Monthly Archives: January 2015

kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 5 – nambinEn

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous pAsuram

Nammalwar-alwai-thirthavari

Introduction for this pAsuram:

All the introductions for this pAsuram are seen as a continuation of previous pAsuram.

nanjIyar highlights that when madhurakavi AzhwAr was asked what lowly qualities he was talking about in previous pAsuram, he says he was desiring for others’ wives and others’ properties. But he became reformed by the unconditional grace of nammAzhwAr. He is expressing his gratitude towards nammAzhwAr who reformed him out of his causeless mercy.

nampiLLai  highlights that when asked about it madhurakavi AzhwAr reveals the details of his previous state and how nammAzhwAr reformed him (based on previous pAsuram where he said he was filled with lowly qualities).

periyavAchchAn piLLai highlights that the same point as nampiLLai .

azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr was asked – What were your lowly qualities highlighted in the previous pAsuram? Who triggered your devotion towards nammAzhwAr? madhurakavi AzhwAr replies “Since time immemorial I was having great ego and attachment towards wealth and lust. That too mainly towards lust. That too I wanted to enjoy many women. For that I needed lots of wealth through which I can attract women towards me. For that I went to different towns and villages. At that time, I saw the huge palaces in AzhwArthirunagari which had golden balconies. Wanting to get some wealth from this rich place, I entered the town. At that time, nammAzhwAr blessed me and reformed me. I became surrendered to him and won over my tendency towards sense enjoyment. This is my current state”.

nambinEn piRar nanporuL thannaiyum
nambinEn madavAraiyum munnelAm
sempon mAdath thirurkkurukUr nambikku anbanAy
adiyEn sathirththEn inRE

word-by-word meanings
adiyEn – I (who have become reformed to call myself dhAsan/servitor)
mun elAm – previously (before being blessed by nammAzhwAr)
piRar – others
nal poruL thannaiyum – good properties/objects
nambinEn – desired (for them)
(piRar) madavAraiyum – women (who are married to others)
nambinEn – desired
inRu – But today
sempon mAdam – (having) beautiful balconies built using gold
thiru kurukUr nambikku – leader of AzhwArthirunagari
anban Ay – become a devotee
sadhirththEn – attained greatness

Simple translation:
I previously desired for good properties/objects of others and other women. But today (after being blessed by nammAzhwAr), I have become a devotee of nammAzhwAr who is the leader AzhwArthirunagari which has many beautiful palaces that have balconies that were built using gold and have attained greatness (by becoming nammAzhwAr‘s disciple).

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • piRar nan poruL – As said in “chOrENa AthmAbahARiNA” (A thief who stole the AthmA, i.e.,  considered AthmA as ones own property while it is owned by bhagavAn), I looked to rule over myself independently while AthmA is owned by bhagavAn.
  • Since “madavAr” (women – plural) is used, it means, I am not satisfied with one woman but keep looking out for many for sense enjoyment.
  • I am the one who was attached to women before. But the same me, have become attached to nammAzhwAr – this is my greatness (such huge transformation).

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s eedu vyAkyAnam:

  • poruL means wealth. Here it means AthmA. Amongst dhravyams (objects), AthmA is highlighted primarily.  As thirumangai AzhwAr said in periya thirumozhi 1.1.5 “kaLvanEnAnEn” (became a thief) and nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 5.1.4 “vankaLvan” (great thief), madhurakavi AzhwAr also says the same thing. Just like jIvAthmA who is a servitor of bhagavAn first and ultimately to nammAzhwAr (AchArya) was stolen, only when madhurakavi AzhwAr becomes a servitor of nammAzhwAr, it will become exclusively used for bhagavAn,
  • piRarAthmA is represented by kausthuba jewel on bhagavAn‘s chest. The most cruel nature of theft is explained. The atonement/punishment for a theft is based on the object that is stolen and the owner of the object. Stolen object AthmA is like kausthubam and the owner is bhagavAn himself – so atonement is very difficult and punishment is severe.
  • If one is bold enough to steal bhagavAn‘s property “AthmA”, what to speak about stealing of common people’s wives – I have also been engaged in that.
  • nambi – complete in qualities. Even after being so complete in grace/mercy, would nammAzhwAr consider my lowly qualities and discard me? No (He has surely accepted me).
  • Before being a disciple of nammAzhwAr, I was very lowly/fallen. After being blessed by nammAzhwAr, I have become so great. AchAryas are called “nambi” and oneself being called “adiyEn” in front of them is due to madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s usage of these terms in his pAsurams and action.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • This vyAkyAnam is mostly based on nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
  • nanporuL means AthmA. piRar (other) means bhagavAn. He is called “Other” because he is totally different from AthmAs – nithyasUris (eternally free souls), mukthAthmAs (liberated souls) and badhdhAthmAs (bound souls). In gIthA slOkams 15.16, 15.17, and 15.18, bhagavAn is explained as “uththama: purusha” (the supreme person) and he is differentiated from different types of jIvAthmAs.
  • munnelAm – forever until now. Just like Iswara, AthmA is also eternal. kAlam (time) is also beginning-less. achith sambandham (our existence in this material world) is also beginning-less (it is not that we have suddenly jumped into samsAram – material world from some where else). Thus until now, all the time, we have been engaged in such lowly activities.
  • I was searching for wealth for my sense enjoyment. I reached AzhwArthirunagari which looked very rich. But I was caught by the mAnidhi (great wealth) here. nammAzhwAr is madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s vaiththamAnidhi (emperumAn at thirukkOLUr – vaiththamAnidhi means great wealth that is preserved).  Since AzhwArthirunagari is as enjoyable for madhurakavi AzhwAr like nammAzhwAr‘s lotus feet, he is glorifying the town here.
  • As said by iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNan) in srI rAmAyaNam (kishkinthA kANdam 4.12) “guNair dhAsyam upAgatha:” (I am surrendered to srI rAma for his auspicious qualities), here madhurakavi AzhwAr says “adiyEn” for being surrendered to him seeing nammAzhwAr‘s auspicious qualities.

Highlights from azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s vyAkyanam:

  • He has so many lowly qualities and those cannot be easily listed. So, as a sample he identifies “paradhravya apahAram” (stealing others’ properties) and “paradhAra apahAram” (seeking out others’ wives) which are the most cruel ones. AthmA apahAram means considering AthmA as independent (instead of knowing AthmA is totally dependent on bhagavAn).
  • nanporuL – vilakshaNa dhravyam – unique object. achith (Matter) is anithyam (temporary), anavaratha vikArAspadham (abode for change always), athayantha hEyam (very unfavourable), agyAnam (ignorance), asukam (lack of bliss), abhOgyam (lack of enjoyment). chith (jIvAthmA – soul) is nithyam (permanent), nirvikAram (unchangable), athyantha vilakshaNam (very unique/different from matter), svayam prakAsamAy (self-effulgent), sukamAy (blissful), svabhAvathO bhOgyam (naturally enjoyable).
  • piRar – anya – one who is amongst others, yet not mingling with others. Though bhagavAn is all pervading and present along with chith (jIvAthmAs) and achith (matter), he is not touched by the defects of any of those he is present with. Even though is the antharyAmi (indwelling super-soul) of every one, he is called apahathapApmA (being relieved of all blemishes). All of these principles are heard by madhurakavi AzhwAr from nammAzhwAr in his various pAsurams.
  • AthmApahAram (stealing of AthmA) means svAthanthriyam (independence). Seeking out for sense enjoyment means dhEhAthmAbimAnam (considering body as self). It is because of this misunderstanding that AthmA (soul) is dhEham (body), one is seeking enjoyment for the body.
  • Though I went to AzhwArthirunagari seeking for wealth and lust, since nammAzhwAr who lives in AzhwArthirunagari is ashtAkshara samsidhdha (one who is well situated in thirumanthram) and in whose proximity there is no theft, etc., I developed an attachment towards him just like kshathrabandhu became reformed in the proximity of a saint. I approached him and became very much devoted towards him.
  • Like nammAzhwAr had attachment towards the palaces/balconies of dhivya dhEsams as mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 6.5.1 “thuvaLil maNi mAdam Ongu thulaivillimangalam“,  madhurakavi AzhwAr is attached to “sempon mAdam” of AzhwArthirunagari.
  • In the previous pAsuram “annaiyAy aththanAy” explains “mAthA pithA” (mother and father). Here “madavAR … sempon mAdam” explains “yuvathaya:” (women) and “vibhUthi:” (wealth). This is in reference to “mAthA pithAthaniyan for nammAzhwAr that was rendered by ALavandhAr.
  • inRE – right now. Instead of having to experience the remaining karmA, give up the body, reach virajA and finally become pure, I have become pure right here (by nammAzhwAr‘s grace). Previously, I was accompanied by bhagavAn (as antharyAmi) but still was in samsAram – now in the presence of nammAzhwAr I have become relieved from the miseries of samsAram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 3 – thirithanthAgilum

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous pAsuram

paramapadhanathan

Introduction for this pAsuram:

nanjIyar highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr enjoys bhagavAn since he is dear to nammAzhwAr.

nampiLLai ‘s introduction:

  • madhurakavi AzhwAr (who is fully surrendered to nammAzhwAr) pursues emperumAn (in this pAsuram) since emperumAn is dear to nammAzhwAr.
  • emperumAn when pursued independently like sUrpaNakA is against the nature of jIvAthmA. But the same emperumAn can be pursued when he himself makes him available due to one AchArya nishtai like ANdAL said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 13.10 “thangaL thEvarai valla parisu varuvipparEl” (If periyAzhwAr‘s emperumAn comes to me, I will pursue him).
  • A village chief named kAngEyan who was the head of guNamalaippAdi (a village) was helped by piLLai AththAn. When kAngEyan wanted to return the favours, piLLai AththAn said “You have already helped our AchArya who often remembers your help”. From this we can understand that, since emperumAn was dear to nammAzhwAr, he himself revealed his divine form to madhurakavi AzhwAr who is a dear sishya of nammAzhwAr without any individual efforts of madhurakavi AzhwAr.
  • thripurA dhEviyAr says that if emperumAnAr identifies rudhran as the supreme god, she would easily accept that and follow him. That was her total dedication towards her AchArya srI rAmAnuja.

periyavAchchAn piLLai highlights (in addition to what is highlighted by nampiLLai) that when emperumAnAr had gone to thirunArAyaNapuram, kUraththAzhwAn visited srIrangam temple. At that time, the gate-keepers highlighted the order of the king that forbids anyone who is related to emperumAnAr from entering the temple. But one gate-keeper said kUraththAzhwAn is filled with Athma-guNams (true auspicious qualities). AzhwAn at once said “If I enter the temple citing good qualities and giving up srI rAmAnuja‘s relationship, these qualities are of no use” and returned without entering the temple.

azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s introduction:

  • madhurakavi AzhwAr said “dhEvu maRRaRiyEn” in the previous pAsuram. bhagavAn himself reveals his divine form to such madhurakavi AzhwAr here.
  • Because it is dear to bhagavAn one engages in glorifying ones AchArya. And because it is dear to AchArya, one engages in glorifying bhagavAn. As bhagavAn himself says in gIthA 7.17 “priyO hi gyAnina: athyarththam aham sa cha ma priya:” (Those devotees are so dear to me and I am so dear to them as well). If one likes a person, he should also like those who are liked by that person.
  • bhagavAn himself reveals his divine form to madhurakavi AzhwAr due to madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s unflinching attachment towards nammAzhwAr. Being pleased with that, madhurakavi AzhwAr realizes this divine vision is not due to his knowledge about total dependence towards bhagavAn, but due to being a servitor of nammAzhwAr only, not due to surrender towards bhagavAn – but only due to being totally surrendered to nammAzhwAr only. This is a fine example of bhagavAn himself acknowledging those who are totally surrendered to their AchArya.

thirithanthAgilum
dhEvapirAnudaik kariyakOlath thiruvuruk kANban nAn
periya vaN kurukUr nagar nambikku ALuriyanAy
adiyEn peRRa nanmaiyE

word-by-word meanings
thirithanthAgilum – even if I slipped (giving up nammAzhwAr)
dhEvapirAnudai – emperumAn who is the master of nithyasUris
kariya – blackish (like clouds)
kOlam – beautiful
thiruvuru – divine form
nAn kANban – I will see (worship)
periya vaN kurukUr nambikku – to nammAzhwAr who is born in AzhwArthirunagari that is great and magnanimous
uriya AL Ay – being true servitor for him alone
adiyEn peRRa nanmai – please see the benediction I have received

Simple translation:

(Even if) I slipped from my AchArya nishtai, I (will) see the blackish beautiful divine form of srIman nArAyaNan who is the master of nithyasUris (eternally free souls in paramapadham). Please see the benediction I received by being true servitor for only nammAzhwAr who is born in AzhwArthirunagari that is great and magnanimous.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • In bhagavath vishayam, chAndhOgya upanishadh declares “na cha punar AvarththathE”  (there is no returning after reaching paramapadham). But that is the first stage in ultimate goal, and final stage is to be totally surrendered to bhAgavathas/AchArya. If ever one slips from the final stage (of AchArya kainkaryam), they will only fall to the first stage (bhagavath kainkaryam).
  • bhagavAn‘s divine form is so beautiful that sUrpaNakA who was punished by lakshmaNa started glorifying srI rAma and lakshmaNa’s divine forms when she went to complain about her plight to kara in srI rAmAyaNam (AraNya 19.14) “tharuNau rUpasampannau” (they are very youthful, very beautiful).
  • periya vaN kurukUr – the great glorious AzhwArthirunagari. Since AzhwArthirunagari gave us nammAzhwAr who was divinely blessed by bhagavAn, it is greatly glorified. The town is filled with many greatly knowledgable persons. nammAzhwAr himself says in thiruvAimozhi 8.1.11 “periya vaNkurukUr vaN satakOpan“.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s eedu vyAkyAnam:

  • When he slips from his AchArya nishtai, he starts singing about bhagavAn. Just like a yOga brashta (sage who deviated from their austerity and fell down – like viswAmithra) will start speaking about the beauty of Urvasi, etc. (damsels of svarga lOka), madhurakavi AzhwAr speaks about the beauty of bhagavAn‘s divine form.
  • kUraththAzhwAn incident in srIrangam (that was seen in the introduction section) is explained here.
  • madhurakavi AzhwAr  says “adiyEn” (dhAsan – servitor) being humbled by nammAzhwAr‘s humility.
  • Since bhagavAn is dear to nammAzhwArmadhurakavi AzhwAr says that bhagavAn‘s vision “nanmaiyE” (very good only) even though he himself is personally more attached to serving nammAzhwAr only.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • For thirithanthAgilum (giving up) – the route is explained. That is, thiruvAimozhi pAsurams (2nd pAsuram), the music of the same (2nd pAsuram) and finally AzhwAr himself (1st pAsuram) – giving up all these,  madhurakavi AzhwAr pursued emperumAn.
  • dhEvapirAn – leader of nithyasUris. Even when madhurakavi AzhwAr slips from his AchArya nishtai, he only falls to see paramapadhanAthan only and assumes the state of nithyasUris.
  • nammAzhwAr appeared in kaliyugam during the dark ages when bhagavAn‘s generosity is not visible. It is in this AzhwArthirunagari town, the most generous nammAzhwAr appeared. By saying “kurukUr nagar”, madhurakavi AzhwAr distinguishes AzhwArthirunagari from srIvaikuNtam (paramapadham). Whatever emotions nammAzhwAr had towards paramapadham while saying “ayarvaRum amarargaL adhipathi” (thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1 – unquestionable leader of nithyasUris), madhurakavi AzhwAr feels the same emotions while saying thirunagari and nammAzhwAr.
  • ALuriyanAy – By being a suitable servant – without any personal likes and dislikes and serving solely for the desires of nammAzhwAr and giving up attachments to those aspects which are not liked by nammAzhwAr.

Highlights from azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s vyAkyanam:

  • thirithanthAgilum – nAyanAr gives a different and beautiful view point – Even while roaming around without any direct attachment towards emperumAn (since he already said in previous pAsuram that he is roaming around singing nammAzhwAr‘s pAsurams), emperumAn mercifully showed his divine form to madhurakavi AzhwAr.
  • While all AzhwArs had great attachment towards bhagavAn, madhurakavi AzhwAr had great attachment towards nammAzhwAr only. As said in jithanthE sthOthram 1.5 “bhakthAnAm thvam prakAsasE” (you manifest your divine form, ornaments, etc., to your devotees) – here madhurakavi AzhwAr is such nice devotee – so emperumAn manifested his divine form to him.
  • kariya (blackish form) – While nithyasUris enjoyed his divine form it was pale. Even when nammAzhwAr enjoyed his divine form it only became golden color as said in 2.5.1 “ennAvi sEr ammAnukku sempon thiruvudambu” (My lord’s form is in beautiful golden color). But only when madhurakavi AzhwAr had the vision of his form, emperumAn‘s form became blackish. Blackish color indicates bhagavAn‘s audhAryam (most magnanimous/generous nature) like a cloud ready to shower the rain for the benefit of everyone.
  • For thiruvuru – nAyanAra again shows a different and beautiful aspect – the form that is accompanied by “thiru” (srI mahAlakshmi).
  • I saw emperumAn since he was blackish instead of nammAzhwAr’s golden form. I saw because there was thuLasi smell instead of vakuLa flower smell. In any case, since the form looked different than nammAzhwAr‘s, I saw emperumAn‘s form with a little bit of fear in my mind.
  • periya vaN kurukUr – Great glorious AzhwArthirunagari – When compared to AzhwArthirunagari, paramapadham is very small (in glories). As mentioned by nammAzhwAr in periya thiruvanthAdhi 75 “puviyum iruvisumbum ninnagaththa ni en seviyin vazhi pugunthu ennuLLAy” (You have the entire creation within yourself, but you have entered through my ears (through sAsthram) and is inside me now” – nammAzhwAr holds vibhUthimAn (owner of everything) and the vibhuthi (aiswaryam – wealth) within himself. Such nammAzhwAr is inside AzhwArthirunagari – so it is a great town.
  • Even nammAzhwAr was greatly longing for the vision of emperumAn‘s divine form. But since I am a servitor of nammAzhwAr, bhagavAn himself manifests his divine form to them. nAnmugan thiruvanthAdhi 15 “EththiyiruppArai vellumE maRRavaraich chAththiyiruppAr thavam” (the greatness of devotees of devotees of bhagavAn is much higher than greatness of devotees of bhagavAn) – madhurakavi AzhwAr realizes this in his own personal experience.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 4 – nanmaiyAl

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous pAsuram

nammalwar-art

Introduction for this pAsuram:

All the introductions for this pAsuram are seen as a continuation of previous pAsuram.

nanjIyar highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr observes nammAzhwAr‘s favours to him for accepting him even after most saintly persons ignored him. When asked what was his action that triggered nammAzhwAr to accept him, madhurakavi AzhwAr says, he had such lowly qualities that even most saintly persons will give up on him.

nampiLLai  highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr reveals his state before being accepted by nammAzhwAr.

periyavAchchAn piLLai highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr first rejected bhagavAn (in first pAsuram) but then showed attachment to bhagavAn (in third pAsuram), since bhagavAn is most dear to nammAzhwAr. He says “If I think about nammAzhwAr‘s favours to me, I should like whatever he likes” and he speaks about his lowly qualities and how nammAzhwAr accepted him.

azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr reveals his heart and shows his attachment towards nammAzhwAr in the previous pAsurams. Seeing that, some ask, rishis (sages) and AzhwArs have unanimously declared srIman nArAyaNan as mother and father of all of universe. You are also part of  that same universe. So, why are you surrendering to nammAzhwAr instead of bhagavAn as done by these great sages and AzhwArsmadhurakavi AzhwAr replies “Due to my extremely lowly nature, even those saintly people have given up on me. Only nammAzhwAr uplifted me seeing that lowly nature itself as a qualification. So, his completeness in giving mercy to others is to be glorified”.

nanmaiyAl mikka nAnmaRaiyALargaL
punmaiyAgak karuthuvar Athalil
annaiyAy aththanAy ennai ANdidum thanmaiyAn
satakOpan en nambiyE

word-by-word meanings
nanmaiyAl mikka – filled with virtues
nAl maRai ALargaL – vaidhikas who are experts in the 4 vEdhams
ennai – me (this dhAsa/servitor)
punmai Aga karuthuvar Athalil – ignoring me due to me being an embodiment of lowly qualities
annai Ay – being a mother
aththan Ay – being a father
ennai ANdidum thanmaiyAn – having the quality of accepting me as his servitor
satakOpan – nammAzhwAr
en nambi – my master

Simple translation:
Seeing that the vaidhikas who are experts in the 4 vEdhams and who are filled with virtues ignore me due to me being an embodiment of lowly qualities, nammAzhwAr like a mother and a father who is having the quality of accepting me as his servitor, is my master.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • nanmaiyAl mikka nAnmaRaiyALargaL” means ones who are paradhukka asahisNu (one who cannot bear others’ sufferings), parasamruththi Eka prayOjanar (others’ well-being is their only goal) and ones who have very pure mind/heart. Ones like kUraththAzhwAn, ANdAL (kUraththAzhwAn‘s dharmapathni), srImahAlakshmi, etc.
  • annaiyAy aththanAy” – being all types of relation such as mAthA, pithA, AchArya, etc. mAthA (Mother) is generally focussed on priyam (that which is pleasing to the child), pithA (Father) is generally focussed on hitham (well-being – that which is ideal for the child) and AchArya is focussed fully on the hitham (well-being) of the jIvAthmA.
  • en nambi” (my master) – nammAzhwAr is so complete that, not only he has the ability to purify himself, he can also purify me.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s eedu vyAkyAnam:

  • Except for nammAzhwAr, no one else will accept me – I have so much defects. I am an embodiment of all lowly qualities.
  • When kAkAsura who offended sIthA pirAtti, srI rAma launched a straw as a weapon to kill him. kAkAsura tried to get help from all 3 worlds and eventually failed and finally surrendered to srI rAma who could only give him refuge forgiving his cruel act. Similarly, for the amount of blemishes I have, only nammAzhwAr could accept me and reform me.
  • Whatever nammAzhwAr observed in emperumAn in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.2 “thAyAyth thanthaiyAy aRiyAdhana aRiviththa aththA” (being a mother, being a father and enlightening me with those aspects that are not known to me), madhurakavi AzhwAr observes the same in nammAzhwAr.
  • thanmaiyAn” – just like fire is hot and water is cold naturally, it is nammAzhwAr‘s natural quality to uplift even the most fallen persons.
  • Whatever done by mother, father will not do. Whatever done by father, mother will not do. Others cannot do either (mother’s task or father’s task). But nammAzhwAr is so complete that he fulfills all these responsibilities. Some how I tried to compare him with saintly persons – it is my mistake to try and compare him with any one since no one is as complete as nammAzhwAr.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • This vyAkyAnam is mostly based on nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
  • Experts in vEdhams means ones who have understood the essence of the meanings of vEdham, i.e., becoming Anrusamsya pradhAnar (Being benevolent/compassionate towards others) – uplifting them from this miserable samsAram.
  • satakOpa – one who removed my wickedness/ignorance. nammAzhwAr is known as satakOpa since he angrily drove out the ignorance from his own mind during his birth. Now, madhurakavi AzhwAr uses that name of nammAzhwAr remembering nammAzhwAr‘s favour of driving out the ignorance from his mind as well. Up to 3rd pAsuram, madhurakavi AzhwAr used “kurukUr nambi” and in this pAsuram he uses satakOpa due to the fact that nammAzhwAr dispelling his ignorance.

Highlights from azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s vyAkyanam:

  • As heard from nammAzhwAr who identified devotees as “nalaththAl mikkAr” (ones who are filled with good qualities) in thiruvAimozhi 5.8.3, madhurakavi AzhwAr says “nanmaiyAl mikka“. They are not just filled with kindness, they are also devoid of any hatred towards any one. They are so kind hearted that even towards the ones who hurt them, they are merciful. sIthA pirAtti defended the rAkshasis (rAvaNa’s demoniac female assistants who troubled her so much) and advised hanuman to show mercy towards them. kUraththAzhwAn requested emperumAn to bless nAlUrAn (his own sishya who caused the loss of his eyes) with the same benediction as he himself would get. prahlAzhdhAzhwAn too was compassionate towards the ones who committed great offenses towards him.
  • nanmaiyAl mikka nAnmaRaiyALargaL” – Their most compassionate quality is learnt/acquired from vEdham. “mAthA pithA sahasrEbhyO vathsalatharam sAsthram” (sAsthram carries thousand times more care than mother/father will manifest). One who has not studied sAsthram will not understand true compassion (based on AthmA).
  • madhurakavi AzhwAr is more worried for such great persons giving up on him – even more than being filled with blemishes only.
  • nammAzhwAr accepts such madhurakavi AzhwAr who is given up by every one. srIvaikuNta sthavam 2nd slOkam “yadhvA saraNyam asaraNya janasya puNyam” (That sacred one which is the refuge for the ones who have no other refuge).
  • ennai ANdidum thanmaiyAn” – Engaged me in scribing thiruvAimozhi while nammAzhwAr dictated the same – this is the most apt/desirable kainkaryam for me.
  • ennai ANdidum” – vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (nAyanAr‘s father) says “nammAzhwAr advised and engaged me in worshipping polindhu ninRa pirAn (AzhwArthirunagari uthsavar) also – Even though I skipped emperumAn and worshipped nammAzhwArnammAzhwAr ensured that I also worshipped polindhu ninRa pirAn as that is fitting for the jIvAthmA‘s nature”.
  • satakOpan” – because he drove out my “satam” (ignorance), he became to be known as “satakOpan“.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 2 – nAvinAl

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous pAsuram

azhwar-emperumanar-2nammAzhwAremperumAnAr (considered as nammAzhwAr’s lotus feet) (AzhwArthirunagari)

Introduction for this pAsuram:

nanjIyar highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr says nammAzhwAr‘s glories can be experienced with this body (in this life) itself.

nampiLLai highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr sustains himself by reciting nammAzhwAr‘s pAsurams.

periyavAchchAn piLLai highlights that madhurakavi AzhwAr revealed nammAzhwAr‘s pAsurams are most relishable for him in the first pAsuram and reveals that he sustains himself with nammAzhwAr‘s pAsurams in this life.

azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s introduction:

  • AzhwArs assumed bhagavAn as their AchArya. madhurakavi AzhwAr assumes his AchArya (nammAzhwAr) as bhagavAn (supreme lord/master).
  • yasOdhA mAthA tied kaNNan emperumAn to punish him for the mischiefs and continued with her daily routines (just like the ones who would perform their sandhyA vandhanam without fail even during adhyayana uthsavam). krishNa did not try to relieve himself from the binding wanting the one who tied him (his mother) to free him. Similarly, nammAzhwAr was mesmerized by krishNAnubhavam and became totally bound to emperumAn being unable to free himself. But madhurakavi AzhwAr relished krishNAnubhavam which is dear to his AchArya nammAzhwAr but freed himself and focussed on nammAzhwAr‘s qualities, etc.
  • When madhurakavi AzhwAr was asked why he gave up relishing krishNAnubhavam,  madhurakavi AzhwAr replies “When some one gets some joy in this world or other world, they still look out for other favours since they have more time to spend. But for me, both in this world and the other world, nammAzhwAr is the only master and goal. So there is no need for me to engage in bhagavath vishayam directly”.

nAvinAl naviRRu inbam eythinEn
mEvinEn avan ponnadi meymmaiyE
dhEvu maRRaRiyEn
kurukUr nambi pAvin innisai pAdith thirivanE

word-by-word meanings
nAvinAl – with my tongue
naviRRu – reciting
inbam – joy
eythinEn – attained
mEvinEn – fully surrendered
avan – his
ponnadi – golden feet
meymmaiyE – truly/eternally
dhEvu – God
mARRaRiyEn – do not know any other
kurukUr nambi – leader of AzhwArthirunagari (thirukkurukUr) who is filled with auspicious qualities
pAvin – pAsurams’, songs’
innisai – sweet music
pAdi – singing along
thiruvanE – roam around

Simple translation:
I attained great joy by reciting (nammAzhwAr‘s pAsurams) with my tongue. I am truly/eternally surrendered to nammAzhwAr‘s golden feet. I do not know any God other than nammAzhwAr who is filled with auspicious qualities and who is the leader of AzhwArthirunagari. I will roam around (spend my time) singing the sweet music of such AzhwAr’s pAsurams.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • It is said that “mana: pUrvO vAguththara:” (first thoughts and then words). Even that is not needed – just words without the initiative of mind is sufficient to glorify AzhwAr.
  • As said in “prathyakshE gurava: sthuthyA:” (Glorify the AchArya in public and in his presence) – the purpose of the tongue is to glorify the AchArya who has done great favours.
  • Like thiruvadi (hanumAn) said “bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi” (I cannot think about any one else other than srI rAma), here madhurakavi AzhwAr says “maRRaRiyEn“.
  • As mentioned by nammAzhwAr in thiruviruththam 53 “dheivaththaNNan thuzhAyth thArAyinum thazhaiyAyinum thaN kombathAyinum kIzh vErAyinum ninRa maNNAyinum koNdu vIsuminE” (Just scatter me emperumAn‘s thuLasi garland, its string alone, the leaves alone, its stem, its root or even the soil on which it was grown – I just need something related to emperumAn“). Similarly, nammAzhwAr says the music of AzhwAr’s pAsuram itself is sufficient for him.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s eedu vyAkyAnam:

  • I took shelter of nammAzhwAr‘s golden feet. Here the key is to understand that madhurakavi AzhwAr does not consider nammAzhwAr‘s lotus feet as just upAyam (means) to get something else – but as the ultimate goal as well.
  • madhurakavi AzhwAr gives up aiswaryam (material wealth/pleasures), kaivalyam (enjoying one self) and bhagavAn too. Finally he is fully focussed on nammAzhwAr alone.
  • Like nammAzhwAr himself said “kurukUrch chatakOpan” in thiruvAimozhi, here madhurakavi AzhwAr says “kurukUr nambi“.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • As nammAzhwAr said in thiruvAimozhi 4.5.3 “vIvilinbam miga ellai niganzhnthanan mEvi” (I attained utmost joy by surrendering to emperumAn), here  madhurakavi AzhwAr says “inbameythinEn” (attained bliss) – whatever nammAzhwAr experienced in bhagavath vishayam, madhurakavi AzhwAr experiences that in nammAzhwAr.
  • Whatever nammAzhwAr experienced by dedicating his mind, words and action (chinthaiyAlum chollAlum cheykaiyinAlum – thiruvAimozhi 6.5.11), madhurakavi AzhwAr experiences the same just by words (nAvinAl naviRRu).
  • As madhurakavi AzhwAr says “meymmaiyE mEvinEn” (eternally surrendered), ALavandhAr follows in sthOthra rathnam 2 “athra parathra chApi” (in this and the other world).
  • pAdith thirivan” (spend my time singing) is like “uNdu thirivan” (eating and roaming around). Just like some people spend their time eating and roaming around, madhurakavi AzhwAr spends his time singing nammAzhwAr‘s thiruvAimozhi and preaching the same to others.

Highlights from azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s vyAkyanam:

  • Why is madhurakavi AzhwAr saying “nAvinAl naviRRu“? Isn’t it obvious that one can recite only with tongue? nAyanAr explains that “It means simply reciting with the tongue without engagement of the mind – that itself is sufficient”.
  • madhurakavi AzhwAr says “eythinEn” (past tense). In bhagavath vishayam, the bliss is attained in the future (after reaching paramapadham). But in AchArya vishayam, bliss is attained right here in this world and right now.
  • ponnadi – golden feet. This is not “ulagamaLantha ponnadi” (periya thirumozhi – that which measured the three worlds and touched everyone’s head during the process) but “thraividhya vruththa jana muRththa vibhUshaNa”  (parAnkusa ashtakam – the lotus feet that decorate the head of most knowledgable persons). Since its golden feet, it does not become contaminated even by my touch (Gold – purity).
  • dhEvu maRRaRiyEn – madhurakavi AzhwAr is fully following sAsthram, as thaithriya upanishadh says “AchArya dhEvo bhava” (Let the AchArya be God). A question is raised to madhurakavi AzhwAr – “But why did you say bhagavAn as ennappan (my swamy – lord)?”. madhurakavi AzhwAr says “that is because bhagavAn is dear to nammAzhwAr“. This is like sIthA pirAtti helping srI rAma while he was performing thiruvArAdhanam to periya perumAL. sIthA pirAtti did not have any separate inclination towards periya perumAL – her motive was to assist srI rAma only.
  • meymmaiyE – sathyam (truth) only. avan ponnadi meymmaiyE (bowed in front of nammAzhwAr truly) – would anyone lie when srI satakOpam (srI satAri – nammAzhwAr) is on ones head?
  • kurukUr nambi – the leader of AzhwArthirunagari who is complete in auspicious qualities. As said in thiruvAimozhi 3.9.11 “ERkum perumpugazh vAnavar Isan kaNNan thanakku ERkum perum pugazh vaNkurukUrch chatakOpan” (kaNNan emperumAn, the leader of nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs, is the most qualified person to accept glorifications; and nammAzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari is the most qualified person to glorify emperumAn). bhagavAn is complete with parathvam (supremacy) and saulabhyam (simplicity). nammAzhwAr is complete with gyAnam (knowledge) and bhakthi (devotion).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 1 – kaNNinuN

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Introduction (avathArikai)

krishna-butter-thief

Introduction for this pAsuram:
periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction:
madhurakavi AzhwAr glorifies kaNNan emperumAn since emperumAn is most dear to nammAzhwAr who is his AchArya. Though madhurakavi AzhwAr is fully focussed on nammAzhwAr, since nammAzhwAr likes perumAL, madhurakavi AzhwAr sings about perumAL in this pAsuram.

azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s introduction:
madhurakavi AzhwAr reveals the sweet nature of nammAzhwAr in this pAsuram.
parathvam (bhagavAn‘s supremacy which is seen in srIvaikuNtam) is compared to milk ocean, and vibhava avathArams are compared to amrutha kalasam (the nectar pot) that is found in milk ocean (which is very sweet). Even amongst the various avathArams, krishNa avathAram is the sweetest. Even amongst the various leelais in krishNavathAram, his butter-theft action is the sweetest.

In srI rAmAvathAram, every one likes emperumAn‘s virtues. But in krishNavathAram, he attracts everyone through his mischiefs. Being the supremely complete bhagavAn and yet desiring for a material thing like butter, stealing that butter, even though being the supremely knowledgable person yet not knowing how to hide his theft and getting caught, being supremely powerful yet being punished by his mother a simple cow-herd girl and not even knowing how to protect/rescue himself, etc., are the most enjoyable incidents which mesmerizes the AzhwArs.
Knowing well that this “butter stealing” incident is very dear to nammAzhwArmadhurakavi AzhwAr also becomes immersed in that anubhavam.

kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbinAl
kattuNNap paNNiya perumAyan ennapanil
naNNith thenkurukUr nambi enRakkAl
aNNikkum amuthURum ennAvukkE

word-by-word meanings
kaNNi – rough surfaced (which will hurt the body when tied around)
nuN – sUkshma (thin – that will blend into the body)
chiRu – small (that is not sufficient in length)
thAmbinAl – with the string/rope
kattuNNap paNNiya – one who facilitated mother yasOdhA to tie him
peru mAyan – one who has wonderful abilities
en appanil – leaving behind my master who is the sarvEsvaran (supreme lord)
naNNi – approached (AzhwAr) and taking shelter of him
then kurukUr nambi enRakkAl – while reciting the name of nammAzhwAr who is the leader of kurukUr (AzhwArthirunagari) which is in the south side (of bhAratha dhEsam)
aNNikkum – it is very sweet
en nAvukkE – only for my tongue
amuthURum – it will be nectarean

Simple translation:
Leaving behind krishNa who is my master and the supreme lord who has wonderful abilities and who facilitated mother yasOdhA to tie him down with rough surfaced, thin and small string, when I recite the name of nammAzhwAr who is the leader of kurukUr (AzhwArthirunagari) which is in the south side (of bhAratha dhEsam), it is very sweet and will be nectarean only for my tongue.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • madhurakavi AzhwAr worries for the troubles kaNNan emperumAn have gone through for being tied by a string by mother yasOdhA.
  • This pAsuram is madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s “eththiRam“. nammAzhwAr was bewildered thinking about emperumAn‘s divine pastimes of butter-stealing, etc., and fainted crying “eththiRam” (thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1) how is this possible for the supreme lord to be like a small child who is controlled by cow-herd girls, etc?). Similarly, madhurakavi AzhwAr is also having the same emotions/ecstasy.
  • For kings, winning over enemies shows their masculinity and being bound by their queens also show their masculinity. So, emperumAn winning over his enemies by his valour and being humble towards his devotees – both show his supremacy/masculinity only.
  • First madhurakavi AzhwAr spoke about krishNa since that is dear to his AchArya nammAzhwAr. Then he speaks about nammAzhwAr who is his real interest.
  • When madhurakavi AzhwAr says “this is so sweet in my tongue” – others say “it is not so for us”. AzhwAr replies only some one like me who has tasted both bhagavath vishayam and bhAgavatha vishayam can appreciate the sweetness of nammAzhwAr.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s eedu vyAkyAnam:

  • nammAzhwAr was greatly attached to krishNa and that too his “butter-stealing” incidents. Such most glorious incidents are given up by madhurakavi AzhwAr to pursue nammAzhwAr‘s glories. nammAzhwAr became bewildered contemplating krishNa’s pastimes. But madhurakavi AzhwAr is very clear about his goal of AchArya kainkaryam and does not get bogged down by bhagavath anubhavam.
  • After getting caught for stealing butter, krishNa stands in front of yasOdhA with great fear for her punishments. He is weeping, holding his palms together begging for her mercy, etc. Simply by her love, he who is the supreme lord of everything was tied down.
    It is this great deed of him that makes madhurakavi AzhwAr say “perumAyan” (great person with unimaginable abilities).
  • Even though madhurakavi AzhwAr is AchArya nishtar, he still calls bhagavAn as “ennappan” (my master). nammAzhwAr will not accept praises for himself but will seek out for emperumAn‘s glorification. So, madhurakavi AzhwAr glorifies emperumAn for the satisfaction of nammAzhwAr who is his AchArya. But madhurakavi AzhwAr leaves krishNa behind and continues on to nammAzhwAr. That is because if one is fully focussed in AchArya (charama parva nishtai) they can give up bhagavAn and fully focus on the AchArya. There is nothing wrong in it. Giving up bhagavAn and pursuing ones AchArya is more difficult than giving up material desires and focussing on bhagavAn. Since, material pleasures are temporary and insignificant, they can be easily given up. But since bhagavath vishayam is permanent and great, it is difficult to give up that and proceed on to the ultimate goal of serving AchArya/bhAgavathas.
  • Just by saying nammAzhwAr‘s name without even fully focussing in the mind, I feel great sweetness in my tongue. It is this same mind/tongue which enjoyed so many material aspects but now it enjoys nammAzhwAr‘s divine names. Others may not get the same sweet experience, since they may not be as surrendered to nammAzhwAr as me (madhurakavi AzhwAr).

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam:

  • Just like a great emperor when being bound by a flower garland by his dear consort will manifest his humility and love for his consort, emperumAn being tied by mother yasOdhA, shows his humility towards her out of love.
  • One who is worshipped by everyone stands in front of yasOdhA and prays to her to be spared of punishment.  When one takes shelter of bhagavAn, they need to progress up to taking shelter of nammAzhwAr. But when one has taken shelter of nammAzhwAr, there is nothing more to do. nampiLLai quotes nanjIyar saying “AchAryargaLai nambiyennak kaRpiththAr srI madhurakavigaLiRE” meaning “it was madhurakavi AzhwAr who started calling AzhwArs as nambi”. nambi – guNa pUrNa – one who is filled with all auspicious qualities.
  • For bhagavath vishayam – ones mind, words and deeds should be surrendered to emperumAn. But for bhAgavatha vishayam, just surrender by words is sufficient.

Highlights from azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s vyAkyanam:

  • The mortar where krishNa is tied is a broken one. This implies that it is not used by or usable for anyone and can only be used to tie him there. emperumAn only appreciates that which exist exclusively for his use – ananyArhathvam.
  • kaNNi (rough), nuN (thin/subtle) and chiRu (small) is compared to gyAnam (knowledge), bhakthi and vairAgyam.
  • Since krishNa’s butter-stealing pastimes is the ultimate joyful aspect, madhurakavi AzhwAr explains that first and then rejects such anubhavam to explain about nammAzhwAr‘s greatness.
  • The string (since small) cannot be expanded and the mortar cannot be shrunk, so, krishNa himself shrinks his stomach with great difficulty to facilitate mother yasOdhA to tie him.
    As said in “nAyamAthmA” sruthi, even when one has bhakthi (devotion), unless bhagavAn himself allows, he cannot be pursued. He says only those who know the deep meanings of thirumanthram and dhvayam can tie down emperumAn (since they will know their total dependency/surrender towards emperumAn). bhagavAn‘s glories vanquished madurakavi AzhwAr’s attachment towards material desires. nammAzhwAr‘s glories vanquished madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s attachment towards bhagavAn.
  • Difference between kurungudi nambi (emperumAn) and kurukUr nambi (nammAzhwAr). nambi means guNa pUrNa – one who is complete in auspicious qualities. bhagavAn‘s completeness is in gyAnam (knowledge), sakthi (abilities), etc. nammAzhwAr‘s completeness is in gyAnam (knowledge about being a servant of bhagavAn/bhAgavathas), bhakthi (devotion), etc. bhagavAn‘s qualities are such that everything is attracted towards him. nammAzhwAr‘s qualities are such that even bhagavAn himself is attracted towards nammAzhwAr.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu – Introduction (avathArikai)

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

thaniyans

Nammazhwar-kanchi-3nammAzhwAr – kAnchIpuram

madhurakavi-2madhurakavi AzhwAr – thirukkOLUr

nanjIyar‘s introduction
For the jIvAthmA, purushArtham (goal) can be at 3 levels – uththamam (top-most), madhyamam (mediocre), adhamam (lowly). Top-most goal is to serve Iswara. Mediocre goal is to be attached to oneself (AthmA). Lowly goal is to be attached to material aspects (achith).

Material aspects are lowly due to their insignificant and temporary nature. Though there is boundless joy in AthmAnubhavam (enjoying oneself), in comparison with bhagavAn‘s auspicious qualities, it is still insignificant and thus this AthmAnubhavam is mediocre. Enjoying bhagavAn‘s boundless auspicious qualities and serving him – that too in krishNAvathAram and that too his life and pastimes at vraja bhUmi where he stole butter, being caught by yasOdhA red-handed and punished by her, etc., are the top most goal.

madhurakavi AzhwAr determines that srIvaishNavas who are immersed in such krishNAvathAram is the ultimate goal for the jIvAthmA. He is like sathrugnAzhwAn who ignored srI rAma and was fully focussed on bharathAzhwAn. Whatever emotions/desires nammAzhwAr had towards emperumAn and srIvaishNavas, madhurakavi AzhwAr demonstrated the same towards nammAzhwAr‘s lotus feet alone and reveals those emotions in this prabandham.

nampiLLai‘s introduction
rishis (sages) were focussed on all purushArthams (goals – aiswaryam, kaivalyam and kainkaryam to bhagavAn) which are highlighted in sAsthram. AzhwArs were fully focussed on reaching bhagavAn and performing kainkaryam to him. madhurakavi AzhwAr is focussed on bhAgavatha sEshathvam (being surrendered to bhAgavathas) which is the ultimate state of bhagavath sEshathvam (being surrendered to bhagavAn). He arrived at this state by observing nammAzhwAr who sung many prabandhams but revealed this bhAgavatha sEshathvam in thiruvAimozhi 2.7 “payilum sudaroLi” padhigam (decad) and 8.10 “nedumARkadimai” padhigam (decad). So, madhurakavi AzhwAr focusses on what is dear to nammAzhwAr.

This principle is observed in personalities from srI rAmAyaNam. srI rAma was focussed on sAmAnya dharmam (common sAsthram) which focusses on following the orders of parents, teacher, etc. iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) was focussed on serving perumAL (srI rAma). bharathAzhwAn was focussed on following the heart of perumAL (srI rAma) – i.e., unlike going along with srI rAma and serving him in the forest like lakshmaNa did, he stayed back and fully followed the orders of srI rAma. sathrugnAzhwAn was fully focussed on serving bharathAzhwAn (who was a dear devotee of srI rAma) even at the cost of ignoring srI rAma.

bhAgavathas are the ultimate goal since they first plant the seed of taste towards bhagavAn into oneself, (by) being a friend with whom one can have discussions about bhagavAn and nourish/nurture the kainkaryam done by oneself. Thus, madhurakavi AzhwAr is fully holding on to nammAzhwAr who has done all these favours for him.

periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
In addition to the principles explained by nampiLLai in his introduction, periyavAchchAn piLLai highlights some important aspects beautifully. He highlights the importance of following the heart of AchArya by giving a couple of examples. After learning all the important principles from srI bhIshma, yudhishtra asked him “What is the top most dharma to follow?”. srI bhIshma replied what is most dear to him (i.e., about srI krishNa who was standing right amidst them) and yudhishtra happily accepted that. Similarly some one asked thripurA dhEviyAr (a local queen and a disciple of srI rAmAnuja) “Did you accept srIman nArAyaNan as the total refuge due to many pramANams that are available in sAsthram?”. She confidently replied “Not at all. Had srI rAmAnuja accepted the dhEvathA of IsAnya direction (the direction of rudhran), we would have also accepted that dhEvathA as our refuge” (knowing well that srI rAmAnuja is the top-most authority of sAsthram). Likewise, madhurakavi AzhwAr is following the heart of nammAzhwAr whose most cherished desire is to be with thadhIya sEshathvam (being surrendered to bhAgavathas who are surrendered to bhagavAn).

azhagiya maNavALa perumaL nAyanAr‘s introduction
nAyanAr further elaborates the principles explained in previous avathArikais.

He nicely highlights the differences between nammAzhwAr and madhurakavi AzhwAr.
nammAzhwAr stayed in prathama parva nishtai (initial state – being surrendered to bhagavAn). madhurakavi AzhwAr stayed in charama parva nishtai (ultimate state – being surrendered to bhAgavathas.

nammAzhwAr is fully focussed on “u” in praNavam which explains that jIvAthmA is a servitor of paramAthmA only. madhurakavi AzhwAr is focussed on the expansion of “u”, i.e., “nama:” which explains elaborately that jIvAthmA is a servitor of bhAgavathas only.

nAyanAr then highlights the similarity between prathama parva nishtars and charama parva nishtars – yet underlining the subtle differences.

nammAzhwAr is compared to srI mahAlakshmi herself for ananya bhOgathvam (existing only for the joy of emperumAn). He is compared to iLaiya perumAL for his kainkarya thvarA (desire to serve) and pArathanthriyam (existing fully for emperumAn). He is compared to prahlAdhAzhwAn for his giving instructions to samsAris seeing their sufferings in this samsAram. Similarly, madhurakavi AzhwAr is compared to ANdAL for thadhIya pArathanthriyam (being totally surrendered to bhAgavathas) as she was surrendered towards periyAzhwAr. Amongst nithyasUris, he is compared to sathrugnAzhwAn (for being totally surrendered to bharathAzhwAn). Amongst mumukshus (ones who desire mOksham), he is compared to ALavandhAr (since ALavandhAr also declared that nammAzhwAr is everything for him in “mAthA pithA” thaniyan).

The difference between this prabandham and others is explained by nAyanAr beautifully. vEdham explains different aspects for different kinds of people based on their guNam as mentioned in bhagavath gIthA “thraiguNya vishayA vEdhA:“. vEdham is also explained as endless (huge for us to search and extract the essence). nammAzhwAr‘s thiruvAimozhi explains emperumAn‘s qualities only in 1000 (1102) pAsurams (which is still huge). But this prabandham is very short and crisp and only speaks about the auspicious qualities of nammAzhwAr. thiruvAimozhi is the essence of vEdham. kaNNinuN chiRu thAmbu is the essence of thiruvAimozhi.

nAyanAr then highlights 4 persons who are dear to a mumukshu namely sarvEsvaran (srIman nArAyaNan), srI mahAlakshmi, AchArya and srIvaishNavas. sarvEsvaran helps a jIvAthmA constantly and uplifts him from the miseries of samsAram. srI mahAlakshmi, being the natural mother recommends to emperumAn to accept the jIvAthmA in spite of his sins and also helps improve his kainkaryam even in paramapadham. AchArya explains the glories of emperumAn and thAyAr, personally demonstrates the principles of sAsthram and always looks out for the ultimate well-being of the jIvAthmAs. srIvaishNavas initially trigger the desires towards bhagavAn, help develop the knowledge in bhagavath vishayam, be good companions, nurture the devotion towards one’s AchArya, be the masters, and finally clarify any doubts which occur due to constant relationship with material aspects. These 4 personalities are identified in sruthi (thaithriya upanishadh – sIkshAvalli) as “mAthru dhEvO bhava, pithru dhEvO bhava, AchArya dhEvO bhava, athithi dhEvO bhava“. Here srIvaishNavas are explained as athithi (athithi generally means guest). When an athithi arrives, one should take care of such athithi properly without inquiring their background. Similarly, a srIvaishNava must be taken care of without inquiring about their birth, family background, etc (basic hospitality should first be given). When such srIvaishNavas are not given adequate hospitality, one accumulates sins and also one’s virtues are reduced.

Among these 4 personalities, AchArya is the foremost person to be cared for. That is why madhurakavi AzhwAr who fully understands the glories of AchArya, who fully served nammAzhwAr‘s lotus feet for a lengthy period and became dear to nammAzhwAr, who understands that there is nothing equivalent to favours done by nammAzhwAr, etc., wanting to show his gratitude by singing nammAzhwAr‘s glories, sings this prabandham.
Iswara is difficult to worship. AchArya is easy to worship. nammAzhwAr compiled 4 prabandhams to glorify emperumAn. nammAzhwAr was easily worshippable in just this one small prabandham.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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kaNNinuN chiRu thAmbu – thaniyans

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

nammazhwar-madhurakavi-nathamuninammAzhwAr, madhurakavi AzhwAr and nAthamunigaL – kAnchIpuram

thaniyans blessed by nAthamunigaL

avidhitha vishayAnthara: satArEr upanishadhAm upagAnamAthra bhOga: |
api cha guNavasAth thadhEka sEshI madhurakavi hrudhayE mamAvirasthu ||

அவிதித விஷயாந்தர: சடாரேர் உபநிஷதாம் உபகாநமாத்ர போக: |
அபி ச குநவசாத் ததேக சேஷீ மதுரகவி ஹ்ருதயே மமாவிரஸ்து ||

word-by-word meanings
avidhitha vishayAnthara: – one who does not know any other thing (apart from nammAzhwAr)
satArE: – nammAzhwAr‘s (divine words)
upanishadhAm – dhivya prabandhams
upagAnamAthra bhOga: – one who considers singing the glories as the only enjoyment
guNavasAthapicha – also one who is immersed in the auspicious qualities (of nammAzhwAr)
thadhEka sEshi – one who considers nammAzhwAr only as his master
madhurakavi: – madhurakavi AzhwAr
mama hrudhayE – in my heart
Avirasthu – let him be manifested

Simple Translation
Let madhurakavi AzhwAr who does not know anything other than nammAzhwAr, who considers singing the glories of nammAzhwAr‘s divine words of dhivya prabandham as the only enjoyment and who considers nammAzhwAr only as his master due to being immersed in nammAzhwAr‘s auspicious qualities be manifested in my heart.

Highlights from piLLai lOkam jIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

avidhitha vishayAnthara: – Just like nammAzhwAr declares in thiruvAimozhi 7.10.10 “chinthai maRRonRin thiRaththathallA” (my thoughts do not dwell in anything but emperumAn) and thiruppANAzhwAr declares in amalanAdhipirAn 10 “maRRonRinaik kANAvE” (my eyes will not see anything but srIranganAthan), madhurakavi AzhwAr does not focus on anything but nammAzhwAr. For all AzhwArs, vishayAntharam means material aspects. For madhurakavi AzhwAr, vishayAntharam means bhagavath vishayam (He even discards bhagavath vishayam and is fully focussed on bhAgavatha vishayam {nammAzhwAr} only).

nammAzhwAr discards iLam dheivams (small gods – dhEvathAs). madhurakavi AzhwAr discards the perum dheivam (supreme God) and focusses fully on nammAzhwAr (his AchArya).

satArEr upanishadhAm upagAnamAthra bhOga: – Not only madhurakavi AzhwAr is surrendered to nammAzhwAr, he is also very attached to matters that are related to nammAzhwAr such as singing thiruvAimozhi, etc.

apicha guNavasAth thadhEka sEshi – First madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s svarupa prayuktha dhAsyam (natural servitude) towards nammAzhwAr is explained by “avidhitha vishayAntharas satArE:” (not knowing anything but nammAzhwAr). Here guNakrutha dhAsyam (servitude due to nammAzhwAr‘s auspicious qualities) is explained.

Such madhurakavi AzhwAr has the most nectarean and sweetest words. I (nAthamunigaL) desire such nishtai (charama parva nishtai – being totally surrendered to AchArya). Let him manifest in my heart in the same form as he humbly stood in front of nammAzhwAr and documented the dhivya prabandhams as heard from nammAzhwAr.

vERonRum nAn aRiyEn
vEdham thamizh cheytha mARan satakOpan
vaNkurukUr ERengaL vAzhvAm enREththum madhurakaviyAr
emmai ALwAr avarE araN

வேறொன்றும் நான் அறியேன்
வேதம் தமிழ் செய்த மாறன் சடகோபன்
வண்குருகூர் ஏறெங்கள் வாழ்வாம் என்றேத்தும் மதுரகவியார்
எம்மை ஆள்வார் அவரே அரண்

word-by-word meanings
vERu onRum nAn aRiyEn – I do not know anything other than nammAzhwAr
vEdham thamizh cheytha – One who mercifully explained the meanings of vEdham in thamizh
mARan – one who is known by the name “mARan”
vaN kurukUr ERu – the leader of the beautiful town of thirukkurukUr
satakOpan – nammAzhwAr
engaL vAzhvu Am enRu – understanding that “the one who will uplift us”
Eththum – glorified
madhurakaviyAr – madhurakavi AzhwAr
emmai ALwAr – one who rules us
avarE – that madhurakavi AzhwAr only
araN – protector (of prapannas – clan of surrendered persons)

Simple translation
Understand that madhurakavi AzhwAr who said “I do not know anything other than nammAzhwAr who mercifully explained the meanings of vEdham in thamizh, who is known by the name ‘mARan’, who is the leader of the beautiful town of thirukkurukUr and who will uplift us” is the one who rules us and that madhurakavi AzhwAr only is our (prapannas) protector/refuge.

Highlights from piLLai lOkam jIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

piLLai lOkam jIyar explains that nAthamunigaL phrased this thaniyan based on madhurakavi AzhwAr‘s own words in this prabandham.

nammAzhwAr is the lord/master for madhurakavi AzhwArmadhurakavi AzhwAr is the lord/master for us.

Just like madhurakavi AzhwAr considered nammAzhwAr as his everything, for us madhurakavi AzhwAr is everything.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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ஞான ஸாரம் 33- எட்ட இருந்த குருவை

ஞான ஸாரம்

முந்தைய பாசுரம்

                                                                        33-ஆம் பாட்டு:

முன்னுரை:

அருகில் இருக்கிற ஆசார்யனை மனிதன் என்று கைவிட்டு நீண்ட தொலைவிலுள்ள (கட்புலனாகாத) இறைவனை ‘வேண்டின சமயத்தில் உதவுவான்’ என்று நினைத்து அவ் இறைவனை ஆவலுருகிறவன்  அறிவு கெட்டவன் ஆவான் என்னும் உண்மையைத் தக்க உதாரணத்துடன் இதி எடுத்துரைக்கப்படுகிறது.

bhagavad_ramanuja_2011_may

“எட்ட இருந்த குருவை இறையன்று என்று
விட்டு ஓர்  பரனை விருப்புறுதல் – பொட்டனத்தன்
கண் செம்பளித்திருந்து   கைத்துருத்தி நீர் தூவி
அம்புதத்தைப் பார்த்திருப்பான் அற்று”

பதவுரை:

எட்ட இருந்த மிக அருகில் எட்டும் இடத்தில் இருக்கிற
குருவை ஆசார்யனை
இறையன்று தலைவன் இல்லை என்று
விட்டு புறக்கணித்து
ஓர் பரனை அணுக அரிதாயிருக்கும் கடவுளை
விருப்புறுதல் அடையவேணுமென்று அவ்வவுதல்(எது போன்றது எனில்)
பொட்டன சடக்கென்று
தன்கண் தன்னுடைய கண்ணை
செம்பளித்திருந்து மூடிக்கொண்டிருந்து(மேல் விளைவதை ஆராயாதிருந்து)
கைத்துருத்தி நீர் விடாய் தணிக்க வைத்திருந்த துருத்தி நீரை
தூவி தரையில் ஊற்றி  விட்டு
அம்புதத்தை மேகத்தின் நீரை
பார்த்திருப்பானற்று எதிர் நோக்கி இருப்பவன் போல ஆகும்.

விளக்கவுரை:

எட்ட இருந்த குருவை: எட்டுதல்-கிட்டுதல் அருகில் என்று பொருள் .அதாவது லக அருகில் இருக்கும் ஆசார்யனை என்று பொருள். கட்புலனுக்கு இலக்காய் எப்பொழுதும் பார்த்துக்கொண்டிருப்பதற்கு உரியவனாயும் தனக்குக் காப்பாளர் வேண்டியபோது காப்பாளனகவும், இனியனாய் இருக்கையும். ஆத்ம நலனுக்கு உதவியாய் இருப்பவனும் எப்பொழுதும் கலந்து பரிமாறுவதற்கு உரியனாய்த் தனக்கு அருகில் இருப்பவனும் ஆனா ஆசார்யனை என்று பொருள்.

இறையன்று என்று விட்டு: இவர் தலைவர் இல்லை என்று குருவை விட்டிட்டு 31ம் பாடலில் ‘சரணாகதி தந்த தன்னிறைவன் தாளே அரணாகும்’ இரு கூறியதற்கு மாறாக அவ் ஆசார்யனைத் தனக்குத் தலைவனாகக் கொள்ளாமல் ‘நம்மைப் போன்றவர்’ என்று மனித இன் எண்ணத்தால் அவரைத் தலைமையாக மதிப்பதை விட்டு

ஓர் பரனை விருப்புறுதல்: எல்லோருக்கும் மேலானவனாகவிருக்கும் கடவுளை அவாவுறுதல் என்று பொருள். அதாவது  சாஸ்திரங்களினால் அறியத்தக்கவனாய் மிகத் தொலைவில் இருப்பவனைத் தனுக்கு அணுக அருயனாய் இருக்கும் கடவுளைத் தன்னைக் காப்பவனாகவும் இன்யனாகவும் கருதி அவனை அடைய வேணுமென்று ஆசைப்படுதலாம்.இது எது போன்றது என்றால்

பொட்டென: சடக்கென்று பின்வரும் விளைவை ஆராயாமல் என்பதாம்.

தன் கண் செம்பளித்திருந்து: தூங்குவாரைப் போல தன்னுடைய கண்களை மூடிக்கொண்டிருந்து பின்வரும் விளைவை அறியாமல் என்ற கருத்து.

கைத்துருத்தி நீர் தூவி: விடாய் பிறந்த போது விடாய் அகற்றிக் கொள்ளலாம் என்றெண்ணி துருத்தி (water can) யில் நிரப்பித் தன் கைவசம் இருக்கிற குடிநீரைப் ப் பூமியில் வார்த்துவிட்டு.

அம்புதத்தைப் பார்த்திருப்பான் அன்று: மேகத்திலுள்ள நீரை விடாய் தணிப்பதற்கு உதவும் என்று நினைத்து வானத்தில் உள்ளதும் மிக்கத் தொலைவில் இருப்பதுமான மழைத் தண்ணீரையே எதிர் பார்த்திருப்பான் செயல் போன்றது   என்று பொருள். அவனைப் போல் என்றது அவன் செயல் போல என்றவாறு. பரனை விருப்புறுதல் தொழிலுக்கும் அம்புதத்தைப் பார்த்திருப்பான் செயலுக்கும் பொருத்தமாயிருப்பதால் இதற்குத் தொழில் உவமம் என்று பெயர்.

இப்பாடல் கருத்துக்கு “ஸ்ரீ வசனபூஷனத்தில்” ‘விடாய் பிறந்தபோது கரச்தமான உதகத்தை உபேக்ஷித்து ஜீமுத ஜலத்தையும் சாகரஜலத்தையும் ஸரித் ஸவித்தையும் வாபீ கூப பயஸ்ஸுக்களையும் வாஞ்சிக்கக் கடவனல்லன் என்ற வாக்கியத்தை மேற்கோளாகக் காண்க.

ஞான ஸாரம் 32- மானிடவன் என்னும்

ஞான ஸாரம்

முந்தைய பாசுரம்

                                                           32-ஆம் பாட்டு:

முன்னுரை:

‘மாடும் மனையும் ‘ என்ற பாடலில் ;பெரிய திருமந்திரம்’ என்று சொல்லப்படும் திருவட்டாக்ஷற மந்திரத்தை உபதேசம்  பண்ணின ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளே எல்லாப் பயனுமாகும் என்றறிந்து கொள்ளாத அறிவிலிகளோடு ஏற்படும் உறவை அறவே விட்டிடுகை சாஸ்திரக்கட்டளையாகும் என்று கூறப்பட்டது. ‘வேதம் ஒரு நான்கின் என்ற 31ம் பாடலில் அனைத்து சாஸ்திரங்களும்  கூறுவது ‘சரணாகதிப் பொருளை உள்ளடிக்கிய த்வய மந்திரத்தை உபதேசித்த ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளே தஞ்சமாகும் ‘ என்று கூறப்பட்டது. இப்படி ஆசார்யனின் சிறப்பு விளக்கப்பட்டது. இவ்வறு கீழ்ச் சொன்ன இரண்டு பாடல்களில் சிறப்பிக்கப்பட்ட ஆசார்யனை பகவானுடைய (இராமன், கண்ணன் முதலிய அவதாரங்கள் ) போல ஓர் சிறப்பு அவதாரம் என்று ஈடு படவேண்டும். அவ்வாறு ஈடு படாமல் மனிதத் தோற்றமாகவே எண்ணும் மூடர்களுக்கு வரக்கூடிய கேடுகளையும் , பக்தர்களின் வழிபாட்டிற்காகத் திருக்கோயில்களில் அமையப் பெற்ற இறைஉருவங்களை எந்தப் பொருளால் உருவாக்கப்பட்டது போன்ற ஆராச்சிகள் பண்ணும் மூடனுக்கும் வரக்கூடிய கேடுகளையும் இப்பாட்டு எடுத்துக் காட்டுகிறது.

“மானிடவன் என்னும் குருவை மலர் மகள் கோன்
தானுகந்த கோலம் உலோக மென்றும் – ஈனமதா
எண்ணுகின்ற நீசர் இருவருமே எக்காலும்
நண்ணிடுவர் கீழாம் நரகு.”

பதவுரை:

குருவை தனக்கு மந்திரத்தை உபதேசம் பண்ணின ஆச்சார்யனை
மானிடவன் என்றும் சாதாரண மனிதர்களைப்போல் இவரும் ஒரு மனிதர் என்றும்
மலர்மகள் கோன் தாமரையாள் நாயகனான ஸ்ரீமன் நாராயணன்
தானுகந்த கோலம் தான் விரும்பி ஏற்றுக்கொண்டதான சிலை வடிவங்ககளை
உலோகம் என்றும் பஞ்சலோகம் முதலிய பொருட்கள் என்றும்
ஈனமதா கீழ்த்தரமாக
எண்ணுகின்ற நினைக்கின்ற
நீசர் கீழ்மக்களான
இருவரும் இவர்கள் இருவருமே
எக்காலும் காலம் உள்ளவரையும்
நரகு நரகத்தை
நண்ணிடுவர் அடைவார்கள்

விளக்கவுரை :
மானிடவன் என்றும் குருவை: பிறவிப்பெருங்கடலில் உழலும் ஆன்மாக்களை அக்கடலிலிருந்து கரையேற்றுவிப்பதற்காக தெய்வம் மனித உருவங்கொண்ட குரு வடிவத்தில் தோன்றி இருக்கிறான் என்ற நம்பிக்கை கொள்ள வேணும் . நாராயணனாகிற தேவனே மனித வடிவம் கொண்டான் என்று நூல்கள் பகர்கின்றன. இவ்வாறு தெய்வமாகக் கூறப்படும் குருவை மனிதன் என்று நினைக்கிறவனது எண்ணம் பொல்லாதது என்றும் அவன் கற்ற கல்வி எல்லாம் பயனற்றது என்றும் சாஸ்திரங்கள் சொல்லுகின்றன.

மலர்மகள் கோன் தானுகந்த கோலம் உலோகம் என்றும்: திருமகள் நாயகனான பகவான் தான் விரும்பி ஏற்றுக் கொண்ட சிலை உருவத்தை பஞ்ச லோகங்கள் என்றும் மற்றும் வேற வேறு பொருட்கள் என்றும் அதாவது மரம் முதலிய பொருட்கள் என்று ஆராய்ச்சி செய்வது மிகவும் பாபகரமாகும். இந்த உருவங்களை “உமருகந்தவுருவம் நின்னுருவம்” (திருவாய்மொழி 8-1-4) என்ற பாடலில் நம்மாழ்வார் விளக்கி இருக்கிறார். அதாவது தன்னிடத்தில் அன்புடையவர்கள் எந்த உருவத்தில் தன்னை வழிபட என்று விரும்புகிறர்களோ  அந்த உருவமாகத் தான் ஆகிறான். அவ்வுருவத்தில் தனக்கே உரித்தான தெய்வீகத் திருவுருவத்தில் தான் செய்யும் விருப்பத்தை இந்த சிலை உருவத்திலும் செய்கிறான்.இந்த ‘உருவம்’ என்பது பக்தன் நிர்மாணித்த உருவம். அதனால் இதுவும் தெய்வீக உருவமாக ஆகிறது. இப்படி ஒரு பக்தன் நிர்மாணித்த விக்ரஹத்தில் தனக்கே உரித்தான தெய்வீக உருவத்தில் தான் செய்யும் விருப்பத்தைச் செய்வதால் அவனுடைய  விருப்பத்தைப் பொறுத்து இதுவும் தெய்வீகமகி விடுகிறது. அவ்வுருவத்திற்கு அணிவிக்கும்ஆபரணங்களும் மற்றும் அனைத்தும் உலகியலுக்கு மாறுபட்டு  தெய்வீகமாக ஆகிறது.  இதை “அப்ராக்ருதம்” என்று சாஸ்திரம் கூறும். இந்த சாஸ்திர நுட்பத்தை அறியாதார் மேலெழத் தோன்றுகிற பஞ்சலோகம் முதலான உருவத்தையே பார்த்து அதி அராய்ச்சி பண்ணுவது கொடிய பாபமாக சாஸ்திரம் கூறுகிறது. இப்பாபம் எது போரது எனில் ‘பெற்ற தாயிடம் தான் பிறந்த இடத்தைக் குறித்து ஆராய்ந்து பார்ப்பது போலும்” என்று சாஸ்திரம் மிகக் கொடூரமாக கூறியுள்ளது.

ஈனமதா:  தாழ்வாக – பாடி மிகவும் தாழ்வாக எண்ணுகின்ற நீசர்கள் அதாவது ‘குருவை மனிதன்’ என்றும் ;தெய்வ உருவத்தைப் பஞ்சலோகம் முதலியன என்றும் எண்ணுகின்ற கீழ்த்தரமானவர்கள் என்பதாம். கீழ்த்தரம் என்றால் இவர்களைக் காட்டிலும்தாழ்ந்தவர்கள் இல்லை என்ற கருத்து. அதாவது மந்திரோபதேசம் செய்த ஆசார்யனையும், வழிபாட்டிற்குரிய இறை உருவங்களையும் கீழ்க்கூறிய வண்ணம் தாழ்வாக நினைப்பவர்கள் கர்ம சண்டாளர்கள் என்று சொல்லப்படும் பாபிகள் ஆவர் என்பதாம். அதாவது எண்ணத்தால் தாழ்ந்தவராவர். ‘உள்ளுவதெல்லாம்  உயர்வுள்ளல்’ என்று கூறும் தமிழ் வழக்கு இங்கு காணத்தக்கதாகும். ‘உயர்வை எண்ணவேண்டிஅய் உள்ளத்தில் தாழ்வை எண்ணுவது பாபமாகும்.

இருவருமே: அதாவது கீழ்ச்சொன்ன குருவை மனிதனாக எண்ணுபவனும் இறைவனது திருவுருவங்களை  உலோகமாக எண்ணுபவனும் ஆக இவ்விருவரும்  ஓரி நிகரான பாபிகளாயிருப்பதால் மேல் கூறப்போகும் கேடு இவ்விருவருக்குமே உரித்தாகும். (இருவருக்கும் வரும் கேடாவது)

எக்காலும் நண்ணிடுவர் கீழாம் நரகு: எல்லாக் காலத்திலும் அதாவது, காலம் என்கிற தத்துவம் உள்ளதனையும் கீழான நரகத்தை அடைவர் என்று பொருள். கீழாம் நரகு என்றால் இதுக்கு மேல் கீழான நரகம் என்று ஒரில்லை என்று சொல்லத்தகுந்த நரகம் என்பதாம். நரகம் என்பது இன்பம் கலவாது துன்பத்தை மட்டுமே அனுபவிக்கும் இடம் என்று பொருள். இத்தகைய ‘நரகத்தை எக்காலும் நண்ணிடுவர்’ என்றது. நரகத்திலேயே பிறந்து நரகத்திலேயே வளர்ந்து நரகத்திலேயே முடிவதாம். கரையேறுவதற்கு அரிதான கரை காண முடியாத பிறவிப் பெருங்கடலில் மாறி மாறி பல பிறப்புகளிலும் பிறந்து இங்கேயே உழன்று வரும் மூடர்கள் ஆவார்கள் என்றும் கூறலாம். ஆகவே மேற்கூறிய இரண்டு பாபிகளும் துன்பத்திலிருந்து விடுபடுதல் இல்லை என்றவாறாம் .குருவை மானிடன் என்று கருதுவோரையும் கடவுள் திருவுருவத்தை உலோகம் என்று கருதுவோரையும் உடன் கூறுவதால் ;இது உடன் நவிற்சிப் பொருள் என்ற இலக்கணத்தின் பால் படும்.

ஞான ஸாரம் 31- வேதம் ஒரு நான்கின்

ஞான ஸாரம்

முந்தைய பாசுரம்

                                                                         31-ஆம் பாட்டு:

முன்னுரை:

எல்லா வேதங்களுக்குள்ளும் மறைந்திருக்கும் உயர் பொருளும் வேதப் பொருளைத் தெளிவு பட எடுத்துரைக்கும் மற்றைய சாஸ்திரங்கள் சொல்வதும் ஆகிய சரணாகதி நன்னெறியைக் காட்டிக்கொடுத்த ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளே தஞ்சமாகும் என்று கூறும் கருத்தை இப்பாடலில் சொல்லப்படுகிறது.

Ramanujar-Melkote

“வேதம் ஒரு நான்கின் உட்பொதிந்த மெய்ப்பொருளும்
கோதில் மனுமுதநூல் கூறுவதும் – தீதில்
சரணாகதி தந்த தன் இறைவன் தாளே
அரணாகும் என்னும் அது”

பதவுரை:

தீதில் குற்றமில்லாத
சரணாகதி அடைக்கல நெறியை
தந்த தனக்கு காட்டிகொடுத்த
தன்னிறைவன் தனக்கு தெய்வமான ஆசார்யனுடய
தாளே திருவடிகளே
அரணாகும் தஞ்சமாகும்
என்னுமது என்று சொல்லப்படும் அடைக்கல நெறியே
ஒரு நான்கு வேதம் ஒப்பற்ற ரிக்கு, யஜுர், சாம, அதர்வணம்  என்று சொல்லப்படும் நாலு வகை வேதங்களிலும்
உட்பொதிந்த நிதி போல் உள்ளே மறைந்து கிடக்கும்
மெய்ப்பொருளும் உண்மைப்பொருளும்
கோதில் குற்றமற்ற
மனுமுதநூல் மனு முதலான சாஸ்திரங்களும்
கூறுவதும் உரைக்கும் கருத்துக்களும் (எல்லாம்)
அதுவே ஆச்சார்யனை அடைக்கலம் புகும் நெறியேயாகும

விளக்கவுரை:

வேதம் ஒரு நான்கின் உட்பொதிந்த மெய்ப்பொருளும்: இங்கு’ஒரு’ என்ற சொல் வேதத்தின் ஒப்பற்ற தன்மையைக் கூறுகிறது. அதாவது ஒரு மனிதனால் உருவாக்கபடாதது. எழுதா மறை என்றும் கூறப்படுவது. ஐயம், திரிபு, மயக்கம் முதலிய குற்றங்கள் எதுவுமே இல்லாதது. உள்ளதை உள்ளபடி கூறுவது முதலிய சிறப்புக்கள் பற்றி ஒப்பில்லாதது என்று பொருள்.

நான்கு:

“வேதம் ரிக்கு,யஜுர் , சாம ,அதர்வணம் என்று நான்கு வகையாகும். இத்தகைய வேதங்கள் தம்முள்ளே எட்டு புரி கொண்ட கயிற்றினால் ஒரு பொருளைக் கட்டி வைப்பது போல எட்டழுத்துக் கொண்ட திருமந்திரத்தினுள் பரம்பொருளை மறைத்து வைத்துள்ளது.” அதாவது அஷ்டாக்ஷர மகா மந்திரம் எல்லா வேதத்தின் உள்ளேயும் நிதி போல் மறைந்து கிடக்கிறது என்பதாம். (ஏட்டினோடிரண்டெனும் கயிற்றினால் மனந்தனைக் கட்டி (திருச்சந்தவிருத்தம்,) “வேதம்” அனைத்தையும் அளக்கும் கருவி என்ற சொல்லால் இம்மந்திரப்பொருளைசொல்லும் மற்றைய எல்லா  நூல்களிலும் சிறப்புடையது என்பதும் “நான்கு” என்பதால் அவ்வேதத்தில் எங்கேனும் ஒரு மூலையில் சொல்லப்படும் பொருளாயில்லாமல் “அனேக கிளைகளாக விரிந்துள்ள வேதமனைத்துக்கும் உட்பொருள் இவ்வடாக்ஷர  மந்திரப் பொருள் மேல் நோக்கில் இல்லாமல் உள்ளே சேமித்து வைக்கப்பட்ட நிதி போன்றது என்பதும் “மெய்ப்பொருள்” என்றதால் அம்மறைப்பொருள் பொருளைக் கூறுகிறது என்பதும் அறியக்கிடக்கிறது.

கோதில் மனு முதனூல் கூறுவதும்: கோது-குற்றம் .அது இல்லாமையாவது குற்றமில்லை. அதாவது  ஒன்றை வேரு ஒன்றாகத் திரித்துக் கூறும் குற்றமில்லாமை என்று பொருள். உதாரணமாக முத்துச்சிப்பியின் வெண்மையைப் பார்த்து வெள்ளி என்று வேறாகச் சொல்லாமல் முத்துச்சிப்பி என்றே சொல்வது. இத்தகைய குற்றங்கள் எதுவும் இல்லாதது மனுதர்ம சாஸ்திரம். “கோதில்” என்ற அடைமொழியை மனுவுக்குச் சொன்னபோது மனு சொன்னது மருந்து என்று கூறப்பட்ட அதன் சிறப்பு உணரப்படும். அதில் எந்த ஆராய்ச்சியும் செய்ய வேண்டாம் என்ற கருத்து. இவ்வடைமொழி ஏனையவற்றிற்கு ஆனபோது அந்தந்த நூல்களுடைய நம்பிக்கையை சொல்லுகிறது. அதாவது ஐயம் திரிபு அறஉள்ளதை உள்ளபடி சொல்லுதல் .அவையாவன சாத்வீக ச்ம்ரிதிகளும் ஸ்ரீ விஷ்ணு புராணம், ஸ்ரீமத் பாகவதம், மகாபாரதம் முதலிய இதிகாசங்களும், பாஞ்சராத்ரம் முதலிய ஆகமங்களுமாகிற சாஸ்திரங்களுமாம். இத்தகைய மனு முதலிய சாஸ்திரங்கள் எல்லாம் ஒரே குரலால் வேதத்தின் இதயமான அஷ்டாக்ஷர மகா மந்திரத்தின் உள்ளே மறைவாக பொதிந்து கிடக்கும் சரணாகதிப் பொருளை வெளிப்படையாக விளக்கமாக உரைப்பவை அன்றோ .மனு முதலிய நூல்களுக்குப் பணி. ஆகவே சரணாகதி தத்துவமேவேதம் முதலிய நூல்களாலும் சொல்லப்படும் நெறியாகும். என்பது இதனால் உணர்த்தப்பட்டது.

தீதில் சரணாகதி தந்த:  எந்தக் குற்றமும் சொல்ல முடியாதது. சரணாகதி நெறி தைக் காட்டிக் கொடுத்த அதேநூல்களில் சொல்லப்பட்ட ஏனைய கர்மயோகம், ஞானயோகம், பக்தியோகம் முதலிய நெறிகளுக்கு “இன்னார் செய்யக் கூடாது ” என்பன போன்ற கட்டுப்பட்டுக் குற்றமும் அன்னெறிகளைக் கடைப்பிடிகையில் நூல்கள் சொன்னபடி செய்யமுடியாத நழுவுதல் குற்றமும் உள்ளன. சரணாகதியாகிற எளிய வழி இருக்கையில் மேற்கூறிய அரிய வழியைப பின்பற்றுகை தேவையற்றது. குற்றங்கள் எதுவும் சொல்லமுடியாதது. சரணாகதி ஆகிற நெறி நேரடியாக இறைவனைப் பற்றுவது. இதுவே தன சிறப்பு. (ப்ரபத்தி) -ஈஸ்வர என்பது பகவத் விஷய வாக்கியம். சரணாகதி என்பதற்கு இறைவன் என்றே பொருள் சொல்லப்படுகிறது. இத்தகைய சரணகதியாகிற நெறியை வறுமையுடவனுக்கு அளப்பரும் சீரிய நிதியைக் கொடுப்பது போல காட்டிக்கொடுத்த என்றவாறு. இத்தகைய சரணாகதி நெறியை உபதேசித்த என்று பொருள்.

தன்னிறைவன்: தன்னுடைய ஆசார்யனை “மாடும் மனையும்:” என்கிற பாடலில் எட்டெழுத்தும் தந்தவனே என்று கூறப்பட்டது. இப்பாடலில் “சரணாகதி தந்தவன்: என்று கூறப்படுகிறது. இதிலிருந்து எட்டெழுத்து மந்திரத்தை உபதேசித்ததற்கும் சரணாகதி மந்திரத்தை உபதேசித்ததற்கும் நீண்ட வேறுபாடு இருப்பது புலனாகிறது. அதாவது இங்கு “சரணாகதி” என்ற சொல்லல் மறைத்துக் கூறப்பட்டது.  அங்கு எட்டெழுத்து என்று வெளிப்படையாகச் சொல்லப்பட்டது. திருமந்திரம், த்வயம்,சரமச்லோகம் எனப்படும் மூன்று மந்திரங்களுள் முதல் இறுதி மந்திரங்களின் பொருளை மறைத்து மந்திரத்தை வெளிப்படையாகச் சொல்லிக்கொண்டு வருவது முன்னோர்களின் பழக்கமாகும். அவை போலன்றி சரணாகதியைக் கூறும் த்வயம் எனப்படும் மந்திரத்தின் பொருளை மறைப்பதோடு இம்மந்திரத்தின் ஒலி வடிவையும் மறைத்து மனதுக்குள்ளேயே கூறி வரும் மரபு கூறப்படுகிறது. இதனால் த்வய மந்திரத்தின் சிறப்பு அறியக் கிடக்கிறது. இதைப்பற்றி நஞ்சீயர் என்னும் ஆசார்யன் கூறுகையில் ” த்வய மந்திரத்தில் பகவானுடைய அழகிய திருமேனி பற்றியும் அதன் குணங்களும் பரமாத்ம இலக்கணமும் அவனது எண்ணில் பல குணங்களும் நித்யர்களும் முக்தர்களும் பேரின்பமாய் இருப்பது போல இங்கு வீடு பேறு அடைவதில் ஆசையினால் சரணாகதி பண்ணின அடியார்க்கு த்வய மந்திரத்தின் உருவமே பேரின்பமாயிருக்கும் என்று கூறியதாகச் சொல்லப்படும் வார்த்தையை ஈண்டு எண்ணிப் பார்க்கலாம். இத்தகைய மிகவும் சீரிய சரணாகதியைக் கூறும் மந்திரமான த்வய மந்திரத்தை அன்றோ சீடனாகிற இவனுக்கு ஆசார்யன் உபதேசித்தது. தனக்கு த்வய மந்திரத்தை உபதேசித்த ஆசார்யனே “இறைவன்” என்பதாம். தன்னிறைவன் என்றதால் எல்லோரும் தெய்வமான பகவானைப் போல அல்லாமல் தனக்கே தெய்வமாக விளங்குவது பற்றித் தன்னிறைவன் என்று கூறப்பட்டது.

தாளே: அத்தகைய தனக்குத் தெய்வமாய் விளங்கும் ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளே. தாளே என்ற சொல்லை மட்டும் நோக்குகையில் பகவானாகிற இறைவனைப் பற்றினவர்களுக்கும் ஆசார்யனாகிற இறவனைப் பற்றினவர்களுக்கும் ஆகிய இருவருக்கும் திருவடிகளே தஞ்சம் என்ற பொருள் புலனாகிறது. தாளே என்ற யிடத்திலுள்ள ஏகாரத்தால் சீடனுக்குச் செய்யும் நன்மைகளைப் பிறர் உதவியின்றி தானே செய்யும் என்கிற சிறப்பும் உணரக் கிடக்கிறது.

அரணாகும் என்றுமது: அரண் என்பது தஞ்சம். அதாவது ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளே தனக்குத் தஞ்சமாகும் என்று பொருள். இறைவன் என்ற சொல்லில் தலைமை, நெறி,பயன் என்ற மூன்று கருத்தும் பொதுவாகச் சொல்லப்படும். இம்மூன்றுமாய் இருப்பவன் இறைவன். தன்னிறைவன் என்றதில் தலைமையும் ‘அரணாகும்’ என்றதில் நெறியும் கூறப்பட்டன.பயன் கூறாமல் போனாலும் அதையும் இங்கு கூட்டிகொள்ளவேணும். அதாவது ஆசார்யன் திருவடிகளே தனக்குத் தலைமையாகவும் தஞ்சமாகவும் (நெறி) அடைய வேண்டிய பயனாகவும் இருக்கிற ஏற்றம் சொல்லப்படுகிறது