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Full series >> First Centum >> Fourth decad
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
Seeing that emperumAn is thinking “one has to experience the result of one’s sins surely”, AzhwAr requests through some swans to emperumAn “May be chinthayanthi could have exhausted her sins by experiencing [acute suffering in separation from krishNa], but my sins are far too much that they cannot be exhausted by experiencing the results”.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
Subsequently, parAngusa nAyaki requests some swans which have better conduct and purity than the cuckoos to go as messenger to emperumAn who made her fully dependent on him.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
In this third pAsuram, parAngusa nAyaki requests some swans to inform emperumAn “If my sins are not eliminated by your mercy, they cannot be exhausted by experiencing the results as well”.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai
Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.
விதியினால் பேடை மணக்கும் மென்னடைய அன்னங்காள்
மதியினால் குறள் மாணாய் உலகு இரந்த கள்வற்கு
மதியிலேன் வல்வினையே மாளாதோ என்று , ஒருத்தி
மதியெல்லாம் உள் கலங்கி மயங்குமால் என்னீரே
vidhiyinAl pedai maNakkum mennadaiya annangAL
madhiyinAl kuRaL mANAy ulagu irandha kaLvarkku
madhiyilEn valvinaiyE mALAdhO enRu oruththi
madhiyellAm uL kalangi mayangumAl ennIrE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
vidhiyinAl – out of great fortune (unlike me who is alone)
pedai – with the female swan
maNakkum – enjoying the union
mennadaiya annangAL – swans which have tender steps (due to their enjoying)
madhiyinAl – with great intelligence (fulfilling indhra’s desire and preserving mahAbali’s generosity)
kuRaL – vAmanan – dwarf
mANAy – celibate boy
ulagu – the world
irandha – stood begging (showing small feet and measuring with huge feet in the guise of begging)
kaLvarkku – kruthrima – for the cheat/falsifier
madhiyilEn – me who is ignorant (about his cheating ways)
valvinaiyEyO – those sins (which cannot be exhausted by experiencing the results)
mALAdhu enRu – thinking that they are not destructible (like destroying the sins of chinthayanthI etal)
oruththi – one girl
madhi ellAm – her intelligence (that was given by you)
uL kalangi – being bewildered totally
mayangum – losing consciousness
ennIr – please go and tell him
Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
Oh swans who out of great fortune of being with your female companions having tender steps (conduct)! emperumAn assumed the disguise of a dwarf celibate boy and stood begging for the world, as a cheat. I am an ignorant girl who is unable to understand his acts and my mind is totally bewildered and losing consciousness – please go and tell him this. “oruththi” (a girl) will make him realise exactly who it is (since he knows who would be in this state). Through this pAsuram, the glories of gatakas (AchAryas) with respect to their tender (perfect) conduct of gently dealing with each other and their greatness are revealed.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
Similar to vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
Similar to piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai
- vidhiyinAl – vidhi is explained in different ways:
- vidhi as sAsthram, and parAngusa nAyaki say “since you are having union according to sAsthram, you are not separated from each other. But I am trying to have union with him (without being married) – that is why I am separated”.
- vidhi as bhAgyam (fortune) – you are being together due to your fortune or it can be said as my fortune.
- swans’ fortune – Being together with one’s lover is the result of one’s puNyam (virtues) and being separated is the result of one’s pApam (vices).
- parAnkusa nAyaki‘s fortune – When srI rAma was searching for sIthA pirAtti, he met sugrIva who had also lost his wife, kingdom etc. srI rAma ensured that sugrIva was well settled – then only he started to remedy his own sufferings. So, should parAnkusa nAyagi also not be happy for the swans being together? For ones who are compassionate, sufferings of others are more important than their own sufferings. I am fortunate to not have to unite you with your spouse before going towards my lord.
- pedai maNakkum – Being together with the female companion – satisfying the desires of the female companion.
- mennadaiya annangAL – Are you going to get my desires fulfilled with such tender walk/steps? As explained in srI rAmAyaNam kishkinthA kANdam 33.37 “sA praskalanthI…” (the famous thArA arrived with a staggered walk…). nampiLLai beautifully explains the whole slOkam here. When sugrIva was enjoying with thArA after vAli was vanquished, and forgetting to help srI rAma as committed, srI rAma sends lakshmaNa to check on him. lakshmaNa arrives there with great fury on sugrIva’s attitude. Hearing lakshmaNa’s roar at the entrance, sugrIva trembles, realises only thArA can pacify him and sends her to lakshmaNa. That famous thAra comes out as it is after enjoying sensual pleasures with sugrIva with a staggered walk, blurred vision due to consumption of alcohol, with her dress in irregular manner. She, who looks like a beautifully bent creeper, approaches lakshmaNa. nampiLLai says thArA has a motherly affection towards lakshmaNa [this is based on kambar’s view too], so just like a mother would at times appear in front of the child in “not so perfect” condition casually, thArA approached lakshmaNa. Similarly, parAngusa nAyagi also thinks that the swans with their beautiful and tender steps, would convince emperumAn and fulfil her desire.
- madhiyinAl – Unlike rAvaNa who had to be destroyed, mahAbali had a good quality named audhAryam (generosity). indhran lost his kingdom. Both of them should be satisfied – so, emperumAn who is glorified in srI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21.8 as “gOsahasra pradhAthAram” (After gifting thousands of cows in charity…) – the one who has hands which are greatly known for their generosity – decided to beg. That was emperumAn‘s intelligence.
- kuRaL – When a huge quantity is condensed into a small quantity (like milk boiled to get guava which is too sweet), so it can be easily enjoyed.
- mANAy – the form of a brahmachAri (a celibate boy) who is equally smiling to people who arehappily giving alms and others who are shutting the door on him while begging for alms.
- ulagu irandha – Begged the world that was created by his own sankalpam (divine will).
- kaLvarkku – thirumAlai ANdAn explains this as a “cheat”. emperumAnAr explains it as “one who did something to accomplish something else”. emperumAnAr‘s explanation is based on AzhwAr’s thinking that “He cheated mahAbali to attract me”, since he himself said previously (1.3.10) “perunilam kadandha nalladippOdhu” (this divine lotus feet which measured the huge world). AzhwAr‘s nature is such that whatever emperumAn does, he will always be attracted to emperumAn only. He says in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.5 “ulagam koNda adiyan aRivarumEni mAyaththanAgilum kodiya ennenjam avan enRE kidakkum” (Though he grabbed the world (from mahAbali) and his forms are difficult to grasp, my heart will always be for him) and in thiruvAimozhi 5.4.10 “anRorugAl vaiyam aLandha pirAn vArAnenRu onRorugAl sollAdhu ulagu” (the (people in the) world are not even saying that the emperumAn who once measured the world will not come for you). thirumangai AzhwAr also says in periya thirumozhi 9.4.2 “munnam kuRaLuruvAy mUvadi maN koNdaLandha mannan saridhaikkE mAlAgi ponpayandhEn” (my bodily complexion changed out of great love for emperumAn on hearing the history of emperumAn becoming a dwarf, begging for three feet of land and measuring the worlds). All AzhwArs are thus attracted to emperumAn‘s vAmana avathAram.
- madhiyilEn – ignorant. I should have simply requested him when he was leaving – I was not even intelligent to do that.
- valvinaiyE mALAdhO – parAngusa nAyagi is called dhIrga chinthayanthI. chinthayanthI was a gOpi [cow-herd girl] who was once caught in a situation at her house where her in-laws were at the hallway. She heard the notes of krishNa playing on the flute and wanted to go to him at once (but she could not go past her in-laws sitting the hallway). Her virtues were exhausted by constant/deep meditation of krishNa at that moment. Her vices were exhausted by suffering in separation and not being able to leave at once. Since puNyam/pApam were nullified, she at once gave up her body and reached paramapadham. But AzhwAr goes through these emotions repeatedly and constantly – that is why he is glorified as dhIrga chinthayanthI.
- oruththi – a girl. How will emperumAn know that it is about parAngusa nAyagi? Like a deer is hunted down by a hunter’s bow, and if the hunter had been told “in such and such place, a deer was hunted down”, the hunter will easily identify that it was his hunt – similarly, emperumAn will know that only parAngusa nAyagi will be suffering so much in separation.
- oruththi – most distinct . She is different from samsAris (who are simply focused on material aspects), nithaysUris (who never have separation from emperumAn) and other AzhwArs (because they are nammAzhwAr‘s avayavam (parts)).
- madhi kalangi -Tell him that she is bewildered. He will say “even if her knowledge is diminished, I have given her (special) knowledge”.
- madhiyellAm kalangi – He will say “With the knowledge I gave, she will wait for me to come and protect her”. Tell him “Since you gave that knowledge which made her understand you, it became the cause to become bewildered”. He will ask “She may have some confusion. But would she be totally confused since this is pure knowledge given by me?”
- madhiyellAm uL kalangi – Tell him “The unblemished knowledge you gave is totally lost in her and she is fully confused”.
- mayangumAl – Hearing that, he may say “Oh! Is that so? I will give her knowledge when I go there”. If you say “she has already died”, he may think “What is the use of going there if she has died?” So, tell him “She will die soon if you don’t go”.
- ennIrE – You do your duty of informing him – if he does not come it will be his fault. When he hears your tone, he will understand my suffering and come to me.
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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