Daily Archives: April 12, 2015

thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.10 – parantha thaN paravai

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

Mahavishnu-universes

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

bhagavAn pervades in each atom of the drops of water in the ocean, in the subtlest achith (matter) particles which exist from the earth to the sky and in the jIvAthmAs which exist inside each such particle. Even inside those jIvAthmAs, he pervades most casually/conveniently as if he is staying (all by himself) in a huge universe. Yet, he is invisible to others and he is the one who annihilates everything. nammAzhwAr instructs his mind to worship the lotus feet of such emperumAn who is clearly established in vEdham.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

nammAzhwAr explains the convenience of bhagavAn‘s vyApthi (omni-presence that was explained previously) in this pAsuram.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Previously nammAzhwAr explained that bhagavAn has the material realm as his subordinate (like body for the soul), the one who is omni-present, the abode of everything, controller and the master. But when jIvAthmA is bound inside a body, he becomes limited within the limitation of that body – would paramAthmA also go through similar difficulties/limitations? No. He pervades without any limitations in the most convenient manner.

pAsuram

பரந்த தண் பரவை யுள் நீர் தொறும் பரந்துளன்
பரந்த அண்டம் இது என நில விசும்பு ஒழிவு அறக்
கரந்த சில் இடம் தொறும் இடம் திகழ் பொருள் தொறும்
கரந்து எங்கும் பரந்துளன் இவை உண்ட கரனே

parandha thaN paravai uL nIr thoRum parandhuLan
parandha aNdam idhu ena nila visumbu ozhivu aRak
karandha sil idam thoRum idam thigazh poruL thoRum
karandhu engum parandhuLan ivai uNda karanE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

parandha – spread everywhere
thaN – Since its not mixed with other bhUthams, ocean is naturally cool (which is the natural quality of water)
paravai uL – inside the EkArNava (singular water mass which is the source of everything)
nIr thoRum – in each drop of water
parandha aNdam ithu ena – Like being in the huge aNdam (egg shaped universe)
parandhu uLan – being present without any limitation
nilam – in the earth
visumbu – in the higher planets
ozhivu aRa – in every particle
karandha – in the most subtle manner (invisible)
sil idam thoRum – Even in the most minute places
idam – in those places
thigazh – self-effulgent
poruL thoRum – in the jIvAthmAs
karandhu – hiding inside in such a way that even those pervaded objects do not know his existence
engum – everywhere
parandhu uLan – being the omni-present one
ivai uNda karan – one who consumed all these during samhAram and stayed firm

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Just like staying conveniently (all by himself) in the huge universe, he stays in each drop of the water in the naturally cool ocean in the most subtle matter. He is present even inside the most minute places and inside the self-effulgent jIvAthmAs who reside in those minute places in such a manner that the pervaded objects do not realise his presence. He, being the omni-present being, consumed everything during samhAram (annihilation) and remained firm.

With this, it is established that bhagavAn is omni-present in both kAraNa dhasai (causal stage) and kArya dhasai (resulting stage) even in the most subtle chith and achith in the most convenient way without any limitation.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

Included in the introduction itself.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • parandha thaN paravai uL nIr thoRum parandhu uLan –  In the cool and large ocean, bhagavAn has pervaded in every drop of water which itself is made of minute atomic particles.
  • parandha aNdam idhu ena – One may question “Will the bhagavAn who is explained in chAndhOgya upanishath 3.14 as ‘… jyAyAn antharikshAth …’ (though this paramAthmA is in my heart, he is greater than the earth etc) be cramped within the minutest atomic particle?” – AzhwAr answers that saying “No, he stays most conveniently in there just as he is staying in a huge universe by himself”.
  • nila visumbu ozhivaRa – Is he only pervading the minute particles of water? No, he is pervading earth, sky, this universe, all other universes, etc – everywhere which is explained further.
  • karandha sil idanthoRum – everywhere – in the space between eye-lids where minute beings live (and die quickly even by the force of closing the eye-lids) – even in those subtlest beings, he is fully pervaded.
  • idam thigazh poruL thoRum – Even inside the jIvAthmAs of those subtlest beings.
  • karandhu – hidden so that no one sees him, even those entities which were pervaded by him do not see/know him.
  • engum parandhuLan – When a chEthana/jIvAthmA pervades the body in which he lives, he pervades through his knowledge – gyAna vyApthi (i.e., jIvAthmA exists in the heart and through the dharma bhUtha gyAna understands and controls everything related to that body). But bhagavAn‘s vyApthi is not gyAna vyApthi – it is svarUpa vyApthi (pervaded naturally and fully in every place). bhagavAn is vibhu (great) and jIvAthmA is aNu (atomic – minute).
  • ivai uNda karanE – if bhagavAn is so huge and these atomic particles are miniscule, how can he stay inside these comfortably without being cramped? He can do it because he is omni-potent (all-capable). As explained by thirumangai AzhwAr in periya thirumozhi 11.5.3 “thayiruNda pon vayiRu ivvEzhulugumuNdum idamudaiththAl” (krishNa’s golden (most-likable) stomach which contains the curd/yoghurt eaten by him, has more space even after consuming the 7 layers of planets) – Just like emperumAn as a small child could consume all of the world and still have space left in his stomach, he can be great yet he can stay comfortably in the minutest particle.
  • karan – who is firmly known by the most authoritative vEdham.

In the next article we will see the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.9 – uLan enil uLan

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

leela-vibhuthione universe in leelA vibhUthi in manifested state – as drawn by srIperumbUthUr 1st embAr jIyar swamy based on vishNu purANam and pUrvAchAraya granthams

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

After rejecting kudhrushtis who accept vEdham but misinterpret them, this pAsuram rejects sUnyavAdhis (philosophers of voidness) who say “there is no pramANam (scriptures), there is no pramEyam (goal/bhagavAn); everything is sUnyam (void). Thus there is no vEdham, no bhagavAn (who is the object of vEdham) and no existence of this realm (which is his wealth)”.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

Similar to piLLAn‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, nammAzhwAr refutes mAdhyamika baudhdha philosophers (a type of sUnyavAdhi – voidness philoshopher) who is considered as the primary amongst vEdha bhAhyas (the ones who reject vEdham).

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Previously, nammAzhwAr refuted those who partially took some aspects of pramANam (scriptures) and pramEyam (goal) and thus misunderstood bhagavAn‘s svarUpam and his attributes/qualities. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr refutes sUnyavAdhi who rejects both pramANam and pramEyam. Even before the sUnyavAdhi starts giving any reason for his argument, AzhwAr himself declares the truth about bhagavAn who is with vibhUthi (great wealth of (spiritual realm and) material realm).

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In this pAsuram, nammAzhwAr refutes sarva sUnyavAdhi (one who says everything is void in all aspects). He refutes as done by srI bhAshyakArar (emperumAnAr) in srI bhAsyhyam. Since bhAshyakArar is after the times of AzhwAr, we can conclude that bhAshyakArar writes his refutal in srI bhAshyam based on AzhwAr‘s explanations.

Previously kudhrushtis argued that brahmA, rudhra et al are supreme based on some pramANams. But AzhwAr establishes that srIman nArAyaNan is the supreme lord, the entire material realm is for his service just like body is for the AthmA and these are revealed in vEdham.

When we say “something does not exist”, we first need to define that something and then only reject the existence of that thing. Due to the fact that “something” is defined first, it cannot be made void. Merely saying something does not exist (without defining the entity) will not explain complete voidness. sarva sUnyavAdham (complete voidness) can never be established (If there is a proper word that will always indicate some entity. It can never point to non-existing entity. For example if we say “there is no rabbit” – that means rabbit generally exists but it does not exist here at this place. Even if we create composite words like “rabbit-horn” (which is contradictory since there is no horn for rabbit) and say that does not exist, it will only prove that there is no connection between rabbit and horn – but both rabbit and horn exist separately.Thus, sarva sUnyavAdham can never be established).

AzhwAr tells the sUnyavAdhi that you can neither prove voidness by accepting bhagavAn‘s existence nor by rejecting bhagavAn‘s existence. In either case, your desire (of establishing voidness) will not be fulfilled. I will take your word of “bhagavAn does not exist” and prove that bhagavAn exists. Generally, we explain the meaning of a word that indicates the presence or absence of an entity (i.e., when we say something exists, that means that entity exists in a particular place, time and form. Similarly when we say an entity does not exist, that means that entity does not exist in particular place, time and form). If we do not agree to this common platform of debate, you do not have the qualification to participate in the debate.

pAsuram

உளன் எனில் உளன் அவன் உருவம் இவ்வுருவுகள்
உளன் அலன் எனில் அவன் அருவம் இவ்வருவுகள்
உளன் என இலன் என இவை குணம் உடைமையில்
உளன் இரு தகைமையொடு ஒழிவிலன் பரந்தே

uLan enil uLan avan uruvam ivvuruvugaL
uLan alan enil avan aruvam ivvaruvugaL
uLan ena ilan ena ivai guNam udaimaiyil
uLan iru thagailmaiyodu ozhivilan paranthE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

uLan enil – if said to be existing as per own philosophy (vaidhika philosophy)
uLan alan enil – if said to be non-existing as per other philosophy (avaidhika philosophy)
uLan – Should be considered as existing since there should be an entity (substratum) for sath bhAvam (existence) or asath bhAvam (non-existence) while making a statement; thus,
uLan ena ilan ena ivai – that which is said as existing or non-existing
guNamudaimaiyil – having as attribute
ivvuruvugaL ivvaruvugaL – those aspects with form or without form in this material realm
avanuruvam avanaruval – having them as prakAram (attribute) that shows or hides
iru thagaimaiyodu – having two different aspects
uLan – being
parandhu – pervading everywhere
ozhivilan – present without ever ceasing to exist

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

bhagavAn is the substratum for both existence (as per AzhwAr‘s vaidhika philosophy) or non-existence (as per avaidhika philosophy) – so, bhagavAn must be understood/accepted as existing  while making a statement about him. He is the one who pervades everywhere without ever ceasing to exist and has both with-form and form-less manifestation of this material realm as his two types of aspects which shows and hides him respectively.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

AzhwAr tells a sUnyavAdhi “You cannot prove bhagavAn‘s non-existence through his presence or absence. In general, bhAvam (presence) or abhAvam (absence) of an entity/attribute is based on the place, time and form. When we say bhagavAn is present, that means he is present within gross forms which are visible  and when say bhagavAn is absent, that means he is present within subtle forms which are invisible. Even for other entities (chith and achith), the same rule applies – they either are present in gross or subtle forms. Thus being with form (gross) or without form (subtle) are just his attributes. Thus in either case he exists”. Thus sUnyavAdhi is refuted.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam. nanjIyar highlights that his pAsuram is explained according to kUraththAzhwAn‘s explanation.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • avanuruvam ivvuruvugaLbhagavAn exists with the universe which he controls as explained in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “yasya AthmA sarIram yaya pruthivI sarIram” (all jIvAthmAs are his body, earth is his body) and has this universe as his sarIram (body) and sEsham (subordinate) – this is the sthUlarUpam (gross form). When it is said as uLAn alan (he does not exist) he exists in the unmanifested (sUkshma – subtle) form.
  • avanaruvam ivvarugaL – This is explained as the meaning of the word “nAsthi” (non-existence) which really explains a different state of existence. “gatOsthi” (pot exists) indicates an object with an opening at the top with a rounded structure. “gatO nAsthi” indicates a different state – when it is not here means it is present else where; when it is not present now means it is present at some other time; it cannot be said that pot does not exist in any form at all times.
  • uLan ena ilan ena ivai guNam udaimaiyil – Having the existence (in gross form) and non-existence (existence in subtle form) as qualities indicate that both of them are his attributes.
  • uLan iru thagaimaiyodu – He has both types of behaviour of being in existence and being not in existence which are indicated by the words “uLan” and “ilan“.
  • ozhivilan parandhE – I (AzhwAr) established his existence through the word “uLan“. You (sUnyavAdhi) established his existence through the word “ilan“. So, both of us have established the truth. AzhwAr also says “Just like his existence is established, can we not understand that he exists with this wealth of nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and leelA vibhUthi (material realm)?”.

Note: kAnchI P.B aNNangarAchAryar swamy says at the end of his detailed explanation for this pAsuram in his dhivyArththa dhIpikai commentary – “It cannot be explained in any more detail – this should be heard in detail under learned scholars” – what to speak about this English translation? The translation here is to develop the taste in hearing word-by-word kAlakshEpam of these wonderful granthams which are the only way to get reasonable understanding of these pAsurams.

In the next article we will see the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org