/matches chAndhOgya upanishath 6.2.1 “sadhEva sOmya idhamagra AsIdhEkamEva adhvidhIyam” (Oh svEthakEthu who is eligible to drink sOmapAnam! this universe, before creation was called “sath” was existing; it was existing alone since there was no name and form, and was singular (since there was no other substratum for it)). Here, 3 words (sadhEva, EkamEva, adhvidhIyam) indicate the distinct nature of brahmam and also indicates that brahmam is the three types of causes for creation. viththu (seed/cause) is to be read as “thAn viththu“, “oru viththu” and “thani viththu“. “thAn” indicates that there is no other upAdhAnam (raw-material) [chith (souls)/achith (matter) which are brahmam’s body in sUkshma state is the raw-material]; “Or” indicates there is no additional tools/instruments in creation [brahmam’s knowledge, power, etc., are the tools]; “thani” indicates there is no additional instigator for creation [brahmam is the only instigator and his sankalpam/vow is the trigger for creation]. “uru” indicates beauty, i.e., brahmam beautifully being the three types of causes himself.
- thannil mUvar muthalAya – Two explanations are given here:
- first, bhagavAn is explained as the primary deity among brahmA, vishNu, rudhra – Just like srI rAma was born amidst ikshvAku clan descendants and is counted along one of them and just like krishNa was born in the yAdhava clan and was counted amongst them, bhagavAn too was born in between brahmA and rudhran and was counted as one among the thrimUrthis (three deities) – yet, he remains with his distinct qualities, protects everyone and also performs creation/annihilation being the antharyAmi for them.
- second, “thannil” is explained as “(dependent) on him” – as explained in nArAyaNa anuvAkam “sa brahmA: sasivas sEndhras sOkshara: parama: svarAt” (that bhagavAn is the antharyAmi of brahmA, rudhra, indhra; he is sinless, supreme and fully independent (untouched by karmAs)”; so, here mUvar is explained as brahmA, rudhra and indhra.
- vAnOr palarum – dhEvathAs starting with brahmA
- munivarum – rishis starting with sanaka
- maRRum – plants
- maRRum – animals
- muRRum – all those that are missed verbally
- Ay – to create
- thAnOr peru nIr thannuLLE thORRi athan uL kaN vaLarum – Thus having thought about creation, he first creates a huge ocean to lie down.
- vAnOr perumAn – master of nithyasUris
- mAmAyan – who has fantastic qualities and activities
- vaikunthan – being comfortably seated in srIvaikuNtam
- emperumAnE – He is my Lord. When a property is slipping way, would the owner leave it? A mother who gives birth to a child after many difficult vrathams (sacrifices, etc.), when the boy grows up and says “I wan’t to go overseas”, can she bear that? Similarly, when I was suffering long time in this samsAram without knowledge, he is the one who gave me true knowledge and made me realize who I am. But if I try to leave him using that knowledge (saying he is supreme and I am very lowly), can he bear it?
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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